TRANSFER FACTOR

OTHER NAME(S):

Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract, Bovine Dialyzable Transfer Factor, Bovine Transfer Factor, Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract, Dialyzable Transfer Factor, DLE, Extrait Dialysable de Leucocyte, Facteur de Transfert, Facteur de Transfert d'Origine Bovine, Factor de Transferencia, Human Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract, Human Transfer Factor, TF, TFd.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

A transfer factor is a chemical that is taken from a human or animal that has already developed protection (immunity) against a certain disease. So far, transfer factors for various diseases have been produced only in laboratories for experimental use. Researchers are interested in finding out whether transfer factors can pass along immunity to people who need it. Transfer factors are given as shots or taken by mouth.

Transfer factors are used for infectious conditions in people with weak immune systems. These infectious conditions include bacteria or viruses in the blood stream (septicemia), sinus infections, bronchitis, influenza, swine flu, the common cold, shingles, chickenpox, hepatitis B, fungal infections such as coccidioidomycosis, yeast infections (candidiasis), parasitic infections such as leishmaniasis and cryptosporidiosis, and leprosy. Transfer factors are also used against infections caused by viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus; by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium avium; and by yeast-like fungus such as Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis carinii.

Transfer factors are also used for diabetes, autism, infertility, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Behcet's syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, balding, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also used for skin conditions including psoriasis, allergic dermatitis, and others. Other uses include an eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), multiple sclerosis, bone cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, food and chemical allergies, myasthenia gravis, and asthma.

How does it work?

Transfer factor might boost immunity to specific diseases.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Shingles. Giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin seems to prevent shingles in children with leukemia. However, transfer factor doesn't seem to prevent a second bout of shingles or restore protection against shingles in people who have received a bone marrow transplant for leukemia. When given as a shot under the skin to people with shingles, transfer factor seems to help reduce the duration of pain compared to the drug acyclovir.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Treating a disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease). Transfer factor from humans doesn't seem to affect the course of ALS.
  • Lung cancer. Some researchers have tried adding transfer factor shots to usual lung cancer treatment such as surgery and chemotherapy. However, the transfer factor doesn't seem to affect survival in most people with lung cancer. However, early research suggests that transfer factor might improve survival in people with advanced stage (Stage 3IIIA or 3IIIB) lung cancer.
  • Melanoma (a type of skin cancer). Giving transfer factor as a shot along with usual treatment doesn't seem to slow the progress of the disease or extend life when used for up to 2 years following surgery for Stage I and Stage II melanoma.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS). Most studies show that transfer factor does not slow disease progression in people with MS. While some research shows that transfer factor might slow disease progression in people with mild to moderate symptoms, it appears to take 18 months to 2 years of treatment to see any effect.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Acne. Early research suggests that transfer factor doesn't improve acne when given as a shot under the skin.
  • AIDS-related infections. Developing research suggests that taking transfer factor by mouth might help people with cryptosporidiosis related to AIDS. Cryptosporidiosis is an infection caused by one-celled organisms (protozoa) and produces diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. Transfer factor from cows seems to improve symptoms.
  • Asthma. Taking transfer factor by mouth or as a shot into the muscle doesn't seem to improve clinical status or lung function in most people with asthma. However, some research shows that taking transfer factor by mouth might reduce the need for steroid drugs in children with persistent asthma due to allergies.
  • Red, itchy skin (eczema). Research studies disagree about the effectiveness of transfer factor for treating eczema. Some research shows that taking transfer factor relieves symptoms. Other studies show it has no benefit.
  • Cervical cancer. Early research shows that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin after surgery and radiation treatment for cervical cancer reduces the risk of recurrence.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Transfer factor doesn't seem to improve symptoms in people with CFS when given as a shot into the muscle. However, early research suggests that it might improve symptoms when taken by mouth.
  • Crohn's disease. Early research shows that giving transfer factor as a shot into the muscle doesn't improve Crohn's disease.
  • Seizures (epilepsy). Early research shows that taking transfer factor along with the antiseizure drugs carbamazepine or primidon reduces the number of seizures that occur in people with epilepsy.
  • Hepatitis B. Research studies disagree about the effectiveness of transfer factor for treating hepatitis B. Some studies show that transfer factor taken from patients with acute hepatitis B might be useful for treating ongoing active hepatitis B infection. However, other studies show no benefit.
  • Herpes. Early research suggests that transfer factor might help prevent a second bout of eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) in people with a history of having these infections. Also, transfer factor seems to help prevent genital or oral herpes from recurring.
  • HIV/AIDS. Early research shows that taking transfer factor specific for HIV by mouth doesn't slow the progression of HIV in people also being treated with the HIV drug zidovudine.
  • Hodgkin's disease. Early research shows that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin doesn't reduce infections in people with Hodgkin's disease.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV). Early research shows that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin doesn't help treat warts in people with HPV.
  • Skin wounds caused by a parasitic infection called leishmaniasis. There's some evidence that transfer factor taken from patients with antibodies to leishmania, the organism that causes leishmaniasis, can help hard-to-heal skin wounds associated with leishmaniasis.
  • Leukemia. Early research suggests that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin doesn't improve recovery in people with leukemia.
  • A type of cancer called mycosis fungoides. Early research suggests that giving transfer factor as a shot into the muscle doesn't improve mycosis fungoides.
  • Nose and throat cancer. Research studies disagree about the effectiveness of transfer factor for improving survival in people with nose and throat cancer. Some research shows that giving transfer factor with specific activity against Epstein-Barr virus as a shot into the muscle improves survival. Other research shows no benefit.
  • A type of bone cancer called osteosarcoma. Early research suggests that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin doesn't improve survival or reduce tumor recurrence in people with osteosarcoma.
  • Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that giving transfer factor as a shot into the muscle might reduce the progression of certain types of prostate cancer.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that giving transfer factor as a shot under the skin doesn't improve arthritis in children under the age of 16 years.
  • A genetic disease called Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Some research suggests that transfer factor taken from humans might extend life in people with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
  • Alzheimer's disease.
  • Autism.
  • Diabetes.
  • Infertility.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of transfer factor for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Transfer factors that have been taken from humans are POSSIBLY SAFE when used for up to 2 years in adults.

Transfer factors that are taken from cows are POSSIBLY SAFE when used short-term, up to 3 months. They can cause fever in some people. Transfer factors given as a shot (by injection) can cause swelling and pain where the injection is given.

There is some concern about the possibility of catching "mad cow disease" (bovine spongiform encephalitis, BSE) or other diseases from products that come from animals. "Mad cow disease" has not been transmitted by transfer factor, but it is probably wise to avoid animal products from countries where mad cow disease has been found.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: The shot form of transfer factor from humans is POSSIBLY SAFE in children when given for up to 6 years. Transfer factor from cows is POSSIBLY SAFE in children when given by mouth for up to 6 months.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking transfer factor if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for TRANSFER FACTOR Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY INJECTION:

  • For preventing shingles (varicella zoster infection) in children with leukemia: a single dose of transfer factor (from humans) that is specific for the varicella virus is given. The health provider giving the shot calculates the proper dose based on the child's weight.

View References

REFERENCES:

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  • Zachariae, H., Grunnet, E., Ellegaard, J., and Threstrup-Pedersen, K. Transfer factor as therapeutic agent in mycosis fungoides. Arch.Dermatol. 1976;112(9):1324-1326. View abstract.
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  • Li, C., Huang, L., Wang, Y., Li, X., Liang, S., and Zheng, Y. Preparation and properties of the specific anti-influenza virus transfer factor. Head Face.Med. 2010;6:22. View abstract.
  • Liubchenko, T. A., Holeva, O. H., Kholodna, L. S., Smirnov, V. V., and Vershyhora, A. I. [The biological activity of the transfer factor induced by bacterial antigens]. Mikrobiol.Z. 1997;59(5):83-100. View abstract.
  • Liubchenko, T. A., Holeva, O. H., Kholodna, L. S., Stepanchuk, V. A., and Vershyhora, A. I. [Human specific transfer factor to Staphylococcus aureus antigens]. Fiziol.Zh. 1997;43(3-4):25-32. View abstract.
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  • No author. [Prevention of infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by normal human tonsillar transfer factor (author's transl)]. Zhonghua Jie.He.He.Hu Xi.Xi.Ji.Bing.Za Zhi. 1979;2(1):25-27. View abstract.
  • No author. [Transfer factor of normal human beings in combined therapy of oral and maxillofacial malignancies. Preliminary observation (author's transl)]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang.Ke.Za Zhi. 1979;14(1):37-39. View abstract.
  • No author. Interferon-alpha and transfer factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. AUSTIMS Research Group. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 1989;52(5):566-574. View abstract.
  • O'Dorisio, M. S., Neidhart, J. A., Daniel, F. B., Balcerzak, S. P., and LoBuglio, A. F. Identification of hypoxanthine as the major compoenet of a chromatographic fraction of transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 1976;23(2):191-202. View abstract.
  • Oettgen, H. F., Old, L. J., Farrow, J. H., Valentine, F. T., Lawrence, H. S., and Thomas, L. Effects of dialyzable transfer factor in patients with breast cancer. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 1974;71(6):2319-2323. View abstract.
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  • Paque, R. E., Kniskern, P. J., Dray, S., and Baram, P. In vitro studies with "transfer factor": transfer of the cell-migration inhibition correlate of delayed hypersensitivity in humans with cell lysates from humans sensitized to histoplasmin, coccidioidin, or PPD. J.Immunol. 1969;103(5):1014-1021. View abstract.
  • Park, J. R., De, Bats A., and Rhodes, E. L. The effect of transfer factor on the in vitro migration of tuberculin stimulated white cells from sarcoid and normal subjects. Br.J.Dermatol. 1975;92(5):535-540. View abstract.
  • Pasino, M., Vadala, C. R., Tonini, G. P., Comelli, A., and Perutelli, P. Aspecific transfer factor in children with Hodgkin's disease. Boll.Ist.Sieroter.Milan 1976;55(2):168-173. View abstract.
  • Pen, G. Y. [Effect of hepatocellular carcinoma-specific transfer factor (HCC-S-TF) on IL-2 activity and IL-2R expression]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi. 1993;15(6):435-437. View abstract.
  • Perrick, D., Wray, B. B., Guill, M. F., Leffell, M. S., and Lobel, S. A. Use of transfer factor in a pediatric AIDS patient with disseminated Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. Ann.Allergy 1989;62(5):437-440. View abstract.
  • Pilotti, V., Mastrorilli, M., Pizza, G., De, Vinci C., Busutti, L., Palareti, A., Gozzetti, G., and Cavallari, A. Transfer factor as an adjuvant to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):117-121. View abstract.
  • Pineda, B., Estrada-Parra, S., Pedraza-Medina, B., Rodriguez-Ropon, A., Perez, R., and Arrieta, O. Interstitial transfer factor as adjuvant immunotherapy for experimental glioma. J.Exp.Clin.Cancer Res. 2005;24(4):575-583. View abstract.
  • Pizza, G., De, Vinci C., Cuzzocrea, D., Menniti, D., Aiello, E., Maver, P., Corrado, G., Romagnoli, P., Dragoni, E., LoConte, G., Riolo, U., Palareti, A., Zucchelli, P., Fornarola, V., and Viza, D. A preliminary report on the use of transfer factor for treating stage D3 hormone-unresponsive metastatic prostate cancer. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):123-132. View abstract.
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  • Pizza, G., Meduri, R., De, Vinci C., Scorolli, L., and Viza, D. Transfer factor prevents relapses in herpes keratitis patients: a pilot study. Biotherapy 1994;8(1):63-68. View abstract.
  • Pizza, G., Viza, D., Boucheix, C., and Corrado, F. In vitro production of a transfer factor specific for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. Br.J.Cancer 1976;33(6):606-611. View abstract.
  • Pizza, G., Viza, D., De, Vinci C., Palareti, A., Cuzzocrea, D., Fornarola, V., and Baricordi, R. Orally administered HSV-specific transfer factor (TF) prevents genital or labial herpes relapses. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):67-72. View abstract.
  • Pizza, G., Viza, D., Roda, A., Aldini, R., Roda, E., and Barbara, L. Transfer factor for the treatment of chronic acute hepatitis. N.Engl.J.Med. 6-7-1979;300(23):1332. View abstract.
  • Polmar, S. H. Editorial: Transfer-factor therapy of immunodeficiencies. N.Engl.J.Med. 12-27-1973;289(26):1420-1421. View abstract.
  • Prasad, U., bin Jalaludin, M. A., Rajadurai, P., Pizza, G., De, Vinci C., Viza, D., and Levine, P. H. Transfer factor with anti-EBV activity as an adjuvant therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pilot study. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):109-115. View abstract.
  • Price, F. B., Hewlett, J. S., Deodhar, S. D., and Barna, B. The therapy of malignant melanoma with transfer factor. A preliminary report. Cleve.Clin.Q. 1974;41(1):1-4. View abstract.
  • Quick, C. A., Behrens, H. W., Brinton-Darnell, M., and Good, R. A. Treatment of papillomatosis of the larynx with transfer factor. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 1975;84(5 Pt 1):607-613. View abstract.
  • Rachelefsky, G. S., Stiehm, E. R., Ammann, A. J., Cederbaum, S. D., Opelz, G., and Terasaki, P. I. T-cell reconstitution by thymus transplantation and transfer factor in severe combined immunodeficiency. Pediatrics 1975;55(1):114-118. View abstract.
  • Rainer, H., Moser, K., and Bettelheim, P. [Randomized study: chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus transfer factor in metastasized breast neoplasm]. Verh.Dtsch.Ges.Inn.Med. 1978;(84):604-606. View abstract.
  • Raise, E., Guerra, L., Viza, D., Pizza, G., De, Vinci C., Schiattone, M. L., Rocaccio, L., Cicognani, M., and Gritti, F. Preliminary results in HIV-1-infected patients treated with transfer factor (TF) and zidovudine (ZDV). Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):49-54. View abstract.
  • Reymond, J. F. and Grob, P. J. Transfer factor preparations: some physico-chemical and biological properties. Vox Sang. 1975;29(5):338-351. View abstract.
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  • Rytel, M. W., Aaberg, T. M., Dee, T. H., and Heim, L. H. Therapy of cytomegalovirus retinitis with transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 1975;19(1):8-21. View abstract.
  • Salaman, M. R. Studies on the transfer factor of delayed hypersensitivity. Effect of dialysable leucocyte extracts from people of known tuberculin sensitivity on the migration of normal guinea-pig macrophages in the presence of antigen. Immunology 1974;26(6):1069-1080. View abstract.
  • Salazar Villa, R. M. and Mejia, Ortega J. [Use of transfer++factor in allergic bronchial asthma]. Rev.Alerg. 1993;40(2):42-45. View abstract.
  • Sandler, J. A., Smith, T. K., Manganiello, V. C., and Kirkpatrick, C. H. Stimulation of monocyte cGMP by leukocyte dialysates. An antigen-independent property of dialyzable transfer factor. J.Clin.Invest 1975;56(5):1271-1279. View abstract.
  • Scalise, G. "Transfer factor" therapy in infectious diseases. Boll.Ist.Sieroter.Milan 1975;54(6):502-505. View abstract.
  • Scalise, G., Mazaheri, M. R., Hamblin, A. S., Gioannini, P., Zuckerman, A. J., and Dumonde, D. C. The mixed leucocyte-macrophage migration test in actively sensitised and transfer factor-treated Rhesus monkeys. Preliminary observations on HBsAg specific transfer factor. Minerva Gastroenterol. 1976;22(3):257-260. View abstract.
  • Schroder, I., Perepechkina, N. P., Mats, A. N., and Medunitsyn, N. V. [Adjuvant properties of transfer factor preparations from human tonsillar lymphocytes]. Zh.Mikrobiol.Epidemiol.Immunobiol. 1979;(2):103-108. View abstract.
  • Schroder, I., Werner, H., Lorenz, U., Kohler, H., and Jenssen, H. L. [The preparation and characterization of transfer factor (author's transl)]. Z.Immunitatsforsch.Exp.Klin.Immunol. 1975;149(5):365-371. View abstract.
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  • Sharma, M. K., Anaraki, F., and Ala, F. Specificity of transfer factor. In vitro lymphoblast transformation of peripheral lymphocytes to Leishmania major antigen in the presence of transfer factor. Scand.J.Immunol. 1977;6(11):1101-1106. View abstract.
  • Shulman, S. T., Hutto, J. H., Jr., Ayoub, E. M., Howlett, S. A., Scott, B., and McGuigan, J. E. A double-blind evaluation of transfer factor therapy of HBsAg-positive chronic aggressive hepatitis: preliminary report of efficacy. Cell Immunol. 3-15-1979;43(2):352-361. View abstract.
  • Shulman, S., Schulkind, M., and Ayoub, E. Letter: Transfer-factor therapy of chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 9-14-1974;2(7881):650. View abstract.
  • Silvino, G., Rubertelli, M., Cristofolini, M., Sagramoso, Z., Pisciolli, F., and Dalri, P. Treatment with transfer factor of herpes zoster varicella infection in Hodgkin's disease. Haematologica 1978;63(1):56-60. View abstract.
  • Simko, M., Mokran, V., and Nyulassy, S. [Immunomodulatory therapy of epilepsy with transfer factor]. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 1997;98(4):234-237. View abstract.
  • Smith, R. A., Ezdinli, E., Bigley, N. J., and Han, T. Lawrence transfer factor and Hodgkin's disease. Lancet 2-24-1973;1(7800):434. View abstract.
  • Sodomann, C. P., Maerker-Alzer, G., Havemann, K., Dienst, C., Schultz, H., Mitrenga, D., Schumacher, K., and Martini, G. A. [Transfer factor (TF) treatment of patients with HBs-Ag-positive chronic active hepatitis. A prospective, controlled study (author's transl)]. Klin.Wochenschr. 9-3-1979;57(17):893-903. View abstract.
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  • Spitler, L. E., Levin, A. S., and Fudenberg, H. H. Transfer factor II: results of therapy. Birth Defects Orig.Artic.Ser. 1975;11(1):449-456. View abstract.
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  • Steele, R. W., Eichberg, J. W., Heberling, R. L., Eller, J. J., Kalter, S. S., and Kniker, W. T. In vivo transfer of cellular immunity to primates with transfer factor prepared from human or primate leucocytes. Cell Immunol. 3-1-1976;22(1):110-120. View abstract.
  • Stevens, D. A., Ferrington, R. A., Merigan, T. C., and Marinkovich, V. A. Randomized trial of transfer factor treatment of human warts. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1975;21(3):520-524. View abstract.
  • Stoop, J. W., Eijsvoogel, V. P., Zegers, B. J., Blok-Schut, B., van Bekkum, D. W., and Ballieux, R. E. Selective severe cellular immunodeficiency. Effect of thymus transplantation and transfer factor administration. Clin.Immunol.Immunopathol. 1976;6(3):289-298. View abstract.
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  • Thestrup-Pedersen, K., Grunnet, E., and Zachariae, H. Transfer factor therapy in mycosis fungoides: a double-blind study. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1982;62(1):47-53. View abstract.
  • Thestrup-Pedersen, K., Thulin, H., and Zachariae, H. Transfer factor applied to intensify the cell-mediated immunological reactions against Mycobacterium avium. Acta Allergol. 1974;29(2):101-106. View abstract.
  • Thomas, I. T., Soothill, J. F., Hawkins, G. T., and Marshall, W. C. Transfer-factor treatment in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Lancet 11-19-1977;2(8047):1056-1057. View abstract.
  • Togawa, A., Oppenheim, J. J., and Kirkpatrick, C. H. Ability of dialysates containing transfer factor to induce lymphocyte activating factor by human mononuclear cells. Cell Immunol. 1979;45(1):133-141. View abstract.
  • Tomar, R. H. and John, P. A. Mononuclear cells contain human transfer factor as assayed locally on the skin of dogs. J.Immunol. 1979;123(2):590-593. View abstract.
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  • Tong, M. J., Nystrom, J. S., Redeker, A. G., and Marshall, G. J. Failure to transfer-factor therapy in chronic active type B hepatitis. N.Engl.J.Med. 7-22-1976;295(4):209-211. View abstract.
  • Valdes Sanchez, A. F., Fernandez, Ortega C., Gomez Echeverria, A. H., Gillama, Niebla E., Lastra, Alfonso G., and Lopez, Saura P. [Atopic dermatitis. Treatment with transfer factor. A controlled clinical trial]. Rev.Alerg. 1991;38(6):158-162. View abstract.
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  • Valdimarsson, H. and McGuire, R. L. Crude transfer-factor preparations stimulate trypsinized human lymphocytes to form rosettes with sheep red cells. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1977;29(2):261-265. View abstract.
  • Van, Haver H., Lissoir, F., Droissart, C., Ketelaer, P., Van, Hees J., Theys, P., Vervliet, G., Claeys, H., Gautama, K., Vermylen, C., and . Transfer factor therapy in multiple sclerosis: a three-year prospective double-blind clinical trial. Neurology 1986;36(10):1399-1402. View abstract.
  • Vetto, R. M., Burger, D. R., Nolte, J. E., Vandenbark, A. A., and Baker, H. W. Transfer factor therapy in patients with cancer. Cancer 1976;37(1):90-97. View abstract.
  • Vicary, F. R., Chambers, J. D., and Dhillon, P. Double-blind trial of the use of transfer factor in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Gut 1979;20(5):408-413. View abstract.
  • Vich, J. M., Garcia-Calderon, J. V., Engel, P., and Garcia-Calderon, P. A. Transfer to man of sensitisation to keyhole limpet haemocyanin by mouse transfer factor. Lancet 2-4-1978;1(8058):265-266. View abstract.
  • Viza, D., Lefesvre, A., Patrasco, M., Phillips, J., Hebbrecht, N., Laumond, G., and Vich, J. M. A preliminary report on three AIDS Patients treated with anti-HIV specific transfer factor. J.Exp.Pathol. 1987;3(4):653-659. View abstract.
  • Viza, D., Vich, J. M., Phillips, J., and Davies, D. A. Use of specific transfer factor for the prevention or the treatment of herpes infections in mice and in man. J.Exp.Pathol. 1987;3(4):407-420. View abstract.
  • Viza, D., Vich, J. M., Phillips, J., and Rosenfeld, F. Orally administered specific transfer factor for the treatment of herpes infections. Lymphokine Res. 1985;4(1):27-30. View abstract.
  • Viza, D., Vich, J. M., Phillips, J., Rosenfeld, F., and Davies, D. A. Specific transfer factor protects mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus. Cell Immunol. 1986;100(2):555-562. View abstract.
  • Wagner, G., Gitsch, E., Havelec, L., Knapp, W., Rainer, H., and Selander, S. [Transfer factor as adjuvant immunotherapy in invasive cervix cancer. Report of a double-blind study]. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 10-28-1983;95(20):738-742. View abstract.
  • Wagner, G., Knapp, W., Gitsch, E., and Selander, S. Transfer factor for adjuvant immunotherapy in cervical cancer. Cancer Detect.Prev.Suppl 1987;1:373-376. View abstract.
  • Waisbren, B. A., Sr. Observations on the combined systemic administration of mixed bacterial vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin, transfer factor, and lymphoblastoid lymphocytes to patients with cancer, 1974-1985. J.Biol.Response Mod. 1987;6(1):1-19. View abstract.
  • Welch, T. M., Triglia, R., Spitler, L. E., and Fudenberg, H. H. Preliminary studies on human "transfer factor" activity in guinea pigs. Systemic transfer of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity to PPD and SKSD. Clin.Immunol.Immunopathol. 1976;5(3):407-415. View abstract.
  • Wiersbitzky, S., Bruns, R., Laube, F., and Reddemann, H. Clinical results of transfer factor (BBZ Plauen) therapy in immunodeficient children. Padiatr.Grenzgeb. 1987;26(6):439-441. View abstract.
  • Wilson, G. B. and Fudenberg, H. H. Effects of dialyzable leukocyte extracts with transfer factor activity on leukocyte migration in vitro. II. Separation and partial characterization of the components in DLE producing antigen-dependent and antigen-independent effects. J.Lab Clin.Med. 1979;93(5):819-837. View abstract.
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  • Wilson, G. B., Fudenberg, H. H., and Paddock, G. V. Detection of "dialyzable transfer factor" in vitro: structural and chemical characterization of the activity specific for tuberculin. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1979;332:579-590. View abstract.
  • Wilson, G. B., Paddock, G. V., and Fudenberg, H. H. The chemical nature of the antigen-specific moiety of transfer factor. Trans.Assoc.Am.Physicians 1979;92:239-256. View abstract.
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  • Wong, V. G. and Kirkpatrick, C. H. Immune reconstitution in keratoconjunctivitis and superficial candidiasis. The role of immunocompetent lymphocyte transfusion and transfer factor. Arch.Ophthalmol. 1974;92(4):335-339. View abstract.
  • Ablashi, D. V., Levine, P. H., De, Vinci C., Whitman, J. E., Jr., Pizza, G., and Viza, D. Use of anti HHV-6 transfer factor for the treatment of two patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Two case reports. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):81-86. View abstract.
  • Ahern, T. and Sanderson, C. J. Stimulation of lymphocytes by antigen in microplate cultures; absence of an effect of transfer factor in vitro. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1976;23(3):499-506. View abstract.
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  • Anttila, R., Grohn, P., and Krohn, K. Transfer factor and cellular immune response in urinary tract infections in children. Acta Paediatr.Scand. 1977;66(2):219-224. View abstract.
  • Arala-Chaves, M. P., Proenca, R., and De, Sousa M. Transfer factor therapy in a case of complex immunodeficiency. Cell Immunol. 3-15-1974;10(3):371-379. View abstract.
  • Arala-Chaves, M., Ramos, M. T., and Rosado, R. M. Short communications. Evidence for prompt and intense reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity by means of transfer factor in a case of complex immune deficiency. Cell Immunol. 1974;12(1):160-163. View abstract.
  • Ascher, M. S., Schneider, W. J., Valentine, F. T., and Lawrence, H. S. In vitro properties of leukocyte dialysates containing transfer factor. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 1974;71(4):1178-1182. View abstract.
  • Ashorn, R. G., Rasanen, L., Marnela, K. M., and Krohn, K. J. Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of the secretion of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) by leucocyte dialysate and by its components L-serine and glycine. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1979;37(1):50-57. View abstract.
  • Ashorn, R. G., Vandenbark, A. A., Acott, K. M., and Krohn, K. J. Dialysable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor) augment nonspecifically keyhole limpet haemocyanin and horseshoe crab haemocyanin skin reactivity in unimmunized human recipients. Scand.J.Immunol. 1986;23(2):161-167. View abstract.
  • Ashorn, R., Uotila, A., Kuokkanen, K., Rasanen, L., Karhumaki, E., and Krohn, K. Cellular immunity in acne vulgaris during transfer factor treatment. Ann.Clin.Res. 1985;17(4):152-155. View abstract.
  • Ballow, M. and Good, R. A. Report of a patient with T-cell deficiency and normal B-cell function: a new immunodeficiency disease with response to transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 1975;19(2):219-229. View abstract.
  • Ballow, M., Dupont, B., and Good, R. A. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome during treatment with transfer factor. J.Pediatr. 1973;83(5):772-780. View abstract.
  • Ballow, M., Dupont, B., Hansen, J. A., and Good, R. A. Transfer factor therapy: evidence for nonspecificity. Birth Defects Orig.Artic.Ser. 1975;11(1):457-461. View abstract.
  • Baram, P. and Condoulis, W. The in vitro transfer of delayed hypersensitivity to rhesus monkey and human lympocytes with transfer factor obtained from rhesus monkey peripheral white blood cells. J.Immunol. 1970;104(4):769-779. View abstract.
  • Behan, P. O., Durward, W. F., Melville, I. D., McGeorge, A. P., and Behan, W. M. Transfer-factor therapy in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 5-8-1976;1(7967):988-990. View abstract.
  • Beltran de, Paz C., Flores, Sandoval G., Orea, Solano M., Gomez, Vera J., Serrano, Miranda E., Sevilla, Flores P., Juarez, Rojas Y., and Estrada, Parra S. [Psychological, immunological, and endocrinological implications of atopic dermatitis]. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 2003;50(2):54-59. View abstract.
  • Borkowsky, W. and Lawrence, H. S. Effects of human leukocyte dialysates containing transfer factor in the direct leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) assay. J.Immunol. 1979;123(4):1741-1748. View abstract.
  • Borkowsky, W., Pilson, R., and Lawrence, H. S. Dialyzable lymphoid extract (DLE) from mice resistant to STZ-induced diabetogenesis can interrupt the progress of diabetes in STZ-treated CD-1 mice. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):149-157. View abstract.
  • Borvak, J. and Mayer, V. UV-absorbance profile of human leukocytic ultrafiltrate after affinity chromatography on immobilized m-aminophenyl boronic acid: implication for transfer factor purification. Acta Virol. 1985;29(2):119-128. View abstract.
  • Bowden, R. A., Siegel, M. S., Steele, R. W., Day, L. M., and Meyers, J. D. Immunologic and clinical responses to varicella-zoster virus-specific transfer factor following marrow transplantation. J.Infect.Dis. 1985;152(6):1324-1327. View abstract.
  • Brandes, L. J. and Goldenberg, G. J. In vitro transfer of cellular immunity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma using transfer factor from donors with Epstein-Barr virus antibody activity. Cancer Res. 1974;34(11):3095-3101. View abstract.
  • Burger, D. R., Vandenbark, A. A., Daves, D., Anderson, W. A., Jr., Vetto, R. M., and Finke, P. Human transfer factor: fractionation and biologic activity. J.Immunol. 1976;117(3):789-796. View abstract.
  • Burger, D. R., Vandenbark, A. A., Daves, D., Anderson, W. A., Jr., Vetto, R. M., and Finke, P. Nicotinamide: suppression of lymphocyte transformation with a component identified in human transfer factor. J.Immunol. 1976;117(3):797-801. View abstract.
  • Burger, D. R., Vandenbark, A. A., Dunnick, W., Kraybill, W. G., and Vetto, R. M. Properties of human transfer factor from KLH-immunized donors: dissociation of dermal transfer and proliferation augmenting activities. J.Reticuloendothel.Soc. 1978;24(4):385-402. View abstract.
  • Burger, D. R., Vandenbark, A. A., Finke, P., Nolte, J. E., and Vetto, R. M. Human transfer factor: effects on lymphocyte transformation. J.Immunol. 1976;117(3):782-788. View abstract.
  • Burger, D. R., Vetto, R. M., and Vandenbark, A. A. Transfer factor immunotherapy in human cancer. Surg.Forum 1974;25(0):93-95. View abstract.
  • Busutti, L., Blotta, A., Mastrorilli, M., Savorani, G. C., Pizza, G., and De, Vinci C. Transfer factor adjuvant therapy in nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma. (NSCLC) after surgery and radiotherapy. J.Exp.Pathol. 1987;3(4):565-568. View abstract.
  • Byers, V. S., Levin, A. S., LeCam, L., Johnston, J. O., and Hackett, A. J. Discussion paper: tumor-specific transfer factor therapy in osteogenic sarcoma: a two-year study. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1976;277(00):621-627. View abstract.
  • Byston, J., Cech, K., Pekarek, J., and Jilkova, J. Effect of anti-herpes specific transfer factor. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):73-75. View abstract.
  • Carey, J. T., Lederman, M. M., Toossi, Z., Edmonds, K., Hodder, S., Calabrese, L. H., Proffitt, M. R., Johnson, C. E., and Ellner, J. J. Augmentation of skin test reactivity and lymphocyte blastogenesis in patients with AIDS treated with transfer factor. JAMA 2-6-1987;257(5):651-655. View abstract.
  • Collins, R. C., Espinoza, L. R., Plank, C. R., Ebers, G. C., Rosenberg, R. A., and Zabriskie, J. B. A double-blind trial of transfer factor vs placebo in multiple sclerosis patients. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1978;33(1):1-11. View abstract.
  • Cordero Miranda, M. A., Flores, Sandoval G., Orea, Solano M., Estrada, Parra S., and Serrano, Miranda E. [Safety and efficacy of treatment for severe atopic dermatitis with cyclosporin A and transfer factor]. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 1999;46(2):49-57. View abstract.
  • Corrado, F., Pizza, G., De, Vinci C., and Corrado, G. [Immunotherapy with transfer factor in hormone-resistant metastasized carcinoma of the prostate]. Arch.Esp.Urol. 1989;42 Suppl 2:191-196. View abstract.
  • Cramers, M., Jensen, J. R., Kragballe, K., Herlin, T., Zachariae, H., and Thestrup-Pedersen, K. Transfer factor in atopic dermatitis. Dermatologica 1982;164(6):369-378. View abstract.
  • Criswell, B. S., South, M. A., Jordan, H. W., Kimzey, S. L., Montgomery, J. R., and Heim, L. R. Fine structure of lymphocytes from an immune deficient child before and after administration of transfer factor. Exp.Hematol. 1975;3(5):327-335. View abstract.
  • De Vinci C., Pizza, G., Cuzzocrea, D., Menniti, D., Aiello, E., Maver, P., Corrado, G., Romagnoli, P., Dragoni, E., LoConte, G., Riolo, U., Masi, M., Severini, G., Fornarola, V., and Viza, D. Use of transfer factor for the treatment of recurrent non-bacterial female cystitis (NBRC): a preliminary report. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):133-138. View abstract.
  • De Vinci, C., Levine, P. H., Pizza, G., Fudenberg, H. H., Orens, P., Pearson, G., and Viza, D. Lessons from a pilot study of transfer factor in chronic fatigue syndrome. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):87-90. View abstract.
  • Dienst, C., Waldschmidt, R., and Mueller-Eckhardt, C. [Therapy using the transfer factor in combined immunologic deficiency syndromes]. Verh.Dtsch.Ges.Inn.Med. 1976;82 Pt 2:1810-1812. View abstract.
  • Drew, W. L., Blume, M. R., Miner, R., Silverberg, I., and Rosenbaum, E. H. Letter: Herpes zoster: transfer factor therapy. Ann.Intern.Med. 1973;79(5):747-748. View abstract.
  • Dupont, B., Ballow, M., Hansen, J. A., Quick, C., Yunis, E. J., and Good, R. A. Effect of transfer factor therapy on mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 1974;71(3):867-871. View abstract.
  • Eichberg, J. W., Heberling, R. L., Kalter, S. S., Steele, R. W., and Kniker, W. T. Transfer factor and its protective effect against herpesvirus infections of marmosets. Primates.Med. 1978;10:271-276. View abstract.
  • Ellis-Pegler, R., Sutherland, D. C., Douglas, R., Woodfield, D. G., and Wilson, J. D. Transfer factor and hepatitis B: a double blind study. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1979;36(2):221-226. View abstract.
  • Emodi, G., Just, M., and Grob, P. Letter: Circulating interferon after transfer-factor therapy. Lancet 12-15-1973;2(7842):1382. View abstract.
  • Endre, L., Nekam, K., Osvath, P., Nagy, M., Karoly, U., and Uhl, K. [Successful treatment of Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome with transfer factor]. Orv.Hetil. 9-30-1979;120(39):2361-2366. View abstract.
  • Espinosa Padilla, S. E., Orozco, S., Plaza, A., Estrada, Parra S., Estrada, Garcia, I, Rosales Gonzalez, M. G., Villaverde, Rosa R., and Espinosa Rosales, F. J. [Effect of transfer factor on treatment with glucocorticoids in a group of pediatric patients with persistent moderate allergic asthma]. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 2009;56(3):67-71. View abstract.
  • Estrada-Parra, S., Chavez-Sanchez, R., Ondarza-Aguilera, R., Correa-Meza, B., Serrano-Miranda, E., Monges-Nicolau, A., and Calva-Pellicer, C. Immunotherapy with transfer factor of recurrent herpes simplex type I. Arch.Med.Res. 1995;26 Spec No:S87-S92. View abstract.
  • Estrada-Parra, S., Nagaya, A., Serrano, E., Rodriguez, O., Santamaria, V., Ondarza, R., Chavez, R., Correa, B., Monges, A., Cabezas, R., Calva, C., and Estrada-Garcia, I. Comparative study of transfer factor and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster. Int.J.Immunopharmacol. 1998;20(10):521-535. View abstract.
  • Faber, W. R., Leiker, D. L., Nengerman, I. M., and Schellekens, P. T. A placebo controlled clinical trial of transfer factor in lepromatous leprosy. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1979;35(1):45-52. View abstract.
  • Fernandez, O., Diaz, N., Morales, E., Toledo, J., Hernandez, E., Rojas, S., Madriz, X., and Lopez, Saura P. Effect of transfer factor on myelosuppression and related morbidity induced by chemotherapy in acute leukaemias. Br.J.Haematol. 1993;84(3):423-427. View abstract.
  • Flores, Sandoval G., Gomez, Vera J., Orea, Solano M., Lopez, Tiro J., Serrano, E., Rodriguez, A., Rodriguez, A., Estrada, Parra S., and Jimenez, Saab N. [Transfer factor as specific immunomodulator in the treatment of moderate-severe atopic dermatitis]. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 2005;52(6):215-220. View abstract.
  • Fog, T., Jersild, C., Dupont, B., Platz, P. J., Svejgaard, A., Thomsen, M., Midholm, S., and Raun, N. E. Proceedings: Transfer factor treatment in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1975;25(5):489-490. View abstract.
  • Foschi, F. G., Marsigli, L., Bernardi, M., Salvi, F., Mascalchi, M., Gasbarrini, G., and Stefanini, G. F. Acute multifocal cerebral white matter lesions during transfer factor therapy. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2000;68(1):114-115. View abstract.
  • Friedenberg, W. R., Marx, J. J., Jr., Hansen, R. L., and Haselby, R. C. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome: response to transfer factor and ascorbic acid therapy. Clin.Immunol.Immunopathol. 1979;12(2):132-142. View abstract.
  • Frith, J. A., McLeod, J. G., Basten, A., Pollard, J. D., Hammond, S. R., Williams, D. B., and Crossie, P. A. Transfer factor as a therapy for multiple sclerosis: a follow-up study. Clin.Exp.Neurol. 1986;22:149-154. View abstract.
  • Fudenberg, H. H. "Transfer factor": an update. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med. 1985;178(3):327-332. View abstract.
  • Fujisawa, T. [Transfer factor immunotherapy as an adjunct to surgery in lung cancer]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1985;23(1):68-73. View abstract.
  • Fujisawa, T., Yamaguchi, Y., Kimura, H., Arita, M., Shiba, M., and Baba, M. Randomized controlled trial of transfer factor immunochemotherapy as an adjunct to surgical treatment for primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Jpn.J.Surg. 1984;14(6):452-458. View abstract.
  • Gallin, J. I. and Kirkpatrick, C. H. Chemotactic activity in dialyzable transfer factor. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 1974;71(2):498-502. View abstract.
  • Garcia, Angeles J., Flores, Sandoval G., Orea, Solano M., Serrano, E., and Estrada, Parra S. [Lymphocyte apoptosis in atopic dermatitis treated with transfer factor]. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 2003;50(1):3-7. View abstract.
  • Garcia-Calderon, P. A., Alomar, A., Garcia-Calderon, J. V., Vich, J. M., and De Moragas, J. M. [Therapy with transfer factor in a case of recidivating herpes with polymorphous erythema]. Med.Cutan.Ibero.Lat.Am. 1977;5(5):361-366. View abstract.
  • Gelfand, E. W., Baumal, R., Huber, J., Crookston, M. C., and Shumak, K. H. Polyclonal gammopathy and lymphoproliferation after transfer factor in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. N.Engl.J.Med. 12-27-1973;289(26):1385-1389. View abstract.
  • Gerbase-DeLima, M., Carlquist, I., and Mendes, N. F. Specificity of the local transfer of cell-mediated immunity with dialyzable transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 1979;48(1):231-234. View abstract.
  • Gilchrist, G. S., Ivins, J. C., Ritts, R. E., Jr., Pritchard, D. J., Taylor, W. F., and Edmonson, J. M. Adjuvant therapy for nonmetastatic osteogenic sarcoma: an evaluation of transfer factor versus combination chemotherapy. Cancer Treat.Rep. 1978;62(2):289-294. View abstract.
  • Goldblum, R. M., Lord, R. A., Dupree, E., Weinberg, A. G., and Goldman, A. S. Transfer factor induced delayed hypersensitivity in X-linked combined immunodeficiency. Cell Immunol. 1973;9(2):297-305. View abstract.
  • Goldenberg, G. J. and Brandes, L. J. In vivo and in vitro studies of immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with transfer factor. Cancer Res. 1976;36(2 pt 2):720-723. View abstract.
  • Goldenberg, G. J., Brandes, L. J., Lau, W. H., Miller, A. B., Wall, C., and Ho, J. H. Cooperative trial of immunotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with transfer factor from donors with Epstein-Barr virus antibody activity. Cancer Treat.Rep. 1985;69(7-8):761-767. View abstract.
  • Gomez, Vera J., Chavez, Sanchez R., Flores, Sandoval G., Orea, Solano M., Lopez Tiro, J. J., Santiago Santos, A. D., Espinosa, Padilla S., Espinosa, Rosales F., Huerta, J., Ortega Martell, J. A., Berron, Perez R., Estrada, Garcia A., Perez, Tapia M., Rodriguez, Flores A., Serrano, Miranda E., Pineda, Garcia O., Andaluz, C., Cervantes, Trujano E., Portugues, Diaz A., Barrientos, Zamudio J., Cano, Ortiz L., Serafin, Lopez J., Jimenez Martinez, Mdel C., Aguilar, Velazquez G., Garfias, Becerra Y., Santacruz, Valdez C., Aguilar, Angeles D., Rojo Guierrez, M. I., Aguilar, Santelises M., and Estrada, Parra S. Transfer factor and allergy. Rev.Alerg.Mex. 2010;57(6):208-214. View abstract.
  • Gordienko, S. M., Avdiunicheva, O. E., and Saiapina, N. V. [In vitro and in vivo modulation of cellular immunity using human transfer factor]. Gematol.Transfuziol. 1987;32(1):39-43. View abstract.
  • Gottlieb, A. A., Foster, L. G., Waldman, S. R., and Lopez, M. What is transfer factor? Lancet 10-13-1973;2(7833):822-823. View abstract.
  • Graybill, J. R. Transfer factor in diseases of the central nervous system. Adv.Neurol. 1974;6:107-126. View abstract.
  • Grob, P. J., Blaker, F., and Schulz, K. H. [Immune function and transfer factor]. Dtsch.Med.Wochenschr. 3-2-1973;98(9):446-451. View abstract.
  • Hainaut, J., Challan-Belval, P., Haguenauer, G., Pellegrin, J., Allard, P., and Kermarec, J. [Effect of transfer factor on the immunity state of patients with bronchopulmonary cancer. A report on 12 cases (author's transl)]. Ann.Med.Interne (Paris) 1979;130(11):517-521. View abstract.
  • HAMBLIN, A. S. DUMONDE D. C. & MAINI R. N. Human transfer factor in vitro. II. Augmentation of lymphocyte transformation to phytohaemagglutinin. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1976;23:303.
  • Hana, I., Vrubel, J., Pekarek, J., and Cech, K. The influence of age on transfer factor treatment of cellular immunodeficiency, chronic fatigue syndrome and/or chronic viral infections. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):91-95. View abstract.
  • Hancock, B. W., Bruce, L., Sokol, R. J., and Clark, A. Transfer factor in Hodgkin's disease: a randomized clinical and immunological study. Eur.J.Cancer Clin.Oncol. 1988;24(5):929-933. View abstract.
  • Hastings, R. C. Transfer factor as a probe of the immune defect in lepromatous leprosy. Int.J.Lepr.Other Mycobact.Dis. 1977;45(3):281-291. View abstract.
  • Healey, L. A., Wilske, K. R., Webb, D. R., and Sumida, S. S. Letter: Transfer factor in adult rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 7-20-1974;2(7873):160. View abstract.
  • Holieva, O. H., Liubchenko, T. A., Kholodna, L. S., and Vershihora, A. I. [The isolation of a transfer factor of the delayed-hypersensitivity type to the antigenic substances of Staphylococcus aureus in guinea pigs]. Fiziol.Zh. 1996;42(5-6):58-65. View abstract.
  • Horsmanheimo, M. and Virolainen, M. Acquisition of tuberculin sensitivity after injection of dialyzable transfer factor in sarcoidosis. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1976;278:129-135. View abstract.
  • Hovmark, A. and Ekre, H. P. Failure of transfer factor therapy in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1978;58(6):497-500. View abstract.
  • Hoyeraal, H. M., Froland, S. S., Salvesen, C. F., Munthe, E., Natvig, J. B., Kass, E., Blichfeldt, P., Hegna, T. M., Revlem, E., Sandstad, B., and Hjort, N. L. No effect of transfer factor in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis by double-blind trial. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1978;37(2):175-179. View abstract.
  • Huber, J., Gelfand, E. W., Barnnal, R., Crookston, M. C., and Shumak, K. H. Proceedings: Polyclonal gammopathy and lymphoproliferation after transfer factor in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Arch.Dis.Child 1974;49(6):494-495. View abstract.
  • Iseki, M., Aoyama, T., Koizumi, Y., Ojima, T., Murase, Y., and Osano, M. [Effects of transfer factor on chronic hepatitis B in childhood]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1989;63(12):1329-1332. View abstract.
  • Ivins, J. C., Ritts, R. E., Pritchard, D. J., Gilchrist, G. S., Miller, G. C., and Taylor, W. F. Transfer factor versus combination chemotherapy: a preliminary report of a randomized postsurgical adjuvant treatment study in osteogenic sarcoma. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1976;277(00):558-574. View abstract.
  • Jain, S., Thomas, H., and Sherlock, S. Letter: Failure of transfer-factor therapy in chronic active type B hepatitis. N.Engl.J.Med. 8-26-1976;295(9):504. View abstract.
  • Jarisch, R., Eibl, M., Sandor, I., and Boltz, A. Influence of dialysable transfer factor on IgE concentrations in patients with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 1981;36(2):99-105. View abstract.
  • Jersild, C., Platz, P., Svejgaard, A., Pedersen, L., Kam-Hansen, S., Raun, N., Mellerup, E., Jacobsen, B., Linnemann, F., and Westh, P. Transfer factor treatment of multiple sclerosis. A pilot study. Acta Neurol.Scand.Suppl 1977;63:253-264. View abstract.
  • Jersild, C., Platz, P., Thomsen, M., Hansen, G. S., Svejgaard, A., Dupont, B., Fog, T., Ciongoli, A. K., and Grob, P. Letter: Transfer-factor therapy in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 12-15-1973;2(7842):1381-1382. View abstract.
  • Jewell, W. R., Thomas, J. H., Morse, P., and Humphrey, L. J. Comparison of allogeneic tumor vaccine with leukocyte transfer and transfer factor treatment of human cancer. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1976;277(00):516-521. View abstract.
  • Jose, D. G. and Ford, G. W. Therapy with parent's lymphocyte transfer factor in children with infection and malnutrition. Lancet 2-7-1976;1(7954):263-266. View abstract.
  • Kalmar, L., Nekam, K., Lang, I., Kelemen, G., and Gergely, P. In vitro effect of transfer factor on the cyclic nucleotide level of human lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and of mouse lymphocytes. Acta Med.Acad.Sci.Hung. 1978;35(1):43-46. View abstract.
  • Karhumaki, E., Marnela, K. M., and Krohn, K. Chromatographic and enzymatic effects on transfer factor-like activity from human leukocytes and porcine spleen dialysate. Int.J.Biochem. 1988;20(10):1067-1072. View abstract.
  • Kass, E., Froland, S. S., Natvig, J. B., Blichfeldt, P., and Hoyeraal, H. M. Letter: Transfer factor in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 4-6-1974;1(7858):627-628. View abstract.
  • Kesarwala, H. H., Prasad, R. V., Szep, R., Oldman, E., Lane, S., and Papageorgiou, P. S. Transfer factor therapy in hyperimmunoglobulinaemia E syndrome. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1979;36(3):465-472. View abstract.
  • Ketchel, S. J., Rodriguez, V., Stone, A., and Gutterman, J. U. A study of transfer factor for opportunistic infections in cancer patients. Med.Pediatr.Oncol. 1979;6(4):295-301. View abstract.
  • Khan, A., Hill, J. M., Loeb, E., MacLellan, A., and Hill, N. O. Management of Chediak-Higashi syndrome with transfer factor. Am.J.Dis.Child 1973;126(6):797-799. View abstract.
  • Khan, A., Hill, J. M., MacLellan, A., Loeb, E., Hill, N. O., and Thaxton, S. Improvement in delayed hypersensitivity in Hodgkin's disease with transfer factor: lymphapheresis and cellular immune reactions or normal donors. Cancer 1975;36(1):86-89. View abstract.
  • Khan, A., Sellars, W. A., Pflanzer, J., Hill, J. M., Thometz, D., and Haenke, J. Asthma and T cell immunodeficiency: improvement with transfer factor and immunopeptide. Ann.Allergy 1976;37(4):267-274. View abstract.
  • Khan, A., Sellars, W., Grater, W., Graham, M. F., Pflanzer, J., Antonetti, A., Bailey, J., and Hill, N. O. The usefulness of transfer factor in asthma associated with frequent infections. Ann.Allergy 1978;40(4):229-232. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H. and Gallin, J. I. Treatment of infectious and neoplastic diseases with transfer factor. Oncology 1974;29(1):46-73. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H. and Smith, T. K. Serial transfer of delayed hypersensitivity with dialyzable transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 1976;27(2):323-327. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H. Properties and activities of transfer factor. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 1975;55(6):411-421. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H., Hamad, A. R., and Morton, L. C. Murine transfer factors: dose-response relationships and routes of administration. Cell Immunol. 1995;164(2):203-206. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H., Rich, R. R., and Smith, T. K. Immunological and clinical effects of transfer factor in anergic subjects. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1973;29(0):343-350. View abstract.
  • Kirkpatrick, C. H., Robinson, L. B., and Smith, T. K. The identification and significance of hypoxanthine in dialyzable transfer factor. Cell Immunol. 6-15-1976;24(2):230-240. View abstract.
  • Kobielowa, Z. [Treatment of immunologic deficiency conditions by means of transfer factor]. Pediatr.Pol. 1975;50(11):1393-1397. View abstract.
  • Krohn, K., Grohn, P., Horsmanheimo, M., and Virolainen, M. Fractionation studies on human leucocyte dialyzates. Demonstration of three components with transfer factor activity. Med.Biol. 1976;54(5):334-340. View abstract.
  • Krown, S. E., Pinsky, C. M., Hirshaut, Y., Hansen, J. A., and Oettgen, H. F. Effects of transfer factor in patients with advanced cancer. Isr.J.Med.Sci. 1978;14(10):1026-1038. View abstract.
  • Lamoureux, G., Cosgrove, J., Duquette, P., Lapierre, Y., Jolicoeur, R., and Vanderland, F. A clinical and immunological study of the effects of transfer factor on multiple sclerosis patients. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 1981;43(3):557-564. View abstract.
  • Lang, I., Nekam, K., Torok, K., and Gergely, P. [Changes in the antibody dependent cytotoxicity under the effect of transfer factor therapy. Preliminary report]. Orv.Hetil. 6-24-1979;120(25):1491-1495. View abstract.
  • Lawrence, H. S. and Borkowsky, W. Transfer factor--current status and future prospects. Biotherapy 1996;9(1-3):1-5. View abstract.
  • Lawrence, H. S. Transfer factor and autoimmune disease. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 6-30-1965;124(1):56-60. View abstract.
  • Lawrence, H. S. Transfer factor and cellular immunity. Immunobiology 1971;104-115.
  • Leng, H. X., Liu, W. M., Zhu, Z. G., and Han, L. Q. [Analysis of the contents of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni in thymopeptide and transfer factor biological injections]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2004;24(5):625-627. View abstract.

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