Arándano, Bleuet, Bleuet des Champs, Bleuet des Montagnes, Bleuets, Blueberries, Highbush Blueberry, Hillside Blueberry, Lowbush Blueberry, Myrtille, Rabbiteye Blueberry, Rubel, Tifblue, Vaccinium altomontanum, Vaccinium amoenum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium ashei, Vaccinium brittonii, Vaccinium constablaei, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium lamarckii, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium pensylvanicum, Vaccinium vacillans, Vaccinium virgatum.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBlueberry is a plant. People use the fruit and leaves to make medicine.
Be careful not to confuse blueberry with bilberry. Outside of the United States, the name "blueberry" may be used for a plant called "bilberry" in the U.S.
Blueberry is used for a variety of conditions ranging from prevention of cancer and heart disease to the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and depression. But there is limited scientific research to support any of these uses.
How does it work?Blueberry, like its relative the cranberry, might help prevent bladder infections by stopping bacteria from attaching to the walls of the bladder. Blueberry fruit is high in fiber which could help normal digestive function. It also contains vitamin C and other antioxidants. Blueberry also contains chemicals that might reduce swelling and destroy cancer cells.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Ineffective for
- High blood pressure. Most research shows that taking blueberry does not reduce blood pressure.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Improving thinking. Some research shows that taking blueberry daily for 3 months might help improve thinking and memory in adults over 60 years of age. Early research shows that taking a single dose of blueberry may improve learning in children ages 7-10 years.
- Depression. Some people that have a clot in one of the vessels in the brain may experience depression. In those people with depression, they may be more likely to have infections in the GI tract. Some research suggests that taking blueberry extract daily for 90 days can reduce symptoms of depression and also reduce infections in this group of people.
- Loss of independence in elderly people. Some research shows that eating frozen blueberries can improve foot placement and balance in elderly people. However, other research shows that eating blueberries does not help with these things. Eating blueberries doesn't seem to improve strength or walking speed in elderly people.
- Arthritis in children (juvenile arthritis). Early research shows that drinking blueberry juice daily while using the medication etanercept reduces symptoms of arthritis better than the medication alone. Drinking blueberry juice might also reduce side effects caused by etanercept.
- Memory. Early research shows that drinking a single blueberry beverage does not significantly improve memory in children.
- Bad circulation.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Labor pains.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS).
- Peyronie's disease (build-up of scar tissue in the penis)..
- Preventing cataracts and glaucoma.
- Sore throat.
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
- Varicose veins.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyBlueberry fruit is LIKELY SAFE for most people when consumed in food amounts. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking blueberry leaf by mouth. It is best to avoid taking leaves.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Blueberry fruit is LIKELY SAFE when used in amounts commonly found in foods. But not enough is known about the safety of the larger amounts used for medicine. Stick to normal food amounts if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Diabetes: Blueberry might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use blueberry products. The dose of your diabetes medications may need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.
Surgery: Blueberry might affect blood glucose levels and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using blueberry at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be watchful with this combination
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with BLUEBERRY
Blueberry leaves might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking blueberry leaves along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br /><br /> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
The appropriate dose of blueberry depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for blueberry. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Abidov, M., Ramazanov, A., Jimenez Del, Rio M., and Chkhikvishvili, I. Effect of Blueberin on fasting glucose, C-reactive protein and plasma aminotransferases, in female volunteers with diabetes type 2: double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study. Georgian.Med News 2006;(141):66-72. View abstract.
- Casadesus, G., Shukitt-Hale, B., Stellwagen, H. M., Zhu, X., Lee, H. G., Smith, M. A., and Joseph, J. A. Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004;7(5-6):309-316. View abstract.
- Goyarzu, P., Malin, D. H., Lau, F. C., Taglialatela, G., Moon, W. D., Jennings, R., Moy, E., Moy, D., Lippold, S., Shukitt-Hale, B., and Joseph, J. A. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004;7(2):75-83. View abstract.
- Joseph, J. A., Denisova, N. A., Arendash, G., Gordon, M., Diamond, D., Shukitt-Hale, B., and Morgan, D. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(3):153-162. View abstract.
- Kalt, W., Blumberg, J. B., McDonald, J. E., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M. R., Fillmore, S. A., Graf, B. A., O'Leary, J. M., and Milbury, P. E. Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs. J Agric.Food Chem 2-13-2008;56(3):705-712. View abstract.
- Kay, C. D. and Holub, B. J. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2002;88(4):389-398. View abstract.
- Kornman, K., Rogus, J., Roh-Schmidt, H., Krempin, D., Davies, A. J., Grann, K., and Randolph, R. K. Interleukin-1 genotype-selective inhibition of inflammatory mediators by a botanical: a nutrigenetics proof of concept. Nutrition 2007;23(11-12):844-852. View abstract.
- Martineau, L. C., Couture, A., Spoor, D., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Harris, C., Meddah, B., Leduc, C., Burt, A., Vuong, T., Mai, Le P., Prentki, M., Bennett, S. A., Arnason, J. T., and Haddad, P. S. Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):612-623. View abstract.
- Matchett, M. D., MacKinnon, S. L., Sweeney, M. I., Gottschall-Pass, K. T., and Hurta, R. A. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by flavonoids from lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium): possible roles for protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein-kinase-mediated events. J Nutr Biochem 2006;17(2):117-125. View abstract.
- McDougall, G. J., Shpiro, F., Dobson, P., Smith, P., Blake, A., and Stewart, D. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. J Agric.Food Chem 4-6-2005;53(7):2760-2766. View abstract.
- McIntyre, K. L., Harris, C. S., Saleem, A., Beaulieu, L. P., Ta, C. A., Haddad, P. S., and Arnason, J. T. Seasonal phytochemical variation of anti-glycation principles in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium). Planta Med 2009;75(3):286-292. View abstract.
- Nemes-Nagy, E., Szocs-Molnar, T., Dunca, I., Balogh-Samarghitan, V., Hobai, S., Morar, R., Pusta, D. L., and Craciun, E. C. Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in type 1 diabetic children. Acta Physiol Hung. 2008;95(4):383-393. View abstract.
- Neto, C. C. Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):652-664. View abstract.
- Pan, M. H., Chang, Y. H., Badmaev, V., Nagabhushanam, K., and Ho, C. T. Pterostilbene induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human gastric carcinoma cells. J Agric.Food Chem 9-19-2007;55(19):7777-7785. View abstract.
- Parry, J., Su, L., Luther, M., Zhou, K., Yurawecz, M. P., Whittaker, P., and Yu, L. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils. J Agric.Food Chem 2-9-2005;53(3):566-573. View abstract.
- Prior, R. L., Gu, L., Wu, X., Jacob, R. A., Sotoudeh, G., Kader, A. A., and Cook, R. A. Plasma antioxidant capacity changes following a meal as a measure of the ability of a food to alter in vivo antioxidant status. J Am Coll Nutr 2007;26(2):170-181. View abstract.
- Seeram, N. P., Adams, L. S., Zhang, Y., Lee, R., Sand, D., Scheuller, H. S., and Heber, D. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric.Food Chem 12-13-2006;54(25):9329-9339. View abstract.
- Shukitt-Hale, B., Lau, F. C., Carey, A. N., Galli, R. L., Spangler, E. L., Ingram, D. K., and Joseph, J. A. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus. Nutr Neurosci. 2008;11(4):172-182. View abstract.
- Srivastava, A., Akoh, C. C., Fischer, J., and Krewer, G. Effect of anthocyanin fractions from selected cultivars of Georgia-grown blueberries on apoptosis and phase II enzymes. J Agric.Food Chem 4-18-2007;55(8):3180-3185. View abstract.
- Sweeney, M. I., Kalt, W., MacKinnon, S. L., Ashby, J., and Gottschall-Pass, K. T. Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain damage. Nutr Neurosci. 2002;5(6):427-431. View abstract.
- Tonstad, S., Klemsdal, T. O., Landaas, S., and Hoieggen, A. No effect of increased water intake on blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk factors. Br J Nutr 2006;96(6):993-996. View abstract.
- Torri, E., Lemos, M., Caliari, V., Kassuya, C. A., Bastos, J. K., and Andrade, S. F. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of blueberry extract (Vaccinium corymbosum). J Pharm Pharmacol 2007;59(4):591-596. View abstract.
- Vuong, T., Martineau, L. C., Ramassamy, C., Matar, C., and Haddad, P. S. Fermented Canadian lowbush blueberry juice stimulates glucose uptake and AMP-activated protein kinase in insulin-sensitive cultured muscle cells and adipocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;85(9):956-965. View abstract.
- Wilms, L. C., Boots, A. W., de Boer, V. C., Maas, L. M., Pachen, D. M., Gottschalk, R. W., Ketelslegers, H. B., Godschalk, R. W., Haenen, G. R., van Schooten, F. J., and Kleinjans, J. C. Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteers. Carcinogenesis 2007;28(8):1800-1806. View abstract.
- Bickford PC, Gould T, Briederick L, et al. Antioxidant-rich diets improve cerebellar physiology and motor learning in aged rats. Brain Res 2000;866:211-7. View abstract.
- Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62:212-6.. View abstract.
- Cao G, Shukitt-Hale B, Bickford PC, et al. Hyperoxia-induced changes in antioxidant capacity and the effect of dietary antioxidants. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:1817-22. View abstract.
- Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L. Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Thromb Res 1996;84:311-22. View abstract.
- Hanley MJ, Masse G, Harmatz JS, Cancalon PF, Dolnikowski GG, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;75(4):1041-52. View abstract.
- Hiraishi K, Narabayashi I, Fujita O, et al. Blueberry juice: preliminary evaluation as an oral contrast agent in gastrointestinal MR imaging. Radiology 1995;194:119-23.. View abstract.
- Howell AB, Vorsa N, Foo LY, et al. Inhibition of the Adherence of P-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Uroepithelial-Cell Surfaces by Proanthocyanidin Extracts from Cranberries (letter). N Engl J Med 1998;339:1085-6. View abstract.
- Johnson SA, Figueroa A, Navaei N, Wong A, Kalfon R, Ormsbee LT, Feresin RG, Elam ML, Hooshmand S, Payton ME, Arjmandi BH. Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Mar;115(3):369-77. View abstract.
- Joseph JA, Denisova N, Fisher D, et al. Membrane and receptor modifications of oxidative stress vulnerability in aging. Nutritional considerations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998;854:268-76.. View abstract.
- Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19:8114-21. View abstract.
- Kalt W, Liu Y, McDonald JE, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Fillmore SA. Anthocyanin metabolites are abundant and persistent in human urine. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 May 7;62(18):3926-34. View abstract.
- Lobos GA, Hancock JF. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review. Front Plant Sci. 2015 Sep 30;6:782. View abstract.
- Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, et al. Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:5867-70. View abstract.
- Miller MG, Hamilton DA, Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B. Dietary blueberry improves cognition among older adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 2018;57(3):1169-80. View abstract.
- Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, et al. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1599. View abstract.
- Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, et al. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:405-8. View abstract.
- Rodriguez-Mateos A, Del Pino-García R, George TW, Vidal-Diez A, Heiss C, Spencer JP. Impact of processing on the bioavailability and vascular effects of blueberry (poly)phenols. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Oct;58(10):1952-61. View abstract.
- Rodriguez-Mateos A, Rendeiro C, Bergillos-Meca T, Tabatabaee S, George TW, Heiss C, Spencer JP. Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov;98(5):1179-91. View abstract.
- Schrager MA, Hilton J, Gould R, Kelly VE. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Jun;40(6):543-9. View abstract.
- Serafini M, Testa MF, Villano D, et al. Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk. Free Radic Bio Med 2009;46:769-74. View abstract.
- Spencer CM, Cai Y, Martin R, et al. Polyphenol complexation - some thoughts and observations. Phytochemistry 1988;27:2397-2409.
- Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5677-84.. View abstract.
- Wang SY, Lin HS. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:140-6.. View abstract.
- Whyte AR, Schafer G, Williams CM. Cognitive effects following acute wild blueberry supplementation in 7- to 10-year-old children. Eur J Nutr 2016;55(6):2151-62. View abstract.
- Whyte AR, Williams CM. Effects of a single dose of a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink on memory in 8 to 10 y old children. Nutrition. 2015 Mar;31(3):531-4. View abstract.
- Wu X, Cao G, Prior RL. Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. J Nutr 2002;132:1865-71. View abstract.
- Xu N, Meng H, Liu T, Feng Y, Qi Y, Zhang D, Wang H. Blueberry phenolics reduce gastrointestinal infection in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis by improving depressant-induced autoimmune disorder via miR-155-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:853. View abstract.
- Youdim KA, Shukitt-Hale B, MacKinnon S, et al. Polyphenolics enhance red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress: in vitro and in vivo (1). Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1519:117-22. View abstract.
- Zhong S, Sandhu A, Edirisinghe I, Burton-Freeman B. Characterization of wild blueberry polyphenols bioavailability and kinetic profile in plasma over 24-h period in human subjects. Mol Nutr Food Res 2017;61(12). View abstract.
- Zhong Y, Wang Y, Guo J, Chu H, Gao Y, Pang L. Blueberry Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Etanercept on Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Phase III Study. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2015;237(3):183-91. View abstract.
- Zhu Y, Sun J, Lu W, Wang X, Wang X, Han Z, Qiu C. Effects of blueberry supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2016 Sep 22. View abstract.