N-ACETYL CYSTEINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Acetyl Cysteine, Acétyl Cystéine, Acetylcysteine, Acétylcystéine, Chlorhydrate de Cystéine, Cysteine, Cystéine, Cysteine Hydrochloride, Cystine, Hydrochlorure de Cystéine, L-Cysteine, L-Cystéine, L-Cysteine HCl, L-Cystéine HCl, NAC, N-Acetil Cisteína, N-Acetyl-B-Cysteine, N-Acétyl Cystéine, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine, N-Acétyl-L-Cystéine, N-Acetylcysteine, N-Acétylcystéine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

N-acetyl cysteine comes from the amino acid L-cysteine. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. N-acetyl cysteine has many uses as medicine.

People take N-acetyl cysteine by mouth to counteract acetaminophen (Tylenol) and carbon monoxide poisoning. It is also used for chest pain (unstable angina), genetic conditions known as lysosomal storage disorders, bile duct blockage in infants, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), Alzheimer's disease, allergic reactions to the anti-seizure drug phenytoin (Dilantin), an eye infection called keratoconjunctivitis, and influenza symptoms. It is also used for reducing levels of a type of blood fat called lipoprotein (a), homocysteine levels (a possible risk factor for heart disease), and the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with serious kidney disease. It is also used to treat bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, substance use disorders, and Tourette syndrome.

N-acetyl cysteine is also taken by mouth for hepatitis, kidney disease, hearing loss, ulcerative colitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), low blood pressure, lupus, certain conditions that occur after menopause, muscle damage due to exercise, recovery after surgery, swelling of the pancreas (pancreatitis), cocaine dependence, altitude sickness, infection due to Helicobacter pylori bacteria, and for decreasing the risk for heart rhythm problems after surgery. It may also be used for genetic conditions known as adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

Some people use N-acetyl cysteine orally for long-term bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, hay fever, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a lung condition called fibrosing alveolitis, autism, head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. It is also used for treating some forms of epilepsy, ear infections, complications of kidney dialysis, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), an autoimmune disorder called Sjogren's syndrome. It may be used for preventing sports injury complications, miscarriages, preterm labor, and liver damage due to alcohol use. Some people use N-acetyl cysteine to improve fertility and immunity to flu and H1N1 (swine) flu. It is also used for detoxifying heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium.

N-acetyl cysteine is also taken by mouth for protecting against environmental pollutants including carbon monoxide, chloroform, urethanes and certain herbicides; reducing toxicity of drugs used for cancer treatment; reducing hearing loss caused by certain antibiotics; treating hangover symptoms; preventing kidney damage due to certain X-ray dyes; and treating compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania).

N-acetyl cysteine is applied to the skin to treat a genetic condition known as lamellar ichthyosis. It is also applied inside the mouth to reduce dental plaque. Also, it is applied to the eye to improve dry eyes.

Healthcare providers give N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) for acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose, acrylonitrile poisoning, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), kidney failure in the presence of liver disease (hepatorenal syndrome), pancreas swelling (pancreatitis), chest pain in combination with nitroglycerin, heart attack in combination with nitroglycerin and streptokinase, and for helping to prevent multi-organ failure leading to death. Intravenously, N-acetyl cysteine may also be used to improve recovery after surgery, decrease heart rhythm problems after surgery, treat a genetic condition known as adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), improve exercise performance, treat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), improve lung function in patients with sepsis, and prevent kidney damage due to certain X-ray dyes. It is also used for pancreatitis, liver transplants, malaria, and cardiac bypass graft (CABG) surgery. It is also given by IV to reduce nitrate tolerance.

N-acetyl cysteine is sometimes used rectally for conditions known as meconium ileus and meconium ileus equivalent.

N-acetyl cysteine is sometimes inhaled (breathed into the lungs) or delivered through a tube in the throat to treat certain lung disorders such as asthma, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and others. It is also used to help prepare people for diagnostic lung tests and to help care for people with a tube in their windpipe.

How does it work?

N-acetyl cysteine treats acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning by binding the poisonous forms of acetaminophen that are formed in the liver. It is also an antioxidant, so it may play a role in preventing cancer.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Effective for

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning. N-acetyl cysteine is effective in reducing the death rate and preventing the permanent harm caused by acetaminophen poisoning. For this use, N-acetyl cysteine given by mouth is as effective as N-acetyl cysteine given intravenously (by IV).
  • Collapse of part or all of a lung (atelectasis). N-acetyl cysteine helps treat collapsed lungs caused by mucus blockage.
  • Diagnostic lung tests. N-acetyl cysteine is helpful when used to prepare people for diagnostic lung tests.
  • Care of people with a tube in their windpipe (people who have undergone a tracheostomy). N-acetyl cysteine helps prevent crusting in people with a tube in their windpipe.

Possibly Effective for

  • Chest pain (angina). Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth or injecting it intravenously (by IV) seems to improve chest pain when used with the drug nitroglycerin. Intravenous N-acetyl cysteine seems to help prevent nitroglycerin tolerance. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth might also help prevent nitroglycerin tolerance, but results are conflicting.
  • Autism. Some research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth improves irritability in children and adolescents with autism. But N-acetyl cysteine doesn't seem to improve other autism symptoms such as hyperactivity, social withdrawal, lethargy, repetitive behaviors, and inappropriate speech.
  • Air passage swelling (bronchitis). Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to reduce shortness of breath and coughing in people with air passage swelling due to mustard gas exposure. Also, taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth for 3-6 months seems to prevent flare-ups in people with persistent air passage swelling. However, taking it for less time does not seem to be effective.
  • A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to decrease flare-ups by about 40% and improve sputum (phlegm) consistency in people with moderate to severe COPD. It seems to work best in people who are not already taking corticosteroids. However, it might increase the risk of blockage of the breathing tube.
  • Kidney problems caused by dyes used during some X-ray exams. Research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth, with or without other drugs, helps prevent kidney problems caused by dyes used during some X-ray exams in people with poor kidney function It does not seem to lower the risk of kidney problems caused by dyes used during X-ray exams in people with normal kidney function or people with diabetes.
  • Serious kidney disease. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to help prevent problems, such as heart attack and stroke, in people with serious kidney disease. The risk reduction can be as much as 40%. However, N-acetyl cysteine doesn't reduce the overall risk of death or the risk of death from heart disease in these people.
  • Epilepsy seizures. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to help treat a certain type of epilepsy seizure.
  • A lung disease called fibrosing alveolitis. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to improve lung function in people with fibrosing alveolitis.
  • High levels of homocysteine. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to reduce homocysteine levels, a possible risk factor for heart disease.
  • High cholesterol. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to reduce levels of a blood fat called lipoprotein(a) in people with high levels of this blood fat.
  • Ifosfamide (Ifex) side effects. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to help prevent side effects of ifosfamide (Ifex). This drug is used for certain types of cancer. But the drug mesna (Mesnex) seems to work better than N-acetyl cysteine.
  • Flu. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to reduce flu symptoms.
  • Heart attack. Giving N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) along with the drug nitroglycerin seems to help maintain heart function and reduces heart damage in people having a heart attack. Sometimes the drug streptokinase is also used along with N-acetyl cysteine and nitroglycerin.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease). Injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) doesn’t seem to improve ALS symptoms.
  • Breathing problems in premature infants. Giving N-acetyl cysteine through a hole in the windpipe does not seem to prevent breathing problems in premature infants.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth or breathing it in doesn’t seem to improve lung function in people with cystic fibrosis. However, N-acetyl cysteine might reduce markers of swelling in people with cystic fibrosis when taken by mouth in high doses.
  • Doxorubicin side effects. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to prevent or treat side effects of doxorubicin, a drug used to treat certain types of cancer.
  • A condition that causes sensitivity to light (Erythropoietic protoporphyria, EPP). Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to prevent sensitivity to light in people with EPP.
  • Hepatitis. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to help treat viral hepatitis. It also doesn’t seem to improve response to interferon therapy in people with hepatitis C. However, it might help prevent relapses in people with hepatitis C.
  • HIV/AIDS. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to improve immune function or reduce the amount of virus in the body in most people with HIV. However, it might improve immune function in people with HIV who have low levels of glutathione, a chemical in the body that is formed from N-acetyl cysteine.
  • Low blood pressure. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to reduce the risk of kidney failure in people with long-term low blood pressure.
  • Kidney disease. Taking N-acetyl cysteine doesn’t seem to improve long-term kidney disease.
  • Liver transplant. Injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) during surgery to donate a liver and keeping the liver in a cold liquid containing N-acetyl cysteine before the liver transplant doesn’t seem to prevent transplant rejection.
  • Pancreas swelling (pancreatitis). Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t prevent pancreatitis in people undergoing a certain diagnostic procedure that can cause pancreas swelling. Also, injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously along with selenium and vitamin C doesn’t seem to prevent pancreas dysfunction in people with serious pancreatitis.
  • Bone loss after menopause. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t seem to prevent bone loss after menopause.
  • Recovery after surgery. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth or injecting it intravenously (by IV) doesn’t seem to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney injury, or death after heart surgery. N-acetyl cysteine might help prevent abnormal heartbeats after heart surgery, but results are conflicting.

Likely InEffective for

  • Alzheimer’s disease. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Head and neck cancer. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t prevent new tumors or improve survival in people with head and neck cancer.
  • Lung cancer. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn’t prevent new tumors or improve survival in people with lung cancer.
  • Treating organ failure. Injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) might increase the risk of death in people with multiple organ failure.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • A life-threatening lung condition (acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS). Some research shows that injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) reduces the risk of death and improves some aspects of lung function in people with ARDS. However, conflicting research exists.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth or injecting it intravenously (by IV) might improve survival and stabilize brain function in some people with ALD.
  • Altitude sickness. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine doesn't prevent anorexia or other eating problems associated with altitude sickness.
  • Asthma. Early research suggests that inhaling a combination of N-acetyl cysteine plus isoproterenol improves lung function and decreases sputum (phlegm) thickness in people with asthma.
  • Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to help reduce depression symptoms in people with bipolar disorder. But it does not seem to help with symptoms of mania.
  • Heart bypass surgery. Early research suggests that N-acetyl cysteine does not prevent death or improve outcomes after surgery in patients undergoing heart bypass surgery.
  • Cocaine dependence. Some early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth reduces the desire to use cocaine in people who are cocaine dependent. But conflicting results exist.
  • Colon cancer. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth may reduce the likelihood of colon and rectal cancer in patients with a history of adenomatous colon polyps.
  • Dental plaque. Early research suggests that using a mouthwash containing 10% N-acetyl cysteine may reduce plaque.
  • Dry eye syndrome. Early research suggests that using a tear solution containing 20% acetyl cysteine improves some but not all symptoms of dry eye syndrome.
  • Muscle damage due to exercise. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth does not help prevent muscle damage after exercise.
  • Exercise performance. Some early research suggests that injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) before and during exercise increases the time until fatigue in trained athletes. Other early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth might improve performance of well-trained triathletes.
  • Hearing loss caused by drugs called aminoglycosides. Taking N-acetyl cysteine while receiving aminoglycosides might prevent hearing loss caused by these drugs in some people.
  • Hearing loss. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth decreases the chance of hearing loss in people who work in loud conditions, such as factory workers.
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Some research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth along with usual treatment for H. pylori infection increases the number of people who experience complete infection elimination. However, other research does not show this benefit. Other early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine along with curcumin, bovine lactoferrin, and the drug pantoprazole does not help eliminate H. pylori infection.
  • Kidney failure in people with liver disease (hepatorenal syndrome). Early research suggests that injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) might improve kidney function in people with hepatorenal syndrome.
  • A blood disorder called hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine decreases the number and severity of nosebleeds during the day in people with HHT. But it doesn't seem to reduce the number of nighttime nosebleeds.
  • Infertility. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to improve sperm concentration but not sperm movement in infertile men. In women with fertility problems who are taking the fertility drug clomiphene citrate, taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth does not seem to improve pregnancy rate or miscarriage rate.
  • A skin disease called lamellar ichthyosis. Applying N-acetyl cysteine to the skin might help treat lamellar ichthyosis.
  • Malaria. Early research suggests that injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) along with the antimalarial drug artesunate does not reduce symptoms or prevent death in people with severe malaria.
  • Miscarriage. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth along with folic acid helps prevent early miscarriages in women with a history of multiple early miscarriages compared to taking only folic acid.
  • Tolerance to nitrate. Early research suggests that injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) seems to help prevent tolerance to nitrate. Oral N-acetyl cysteine might help prevent nitrate tolerance, but results are conflicting.
  • Nerve problems caused by oxaliplatin. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth reduces the risk of nerve damage in people receiving oxaliplatin, a drug used to treat certain types of cancer.
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Some early research shows that N-acetyl cysteine can improve some symptoms of OCD. But other early research has found no benefit.
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth increases the odds of ovulation, getting pregnant, and having a live birth in women with PCOS. It seems to work best in women who are resistant to the fertility drug clomiphene citrate. But metformin seems to work better than N-acetyl cysteine. N-acetyl cysteine doesn't seem to improve irregular menstruation or decrease acne or male-pattern hair growth in women with PCOS.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine daily for 8 weeks along with a form of talk therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD and depression. However, this was only studied in war veterans with PTSD and a history of substance use disorders.
  • Preterm labor. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth along with a certain steroid hormone beginning at 16-18 weeks pregnancy and continuing until labor seems to help prevent preterm labor better than taking the steroid hormone alone. However, taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth beginning at 25-33 weeks pregnancy and continuing until labor does not seem to improve preterm delivery rates in women with severe high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) or those with HELLP syndrome.
  • Schizophrenia. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth for 6 months seems to reduce symptoms in people with schizophrenia. But taking N-acetyl cysteine for only 2 months doesn't seem to work.
  • Septic shock. Injecting N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) might help improve the ability to breathe in people with septic shock. But it doesn't seem to help prevent death due to septic shock.
  • An autoimmune disorder called Sjogren's syndrome. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth might reduce eye soreness and irritation, bad breath, and daytime thirst in people with this condition. But it doesn't seem to reduce eye dryness.
  • Substance use disorders. Early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine daily for 8 weeks along with a form of talk therapy can reduce the cravings to use drugs. However, this was only studied in war veterans with PTSD and a history of substance use disorders.
  • Lupus. Early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth reduces disease activity and tiredness in people with lupus.
  • Hair pulling. Taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth seems to decrease hair pulling in adults by up to 40%. But it doesn't seem to reduce hair pulling in children.
  • Tourette syndrome. Early research shows that taking N-acetyl cysteine does not improve the symptoms of Tourette syndrome in children 8-17 years of age.
  • Ulcerative colitis. Early research suggests that taking N-acetyl cysteine by mouth doesn't help prevent flare-ups in people with ulcerative colitis who are taking the anti-inflammatory drug mesalamine.
  • Allergic reactions to phenytoin (Dilantin).
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Ear infections.
  • Hay fever.
  • Preventing alcoholic liver damage.
  • Protecting against environmental pollutants.
  • Removing heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium from the body.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

N-acetyl cysteine is LIKELY SAFE for most adults, when used as a prescription medication. It can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea or constipation. Rarely, it can cause rashes, fever, headache, drowsiness, low blood pressure, and liver problems.

When inhaled (breathed into the lungs), it can also cause swelling in the mouth, runny nose, drowsiness, clamminess, and chest tightness.

N-acetyl cysteine has an unpleasant odor that may make it hard to take.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy or breast-feeding: N-acetyl cysteine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, delivered through a hole in the windpipe, or breathed in. N-acetyl cysteine crosses the placenta, but there is no evidence so far linking it with harm to the unborn child or mother. However, N-acetyl cysteine should only be used in pregnant women when clearly needed, such as in cases of acetaminophen toxicity.

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking N-acetyl cysteine if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Allergy: Don’t use N-acetyl cysteine if you are allergic to acetyl cysteine.

Asthma: There is a concern that N-acetyl cysteine might cause bronchospasm in people with asthma if inhaled or taken by mouth or through a tube in the windpipe. If you take N-acetyl cysteine and have asthma, you should be monitored by your healthcare provider.

Bleeding disorder. N-acetyl cysteine might slow blood clotting. There is concern that N-acetyl cysteine might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Surgery. N-acetyl cysteine might slow blood clotting. This might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking N-acetyl cysteine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Major Interaction

Do not take this combination

!
  • Nitroglycerin interacts with N-ACETYL CYSTEINE

    Nitroglycerin can dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow. Taking N-acetyl cysteine seems to increase the effects of nitroglycerin. This could cause increased chance of side effects including headache, dizziness, and lightheadedness.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Activated charcoal interacts with N-ACETYL CYSTEINE

    Activated charcoal is sometimes used to prevent poisoning in people who take too much acetaminophen and other medications. Activated charcoal can bind up these medications in the stomach and prevent them from being absorbed by the body. Taking N-acetyl cysteine at the same time as activated charcoal might decrease how well it works for preventing poisoning.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • For acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose: 140 mg/kg of N-acetyl cysteine at first, followed by 70 mg/kg every 4 hours for 3 days or until acetaminophen is no longer detected in the blood.
  • For chest pain that is not relieved by rest (unstable angina): 600 mg of N-acetyl cysteine three times daily with a nitroglycerin patch.
  • For preventing sudden worsening of chronic bronchitis: Doses of 200 mg twice daily, 200 mg three times daily, 300 mg slow-release twice daily, and 600 mg controlled-release twice daily have been used for up to 6 months. Doses up to 1.5 grams per day for up to 4 months have also been used.
  • For treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 400-1200 mg of N-acetyl cysteine daily in divided doses, in addition to standard care, has been used for up to 6 months.
  • For preventing kidney damage due to X-ray dye: 400-600 mg of N-acetyl cysteine twice daily on the day before and on the day of iopromide administration, with IV saline for 12 hours before and 12 hours after iopromide administration. Also, a starting dose of 1200 mg of N-acetyl cysteine, followed by 1200 mg twice daily thereafter for 48 hours after dye has also been used.
  • For treating a lung condition called fibrosing alveolitis that makes breathing difficult: 600 mg of N-acetyl cysteine three times daily for 12 weeks.
  • For preventing damage to the bladder due to treatment with a cancer drug called ifosfamide: 1-3 grams of N-acetyl cysteine every 6 hours beginning one hour before ifosfamide treatment and continuing for up to 5 days after treatment.
  • For reducing levels of homocysteine in the blood: 600-1200 mg of N-acetyl cysteine daily.
  • For epilepsy: 4-6 grams daily.
  • For reducing flu symptoms: 600 mg twice daily for up to 30 months.
  • For reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes in patients with end-stage kidney disease: 600 mg twice daily.
  • For high cholesterol: 1.2 grams daily for 6 weeks or 2 grams daily for 4 weeks followed by 4 grams daily for another 4 weeks.
BY INHALATION:
  • For collapse of part or all of a lung (atelectasis): 3-5 mL of 20% solution or 6-10 mL of 10% solution administered using a nebulizer 3-4 times per day. The solution may also be administered through a tracheostomy at a dose of 1-2 mL of 10% or 20% solution every 1-4 hours. The solution may also be administered through a tracheal catheter at a dose of 1-2 mL of 20% solution or 2-4 mL of 10% solution every 1-4 hours.
  • For diagnostic lung tests: : 1-2 mL of 20% solution or 2-4 mL of 10% solution administered via intratracheal instillation 2-3 times prior to the diagnostic test.
  • For treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 20% solution administered via a nebulizer for at least 4 days.
  • For care of people with a tube in their windpipe (people who have undergone a tracheostomy): 1-2 mL of 10-20% solution administered via intratracheal instillation.
BY INTRAVENOUS (IV) INJECTION:
  • For acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose: Healthcare providers give N-acetyl cysteine intravenously (by IV) for acetaminophen poisoning. Dosing is usually 150 mg/kg initially followed by 50 mg/kg over 4 hours, followed by 100 mg/kg over 16 hours or until acetaminophen levels are no longer detected.
  • For chest pain that is not relieved by rest (unstable angina): 5 grams every 6 hours along with IV nitroglycerin 5 mcg/min for 24 hours.
  • For preventing kidney damage due to X-ray dye: 900 mg before and after dye. Also, 1200 mg by IV before giving an oral dose of N-acetyl cysteine 1200 mg twice daily has also been used.
  • For heart attack: 100 mg/kg six times daily with the drug streptokinase. Also, 10 mg/min for the first hour, followed by 20 mg/min for 23 hours with nitroglycerin has also been used, with or without streptokinase. In addition, 15 grams along with streptokinase over 24 hours has been used.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH:
  • For acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose: 140 mg/kg initially followed by 70 mg/kg every 4 hours for 72 hours or until acetaminophen is no longer detected in the body.
  • For autism: 900 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by 900 mg twice daily for 4 weeks followed by 900 mg three times daily for 4 weeks. Taking 1200 mg daily with the drug risperidone for 8 weeks has also been used.
BY INHALATION:
  • For collapse of part or all of a lung (atelectasis): 3-5 mL of 20% solution or 6-10 mL of 10% solution administered using a nebulizer three to four times per day. The solution may also be administered through a tracheostomy at a dose of 1-2 mL of 10% or 20% solution every 1-4 hours. The solution may also be administered through a tracheal catheter at a dose of 1-2 mL of 20% solution or 2-4 mL of 10% solution every 1-4 hours.
  • For diagnostic lung tests: 1-2 mL of 20% solution or 2-4 mL of 10% solution administered via intratracheal instillation 2-3 times prior to the diagnostic test.
  • For care of people with a tube in their windpipe (people who have undergone a tracheostomy): 1-2 mL of 10% or 20% solution administered via intratracheal instillation.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Dietzsch, H. J., Berger, G., Gottschalk, B., Leupold, W., Mittenzwey, K. W., Rupprecht, E., and Wunderlich, P. [Experiences with oral N-acetyl-cysteine treatment in children suffering from cystic fibrosis (author's transl)]. Z.Erkr.Atmungsorgane. 1980;155(1):109-113. View abstract.
  • DiMari, J., Megyesi, J., Udvarhelyi, N., Price, P., Davis, R., and Safirstein, R. N-acetyl cysteine ameliorates ischemic renal failure. Am J Physiol 1997;272(3 Pt 2):F292-F298. View abstract.
  • Duijvestijn, Y. C. and Brand, P. L. Systematic review of N-acetylcysteine in cystic fibrosis. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88(1):38-41. View abstract.
  • Durham, J. D., Caputo, C., Dokko, J., Zaharakis, T., Pahlavan, M., Keltz, J., Dutka, P., Marzo, K., Maesaka, J. K., and Fishbane, S. A randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast nephropathy in cardiac angiography. Kidney Int 2002;62(6):2202-2207. View abstract.
  • Efrati, S., Dishy, V., Averbukh, M., Blatt, A., Krakover, R., Weisgarten, J., Morrow, J. D., Stein, M. C., and Golik, A. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on renal function, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress after angiography. Kidney Int 2003;64(6):2182-2187. View abstract.
  • Ege, T., Eskiocak, S., Edis, M., and Duran, E. The role of N-acetylcysteine in lower extremity ischemia/reperfusions. J Cardiovasc.Surg (Torino) 2006;47(5):563-568. View abstract.
  • Eklund, A., Eriksson, O., Hakansson, L., Larsson, K., Ohlsson, K., Venge, P., Bergstrand, H., Bjornson, A., Brattsand, R., Glennow, C., and . Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces selected humoral markers of inflammatory cell activity in BAL fluid from healthy smokers: correlation to effects on cellular variables. Eur.Respir.J 1988;1(9):832-838. View abstract.
  • El, Mahmoud R., Le, Feuvre C., Le Quan Sang, K. H., Helft, G., Beygui, F., Batisse, J. P., and Metzger, J. P. [Absence of nephro-protective effect of acetylcysteine in patients with chronic renal failure investigated by coronary angiography]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2003;96(12):1157-1161. View abstract.
  • El-Hamamsy, I., Stevens, L. M., Carrier, M., Pellerin, M., Bouchard, D., Demers, P., Cartier, R., Page, P., and Perrault, L. P. Effect of intravenous N-acetylcysteine on outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg 2007;133(1):7-12. View abstract.
  • Elnashar, A., Fahmy, M., Mansour, A., and Ibrahim, K. N-acetyl cysteine vs. metformin in treatment of clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled study. Fertil.Steril. 2007;88(2):406-409. View abstract.
  • Endo, A. and Watanabe, T. Analysis of protective activity of N-acetylcysteine against teratogenicity of heavy metals. Reprod.Toxicol. 1988;2(2):141-144. View abstract.
  • Eren, N., Cakir, O., Oruc, A., Kaya, Z., and Erdinc, L. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on pulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion 2003;18(6):345-350. View abstract.
  • Eylar, E. H., Baez, I., Vazquez, A., and Yamamura, Y. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) enhances interleukin-2 but suppresses interleukin-4 secretion from normal and HIV+ CD4+ T-cells. Cell Mol.Biol (Noisy.-le-grand) 1995;41 Suppl 1:S35-S40. View abstract.
  • Ferreira, L. F. and Reid, M. B. Muscle-derived ROS and thiol regulation in muscle fatigue. J Appl Physiol 2008;104(3):853-860. View abstract.
  • Fischer, U. M., Tossios, P., and Mehlhorn, U. Renal protection by radical scavenging in cardiac surgery patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21(8):1161-1164. View abstract.
  • Fishbane, S. N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(1):281-287. View abstract.
  • Flescher, E. and Fingrut, O. Suppression of interleukin 2 biosynthesis by three modes of oxidative cellular stress: selective prevention by N-acetyl cysteine. Cytokine 2000;12(5):495-498. View abstract.
  • Foschino Barbaro, M. P., Serviddio, G., Resta, O., Rollo, T., Tamborra, R., Elisiana, Carpagnano G., Vendemiale, G., and Altomare, E. Oxygen therapy at low flow causes oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Prevention by N-acetyl cysteine. Free Radic.Res 2005;39(10):1111-1118. View abstract.
  • Fulghesu, A. M., Ciampelli, M., Muzj, G., Belosi, C., Selvaggi, L., Ayala, G. F., and Lanzone, A. N-acetyl-cysteine treatment improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil.Steril. 2002;77(6):1128-1135. View abstract.
  • Fung, J. W. S. C., Chan, W., Kum, W., and et al. Can N-acetylcysteine really prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency? A randomized study and pooled analysis. Eur Heart J 2003;24(S136) View abstract.
  • Fung, J. W., Szeto, C. C., Chan, W. W., Kum, L. C., Chan, A. K., Wong, J. T., Wu, E. B., Yip, G. W., Chan, J. Y., Yu, C. M., Woo, K. S., and Sanderson, J. E. Effect of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast nephropathy in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency: a randomized trial. Am.J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(5):801-808. View abstract.
  • Gass, J. T. and Olive, M. F. Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism. Biochem.Pharmacol 1-1-2008;75(1):218-265. View abstract.
  • Gavish, D. and Breslow, J. L. Lipoprotein(a) reduction by N-acetylcysteine. Lancet 1-26-1991;337(8735):203-204. View abstract.
  • Gawenda, M., Moller, A., Wassmer, G., and Brunkwall, J. [Prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine]. Zentralbl.Chir 2007;132(3):227-231. View abstract.
  • Gepts, L. Oral acetylcysteine treatment in exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in 49 patients. Eur J Respir.Dis 1980;61(Suppl 111):109.
  • Gervais, S., Lussier-Labelle, F., and Beaudet, G. Anaphylactoid reaction to acetylcysteine. Clin Pharm 1984;3(6):586-587. View abstract.
  • Ghanei, M., Shohrati, M., Jafari, M., Ghaderi, S., Alaeddini, F., and Aslani, J. N-acetylcysteine improves the clinical conditions of mustard gas-exposed patients with normal pulmonary function test. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103(5):428-432. View abstract.
  • Girardi, G. and Elias, M. M. Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicology 4-8-1991;67(2):155-164. View abstract.
  • Goldenberg, I. J. M., Matetzki, S., Schechter, M, and et al. Contrast-associated nephropathy and clinical outcome of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization: lack of additive benefit of acetylcysteine to saline hydration. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 2003;41:537A.
  • Goldenberg, I., Shechter, M., Matetzky, S., Jonas, M., Adam, M., Pres, H., Elian, D., Agranat, O., Schwammenthal, E., and Guetta, V. Oral acetylcysteine as an adjunct to saline hydration for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. A randomized controlled trial and review of the current literature. Eur.Heart J 2004;25(3):212-218. View abstract.
  • Gomes, V. O., Caramori, P., Lasevitch, R., Brizolara, A., Nery, P., Araujo, A., Hemesath, M., and Brito, F. S. Jr. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine in patients undergoing coronary angiography: a randomized multicenter trial. Circulation 2003;108:IV-460.
  • Gonzales, D. A., Norsworthy, K. J., Kern, S. J., Banks, S., Sieving, P. C., Star, R. A., Natanson, C., and Danner, R. L. A meta-analysis of N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: unsupervised clustering to resolve heterogeneity. BMC.Med 2007;5:32. View abstract.
  • Gottschalk, B. [Therapy of mucoviscidosis using aerosols]. Dtsch.Gesundheitsw. 6-15-1972;27(24):1121-1124. View abstract.
  • Gotz, M., Kraemer, R., Kerrebijn, K. F., and Popow, C. Oral acetylcysteine in cystic fibrosis. A co-operative study. Eur.J Respir.Dis.Suppl 1980;111:122-126. View abstract.
  • Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., and Odlaug, B. L. N-acetyl cysteine, a glutamate-modulating agent, in the treatment of pathological gambling: a pilot study. Biol Psychiatry 9-15-2007;62(6):652-657. View abstract.
  • Grant, P. R., Black, A., Garcia, N., Prieto, J., and Garson, J. A. Combination therapy with interferon-alpha plus N-acetyl cysteine for chronic hepatitis C: a placebo controlled double-blind multicentre study. J.Med.Virol. 2000;61(4):439-442. View abstract.
  • Grassi, C. and Morandini, G. C. A controlled trial of intermittent oral acetylcysteine in the long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 3-22-1976;09(5-6):393-396. View abstract.
  • Grassi, C., Morandini, G. C., and Frigerio, G. Clinical evaluation of systemic acetylcysteine by different routes of administration. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1973;15(4):165-179. View abstract.
  • Grater, W. C. and Cato, A. Double-blind study of acetylcysteine-isoproterenol and saline-isoproterenol in non-hospitalized patients with asthma. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1973;15(9):660-671. View abstract.
  • Grimble, G. K. Adverse gastrointestinal effects of arginine and related amino acids. J Nutr 2007;137(6 Suppl 2):1693S-1701S. View abstract.
  • Guijarro, L. G., Mate, J., Gisbert, J. P., Perez-Calle, J. L., Marin-Jimenez, I., Arriaza, E., Olleros, T., Delgado, M., Castillejo, M. S., Prieto-Merino, D., Gonzalez, Lara, V, and Pena, A. S. N-acetyl-L-cysteine combined with mesalamine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. World J Gastroenterol. 5-14-2008;14(18):2851-2857. View abstract.
  • Gunduz, H., Karabay, O., Tamer, A., Ozaras, R., Mert, A., and Tabak, O. F. N-acetyl cysteine therapy in acute viral hepatitis. World J.Gastroenterol. 2003;9(12):2698-2700. View abstract.
  • Gurbuz, A. K., Ozel, A. M., Ozturk, R., Yildirim, S., Yazgan, Y., and Demirturk, L. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on Helicobacter pylori. South.Med J 2005;98(11):1095-1097. View abstract.
  • Gurtoo, H. L., Marinello, A. J., Berrigan, M. J., Bansal, S. K., Paul, B., Pavelic, Z. P., and Struck, R. F. Effect of thiols on toxicity and carcinostatic activity of cyclophosphamide. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):35-45. View abstract.
  • Haase, M., Haase-Fielitz, A., Bagshaw, S. M., Reade, M. C., Morgera, S., Seevenayagam, S., Matalanis, G., Buxton, B., Doolan, L., and Bellomo, R. Phase II, randomized, controlled trial of high-dose N-acetylcysteine in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. Crit Care Med 2007;35(5):1324-1331. View abstract.
  • Hansen, N. C., Skriver, A., Brorsen-Riis, L., Balslov, S., Evald, T., Maltbaek, N., Gunnersen, G., Garsdal, P., Sander, P., Pedersen, J. Z., and . Orally administered N-acetylcysteine may improve general well-being in patients with mild chronic bronchitis. Respir.Med 1994;88(7):531-535. View abstract.
  • Harrison, P. M., Keays, R., Bray, G. P., Alexander, G. J., and Williams, R. Improved outcome of paracetamol-induced fulminant hepatic failure by late administration of acetylcysteine. Lancet 6-30-1990;335(8705):1572-1573. View abstract.
  • Hart, A. M., Terenghi, G., and Wiberg, M. Neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury and experimental strategies for neuroprotection. Neurol.Res. 2008;30(10):999-1011. View abstract.
  • Heng, A. E., Cellarier, E., Aublet-Cuvelier, B., Decalf, V., Motreff, P., Marcaggi, X., Deteix, P., and Souweine, B. Is treatment with N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy when using bicarbonate hydration out of date? Clin Nephrol. 2008;70(6):475-484. View abstract.
  • Henneghien, C., Remacle, P., and Bruart, J. Study of the Nacetylcysteine (NAC) by oral or intravenous administration in chronic bronchitis. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:750-756.
  • Hershkovitz, E., Shorer, Z., Levitas, A., and Tal, A. Status epilepticus following intravenous N-acetylcysteine therapy. Isr.J Med Sci 1996;32(11):1102-1104. View abstract.
  • Hirsch, S. R. and Kory, R. C. An evaluation of the effect of nebulized N-acetylcysteine on sputum consistency. J Allergy 1967;39(5):265-273. View abstract.
  • Ho, K. M. and Morgan, D. J. Meta-analysis of N-acetylcysteine to prevent acute renal failure after major surgery. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53(1):33-40. View abstract.
  • Ho, S. W. and Beilin, L. J. Asthma associated with N-acetylcysteine infusion and paracetamol poisoning: report of two cases. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 9-24-1983;287(6396):876-877. View abstract.
  • Holdiness, M. R. Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991;20(2):123-134. View abstract.
  • Horl, W. H. [Contrast induced nephropathy]. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 2009;121(1-2):15-32. View abstract.
  • Horowitz, J. D., Henry, C. A., Syrjanen, M. L., Louis, W. J., Fish, R. D., Smith, T. W., and Antman, E. M. Combined use of nitroglycerin and N-acetylcysteine in the management of unstable angina pectoris. Circulation 1988;77(4):787-794. View abstract.
  • Howatt, W. F. and DeMuth, G. R. A double-blind study of the use of acetylcysteine in patients with cystic fibrosis. Univ Mich.Med Cent.J 1966;32(2):82-85. View abstract.
  • Hultberg, B., Andersson, A., Masson, P., Larson, M., and Tunek, A. Plasma homocysteine and thiol compound fractions after oral administration of N-acetylcysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1994;54(6):417-422. View abstract.
  • Huynh, H. Q., Couper, R. T., Tran, C. D., Moore, L., Kelso, R., and Butler, R. N. N-acetylcysteine, a novel treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Dig.Dis.Sci 2004;49(11-12):1853-1861. View abstract.
  • Hynninen, M. S., Niemi, T. T., Poyhia, R., Raininko, E. I., Salmenpera, M. T., Lepantalo, M. J., Railo, M. J., and Tallgren, M. K. N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of kidney injury in abdominal aortic surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth.Analg. 2006;102(6):1638-1645. View abstract.
  • Inoue, S., Yamamoto, I., Akieda, K., Sekiguchi, H., Otuka, H., Morita, S., Nakagawa, Y., and Inokuchi, S. [Alcohol abuse case of severe liver dysfunction induced by acetaminophen poisoning which was diagnosed as non-hepatic toxicity on admission]. Chudoku.Kenkyu 2006;19(3):265-271. View abstract.
  • Ivanovski, O., Nikolov, I. G., Drueke, B. T., and Massy, A. Z. Atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in uraemia - a new experimental model. Prilozi. 2007;28(2):11-24. View abstract.
  • Jackson, I. M., Barnes, J., and Cooksey, P. Efficacy and tolerability of oral acetylcysteine (Fabrol) in chronic bronchitis: a double-blind placebo controlled study. J Int Med Res 1984;12(3):198-206. View abstract.
  • Jensen, T., Kharazmi, A., Schiotz, P. O., Nielsen, H., Stenvang, Pedersen S., Stafanger, G., Koch, C., and Hoiby, N. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine administration on human blood neutrophil and monocyte function. APMIS 1988;96(1):62-67. View abstract.
  • Jepsen, S., Herlevsen, P., Knudsen, P., Bud, M. I., and Klausen, N. O. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine during adult respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Crit Care Med 1992;20(7):918-923. View abstract.
  • Jiang, B., Haverty, M., and Brecher, P. N-acetyl-L-cysteine enhances interleukin-1beta-induced nitric oxide synthase expression. Hypertension 1999;34(4 Pt 1):574-579. View abstract.
  • Jo, S. H., Koo, B. K., Park, J. S., Kang, H. J., Kim, Y. J., Kim, H. L., Chae, I. H., Choi, D. J., Sohn, D. W., Oh, B. H., Park, Y. B., Choi, Y. S., and Kim, H. S. N-acetylcysteine versus AScorbic acid for preventing contrast-Induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography NASPI study-a prospective randomized controlled trial. Am Heart J 2009;157(3):576-583. View abstract.
  • Johnston, R. E., Hawkins, H. C., and Weikel, J. H., Jr. The toxicity of N-acetylcysteine in laboratory animals. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):17-24. View abstract.
  • Jones, A. L., Bangash, I. H., Bouchier, I. A., and Hayes, P. C. Portal and systemic haemodynamic action of N-acetylcysteine in patients with stable cirrhosis. Gut 1994;35(9):1290-1293. View abstract.
  • Jones, A. L., Jarvie, D. R., Simpson, D., Hayes, P. C., and Prescott, L. F. Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine are altered in patients with chronic liver disease. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 1997;11(4):787-791. View abstract.
  • Kalebic, T., Kinter, A., Poli, G., Anderson, M. E., Meister, A., and Fauci, A. S. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression in chronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione, glutathione ester, and N-acetylcysteine. Proc Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 2-1-1991;88(3):986-990. View abstract.
  • Kay, J., Chow, W. H., Chan, T. M., Lo, S. K., Kwok, O. H., Yip, A., Fan, K., Lee, C. H., and Lam, W. F. Acetylcysteine for prevention of acute deterioration of renal function following elective coronary angiography and intervention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2-5-2003;289(5):553-558. View abstract.
  • Keays, R., Harrison, P. M., Wendon, J. A., Forbes, A., Gove, C., Alexander, G. J., and Williams, R. Intravenous acetylcysteine in paracetamol induced fulminant hepatic failure: a prospective controlled trial. BMJ 10-26-1991;303(6809):1026-1029. View abstract.
  • Kefer, J. M., Hanet, C. E., Boitte, S., Wilmotte, L., and De, Kock M. Acetylcysteine, coronary procedure and prevention of contrast-induced worsening of renal function: which benefit for which patient? Acta Cardiol. 2003;58(6):555-560. View abstract.
  • Kelly, M. K., Wicker, R. J., Barstow, T. J., and Harms, C. A. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on respiratory muscle fatigue during heavy exercise. Respir.Physiol Neurobiol. 1-1-2009;165(1):67-72. View abstract.
  • Kerr, F., Dawson, A., Whyte, I. M., Buckley, N., Murray, L., Graudins, A., Chan, B., and Trudinger, B. The Australasian Clinical Toxicology Investigators Collaboration randomized trial of different loading infusion rates of N-acetylcysteine. Ann Emerg.Med 2005;45(4):402-408. View abstract.
  • Khan, A. W., Fuller, B. J., Shah, S. R., Davidson, B. R., and Rolles, K. A prospective randomized trial of N-acetyl cysteine administration during cold preservation of the donor liver for transplantation. Ann.Hepatol 2005;4(2):121-126. View abstract.
  • Kharazmi, A., Nielsen, H., and Schiotz, P. O. N-acetylcysteine inhibits human neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988;10(1):39-46. View abstract.
  • Kilic-Okman, T. and Kucuk, M. N-acetyl-cysteine treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int.J.Gynaecol.Obstet. 2004;85(3):296-297. View abstract.
  • Kinscherf, R., Fischbach, T., Mihm, S., Roth, S., Hohenhaus-Sievert, E., Weiss, C., Edler, L., Bartsch, P., and Droge, W. Effect of glutathione depletion and oral N-acetyl-cysteine treatment on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. FASEB J. 4-1-1994;8(6):448-451. View abstract.
  • Kinter, A. L., Poli, G., and Fauci, A. S. N-acetyl-cysteine is a potent suppressor of human immunodeficiency virus transcription in persistently infected cells. Trans.Assoc.Am.Physicians 1992;105:36-43. View abstract.
  • Kleinveld, H. A., Demacker, P. N., and Stalenhoef, A. F. Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in healthy subjects. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43(6):639-642. View abstract.
  • Koksal, H., Rahman, A., Burma, O., Halifeoglu, I., and Bayar, M. K. The effects of low dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an adjunct to cardioplegia in coronary artery bypass surgery. Anadolu.Kardiyol.Derg. 2008;8(6):437-443. View abstract.
  • Komisarof, J. A., Gilkey, G. M., Peters, D. M., Koudelka, C. W., Meyer, M. M., and Smith, S. M. N-acetylcysteine for patients with prolonged hypotension as prophylaxis for acute renal failure (NEPHRON). Crit Care Med 2007;35(2):435-441. View abstract.
  • Koramaz, I., Pulathan, Z., Usta, S., Karahan, S. C., Alver, A., Yaris, E., Kalyoncu, N. I., and Ozcan, F. Cardioprotective effect of cold-blood cardioplegia enriched with N-acetylcysteine during coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac.Surg 2006;81(2):613-618. View abstract.
  • Kory, R. C., Hirsch, S. R., and Giraldo, J. Nebulization of N-acetylcysteine combined with a bronchodilator in patients with chronic bronchitis. A controlled study. Chest 1968;54(6):504-509.
  • Kottgen, M., Busch, A. E., Hug, M. J., Greger, R., and Kunzelmann, K. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and its derivatives activate a Cl- conductance in epithelial cells. Pflugers Arch 1996;431(4):549-555. View abstract.
  • Kramer, S., Dreisbach, L., Lockwood, J., Baldwin, K., Kopke, R., Scranton, S., and O'Leary, M. Efficacy of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protecting ears exposed to loud music. J Am Acad.Audiol. 2006;17(4):265-278. View abstract.
  • Krishna, M. and Lalmuanpuii, J. Helicobacter pylori treatment. South.Med J 2005;98(11):1068. View abstract.
  • Kuleci, S., Hanta, I., Kocabas, A., and Canacankatan, N. The effect of different treatment modalities on oxidative stress in COPD. Adv.Ther 2008;25(7):710-717. View abstract.
  • Kusano, C., Takao, S., Noma, H., Yoh, H., Aikou, T., Okumura, H., Akiyama, S., Kawamura, M., Makino, M., and Baba, M. N-acetyl cysteine inhibits cell cycle progression in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Hum.Cell 2000;13(4):213-220. View abstract.
  • Lameire, N. H. Contrast-induced nephropathy--prevention and risk reduction. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2006;21(6):i11-i23. View abstract.
  • Lappas, M., Permezel, M., and Rice, G. E. N-Acetyl-cysteine inhibits phospholipid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokine release, protease activity, and nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity in human fetal membranes in vitro. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2003;88(4):1723-1729. View abstract.
  • LaRowe, S. D., Mardikian, P., Malcolm, R., Myrick, H., Kalivas, P., McFarland, K., Saladin, M., McRae, A., and Brady, K. Safety and tolerability of N-acetylcysteine in cocaine-dependent individuals. Am J Addict. 2006;15(1):105-110. View abstract.
  • LaRowe, S. D., Myrick, H., Hedden, S., Mardikian, P., Saladin, M., McRae, A., Brady, K., Kalivas, P. W., and Malcolm, R. Is cocaine desire reduced by N-acetylcysteine? Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(7):1115-1117. View abstract.
  • Lavoie, S., Murray, M. M., Deppen, P., Knyazeva, M. G., Berk, M., Boulat, O., Bovet, P., Bush, A. I., Conus, P., Copolov, D., Fornari, E., Meuli, R., Solida, A., Vianin, P., Cuenod, M., Buclin, T., and Do, K. Q. Glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine, improves mismatch negativity in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008;33(9):2187-2199. View abstract.
  • Lawlor, D. K., Moist, L., DeRose, G., Harris, K. A., Lovell, M. B., Kribs, S. W., Elliot, J., and Forbes, T. L. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in vascular surgery patients. Ann Vasc.Surg 2007;21(5):593-597. View abstract.
  • Lemy-Debois, N., Frigerio, G., and Lualdi, P. Oral acetylcysteine in bronchopulmonary disease. Comparative clinical trial with bromhexine. Acta Ther 1978;4(2):125-132.
  • Leung, K. S. and Cottler, L. B. Treatment of pathological gambling. Curr Opin.Psychiatry 2009;22(1):69-74. View abstract.
  • Levy, L. and Vredevoe, D. L. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on cyclophosphamide immunoregulation and antitumor activity. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):7-16. View abstract.
  • Lin, P. C., Lee, M. Y., Wang, W. S., Yen, C. C., Chao, T. C., Hsiao, L. T., Yang, M. H., Chen, P. M., Lin, K. P., and Chiou, T. J. N-acetylcysteine has neuroprotective effects against oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients: preliminary data. Support.Care Cancer 2006;14(5):484-487. View abstract.
  • Linden, M., Wieslander, E., Eklund, A., Larsson, K., and Brattsand, R. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on cell content and macrophage function in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy smokers. Eur.Respir.J 1988;1(7):645-650. View abstract.
  • Long-term oral acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis. a double-blind controlled study. Eur.J Respir.Dis.Suppl 1980;111:93-108. View abstract.
  • Look, M. P., Rockstroh, J. K., Rao, G. S., Barton, S., Lemoch, H., Kaiser, R., Kupfer, B., Sudhop, T., Spengler, U., and Sauerbruch, T. Sodium selenite and N-acetylcysteine in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Eur.J Clin Invest 1998;28(5):389-397. View abstract.
  • Loutrianakis, E., Stella, D., Hussain, A., Lewis, B., Steen, L., Sochanski, M., Leya, F., and Grassman, E. Randomized comparison of fenoldopam and N-acetylcysteine to saline in the prevention of radiocontrast induced nephropathy. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 2003;41:327A.
  • Macedo, E., Abdulkader, R., Castro, I., Sobrinho, A. C., Yu, L., and Vieira, J. M., Jr. Lack of protection of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in acute renal failure related to elective aortic aneurysm repair-a randomized controlled trial. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2006;21(7):1863-1869. View abstract.
  • MacNeill, B. D., Harding, S. A., Bazari, H., Patton, K. K., Colon-Hernadez, P., DeJoseph, D., and Jang, I. K. Prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Catheter.Cardiovasc.Interv. 2003;60(4):458-461. View abstract.
  • Maioli, M., Toso, A., Leoncini, M., Gallopin, M., Tedeschi, D., Micheletti, C., and Bellandi, F. Sodium bicarbonate versus saline for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography or intervention. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 8-19-2008;52(8):599-604. View abstract.
  • Maioli, M., Toso, A., Leoncini, M., Gallopin, M., Tedeschi, D., Micheletti, C., and Bellandi, F. Sodium bicarbonate versus saline for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography or intervention. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 8-19-2008;52(8):599-604. View abstract.
  • Majano, P. L., Medina, J., Zubia, I., Sunyer, L., Lara-Pezzi, E., Maldonado-Rodriguez, A., Lopez-Cabrera, M., and Moreno-Otero, R. N-Acetyl-cysteine modulates inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in human hepatocytes. J.Hepatol. 2004;40(4):632-637. View abstract.
  • Malorni, W., Rivabene, R., and Matarrese, P. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine protects cultured epithelial cells from menadione-induced cytopathology. Chem.Biol.Interact. 5-19-1995;96(2):113-123. View abstract.
  • Manov, I., Motanis, H., Frumin, I., and Iancu, T. C. Hepatotoxicity of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs: ultrastructural aspects. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27(3):259-272. View abstract.
  • Mant, T. G., Tempowski, J. H., Volans, G. N., and Talbot, J. C. Adverse reactions to acetylcysteine and effects of overdose. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 7-28-1984;289(6439):217-219. View abstract.
  • Marenzi, G., Assanelli, E., Marana, I., Lauri, G., Campodonico, J., Grazi, M., De, Metrio M., Galli, S., Fabbiocchi, F., Montorsi, P., Veglia, F., and Bartorelli, A. L. N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy in primary angioplasty. N.Engl.J Med 6-29-2006;354(26):2773-2782. View abstract.
  • McCormick, R. K. Osteoporosis: integrating biomarkers and other diagnostic correlates into the management of bone fragility. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(2):113-145. View abstract.
  • McKenna, M. J., Medved, I., Goodman, C. A., Brown, M. J., Bjorksten, A. R., Murphy, K. T., Petersen, A. C., Sostaric, S., and Gong, X. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the decline in muscle Na+,K+-pump activity and delays fatigue during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol 10-1-2006;576(Pt 1):279-288. View abstract.
  • Meister, R. Langzeittherapie mit Acetylcystein Retard-Tabletten bei Patienten mit chronischer Bronchitis. Eine doppelblinde-placebokontrollierte Studie. Forum Prakt Allg Arzt 1986;25:18-22.
  • Melzer, J., Saller, R., Schapowal, A., and Brignoli, R. Systematic review of clinical data with BNO-101 (Sinupret) in the treatment of sinusitis. Forsch Komplement.Med (2006.) 2006;13(2):78-87. View abstract.
  • Meschi, M., Detrenis, S., Musini, S., Strada, E., and Savazzi, G. Facts and fallacies concerning the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy. Crit Care Med 2006;34(8):2060-2068. View abstract.
  • Milewski, J., Rydzewska, G., Degowska, M., Kierzkiewicz, M., and Rydzewski, A. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 6-21-2006;12(23):3751-3755. View abstract.
  • Millar, A. B., Pavia, D., Agnew, J. E., Lopez-Vidriero, M. T., Lauque, D., and Clarke, S. W. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance. Br J Dis.Chest 1985;79(3):262-266. View abstract.
  • Miller, L. F. and Rumack, B. H. Clinical safety of high oral doses of acetylcysteine. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):76-85. View abstract.
  • Millman, M. and Grundon, W. Use of acetylcysteine in bronchial asthma and emphysema. J Asthma Res 1969;6(4):199-209. View abstract.
  • Minder, E. I., Schneider-Yin, X., Steurer, J., and Bachmann, L. M. A systematic review of treatment options for dermal photosensitivity in erythropoietic protoporphyria. Cell Mol.Biol.(Noisy.-le-grand) 2009;55(1):84-97. View abstract.
  • Mitchell, E. A. and Elliott, R. B. Controlled trial of oral N-acetylcysteine in cystic fibrosis. Aust.Paediatr.J 1982;18(1):40-42. View abstract.
  • Mitchell, J. R., Thorgeirsson, S. S., Potter, W. Z., Jollow, D. J., and Keiser, H. Acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury: protective role of glutathione in man and rationale for therapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1974;16(4):676-684. View abstract.
  • Miyajima, A., Nakashima, J., Tachibana, M., Nakamura, K., Hayakawa, M., and Murai, M. N-acetylcysteine modifies cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum-induced effects in bladder cancer cells. Jpn J Cancer Res 1999;90(5):565-570. View abstract.
  • Molnar, Z., Szakmany, T., and Koszegi, T. Prophylactic N-acetylcysteine decreases serum CRP but not PCT levels and microalbuminuria following major abdominal surgery. A prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 2003;29(5):749-755. View abstract.
  • Moore, N. N., Lapsley, M., Norden, A. G., Firth, J. D., Gaunt, M. E., Varty, K., and Boyle, J. R. Does N-acetylcysteine prevent contrast-induced nephropathy during endovascular AAA repair? A randomized controlled pilot study. J Endovasc.Ther 2006;13(5):660-666. View abstract.
  • Moradi, M., Mojtahedzadeh, M., Mandegari, A., Soltan-Sharifi, M. S., Najafi, A., Khajavi, M. R., Hajibabayee, M., and Ghahremani, M. H. The role of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms on clinical outcome of ALI/ARDS patient treated with N-acetylcysteine. Respir.Med 2009;103(3):434-441. View abstract.
  • Morgan, L. R., Donley, P. J., Harrison, E. F., and Hunter, H. L. The control of ifosfamide-induced hematuria with N-acetylcysteine in patients with advanced carcinoma of the lung. Semin.Oncol 1982;9(4 Suppl 1):71-74. View abstract.
  • Morgan, L. R., Holdiness, M. R., and Gillen, L. E. N-acetylcysteine: its bioavailability and interaction with ifosfamide metabolites. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):56-61. View abstract.
  • Myers, C., Bonow, R., Palmeri, S., Jenkins, J., Corden, B., Locker, G., Doroshow, J., and Epstein, S. A randomized controlled trial assessing the prevention of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy by N-acetylcysteine. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):53-55. View abstract.
  • Nahir, A. M., Scharf, J. M., and Szargel, R. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on both ocular and oral manifestations of Sjogren's Syndrome. Curr Ther Res 1989;46:187-192.
  • Nash, E. F., Stephenson, A., Ratjen, F., and Tullis, E. Nebulized and oral thiol derivatives for pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD007168. View abstract.
  • Naughton, F., Wijeysundera, D., Karkouti, K., Tait, G., and Beattie, W. S. N-acetylcysteine to reduce renal failure after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55(12):827-835. View abstract.
  • Neri, S., Ierna, D., Antoci, S., Campanile, E., D'Amico, R. A., and Noto, R. Association of alpha-interferon and acetyl cysteine in patients with chronic C hepatitis. Panminerva Med 2000;42(3):187-192. View abstract.
  • Ng, T. M., Shurmur, S. W., Silver, M., Nissen, L. R., O'Leary, E. L., Rigmaiden, R. S., Cieciorka, M., Porter, L. L., Ineck, B. A., Kline, M. E., and Puumala, S. E. Comparison of N-acetylcysteine and fenoldopam for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CAFCIN). Int J Cardiol. 5-24-2006;109(3):322-328. View abstract.
  • Nguyen-Ho, P., Dzavik, V., Seidelin, P., Daly, P., Ross, J., McLaughlin, P., Ing, D., Barolet, A., Schwartz, L., and Miner, S. E. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent long-term clinical events despite reducing periprocedural contrast-associated nephropathy. Circulation 2003;108:IV-445.
  • Niemi, T. T., Munsterhjelm, E., Poyhia, R., Hynninen, M. S., and Salmenpera, M. T. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood coagulation and platelet function in patients undergoing open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2006;17(1):29-34. View abstract.
  • Nigwekar, S. U. and Kandula, P. N-acetylcysteine in cardiovascular-surgery-associated renal failure: a meta-analysis. Ann Thorac.Surg 2009;87(1):139-147. View abstract.
  • Norris, P. G., Baker, C. S., Roberts, J. E., and Hawk, J. L. Treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria with N-acetylcysteine. Arch Dermatol 1995;131(3):354-355. View abstract.
  • Ochoa, A., Pellizzon, G., Addala, S., Grines, C., Isayenko, Y., Boura, J., Rempinski, D., O'Neill, W., and Kahn, J. Abbreviated dosing of N-acetylcysteine prevents contrast-induced nephropathy after elective and urgent coronary angiography and intervention. J Interv.Cardiol. 2004;17(3):159-165. View abstract.
  • Oh, T. E. and Shenfield, G. M. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine for paracetamol poisoning. Med J Aust. 6-28-1980;1(13):664-665. View abstract.
  • Oldemeyer, J. B. C. E, Wuderman, R., Packard, K., and et al. Prophylactic acetylcysteine is not effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 2002;84A.
  • Olsson, B., Johansson, M., Gabrielsson, J., and Bolme, P. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of reduced and oxidized N-acetylcysteine. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1988;34(1):77-82. View abstract.
  • Oral N-acetylcysteine and exacerbation rates in patients with chronic bronchitis and severe airways obstruction. British Thoracic Society Research Committee. Thorax 1985;40(11):832-835. View abstract.
  • Orhan, G., Yapici, N., Yuksel, M., Sargin, M., Senay, S., Yalcin, A. S., Aykac, Z., and Aka, S. A. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in bypass surgery. Heart Vessels 2006;21(1):42-47. View abstract.
  • Ornaghi, F., Ferrini, S., Prati, M., and Giavini, E. The protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against methyl mercury embryotoxicity in mice. Fundam.Appl Toxicol. 1993;20(4):437-445. View abstract.
  • Ozaydin, M., Peker, O., Erdogan, D., Kapan, S., Turker, Y., Varol, E., Ozguner, F., Dogan, A., and Ibrisim, E. N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Eur.Heart J 2008;29(5):625-631. View abstract.
  • Ozcan, E. E., Guneri, S., Akdeniz, B., Akyildiz, I. Z., Senaslan, O., Baris, N., Aslan, O., and Badak, O. Sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and saline for prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. A comparison of 3 regimens for protecting contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary procedures. A single-center prospective controlled trial. Am Heart J 2007;154(3):539-544. View abstract.
  • Pajonk, F., Riess, K., Sommer, A., and McBride, W. H. N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits 26S proteasome function: implications for effects on NF-kappaB activation. Free Radic.Biol Med 3-15-2002;32(6):536-543. View abstract.
  • Pannu, N. and Tonelli, M. Strategies to reduce the risk of contrast nephropathy: an evidence-based approach. Curr Opin.Nephrol.Hypertens. 2006;15(3):285-290. View abstract.
  • Parker, D., White, J. P., Paton, D., and Routledge, P. A. Safety of late acetylcysteine treatment in paracetamol poisoning. Hum Exp.Toxicol. 1990;9(1):25-27. View abstract.
  • Parr, G. D. and Huitson, A. Oral Fabrol (oral N-acetyl-cysteine) in chronic bronchitis. Br.J.Dis.Chest 1987;81(4):341-348. View abstract.
  • Pate, G. H. K, Shamaria, A., Williams, and et al. Intravenous acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy following coronary angiography. Circulation 2003;107:IV-445.
  • Peker, O., Peker, T., Erdogan, D., Ozaydin, M., Kapan, S., Sutcu, R., and Ibrisim, E. Effects of intravenous N-acetylcysteine on periprocedural myocardial injury after on-pump coronary artery by-pass grafting. J Cardiovasc.Surg (Torino) 2008;49(4):527-531. View abstract.
  • Peristeris, P., Clark, B. D., Gatti, S., Faggioni, R., Mantovani, A., Mengozzi, M., Orencole, S. F., Sironi, M., and Ghezzi, P. N-acetylcysteine and glutathione as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor production. Cell Immunol. 1992;140(2):390-399. View abstract.
  • Perry, H. E. and Shannon, M. W. Efficacy of oral versus intravenous N-acetylcysteine in acetaminophen overdose: results of an open-label, clinical trial. J Pediatr 1998;132(1):149-152. View abstract.
  • Peterson, R. G. and Rumack, B. H. Toxicity of acetaminophen overdose. JACEP. 1978;7(5):202-205. View abstract.
  • Peterson, R. G. and Rumack, B. H. Treating acute acetaminophen poisoning with acetylcysteine. JAMA 5-30-1977;237(22):2406-2407. View abstract.
  • Poder, G., Puskas, J., Kelemen, J., Kiss, A. G., and Cserhati, E. N-Acetylcystein bei chronisch-obstruktiver Bronchitis. Therapiewoche 1984;34:7047-7052.
  • Poletti, P. A., Saudan, P., Platon, A., Mermillod, B., Sautter, A. M., Vermeulen, B., Sarasin, F. P., Becker, C. D., and Martin, P. Y. I.v. N-acetylcysteine and emergency CT: use of serum creatinine and cystatin C as markers of radiocontrast nephrotoxicity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189(3):687-692. View abstract.
  • Powell, S. R. and McCay, P. B. Inhibition of doxorubicin-initiated membrane damage by N-acetylcysteine: possible mediation by a thiol-dependent, cytosolic inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Toxicol.Appl Pharmacol 1988;96(2):175-184. View abstract.
  • Pratt, S. and Ioannides, C. Mechanism of the protective action of n-acetylcysteine and methionine against paracetamol toxicity in the hamster. Arch Toxicol. 1985;57(3):173-177. View abstract.
  • Prescott, L. F. Treatment of severe acetaminophen poisoning with intravenous acetylcysteine. Arch Intern Med 2-23-1981;141(3 Spec No):386-389. View abstract.
  • Prescott, L. F., Donovan, J. W., Jarvie, D. R., and Proudfoot, A. T. The disposition and kinetics of intravenous N-acetylcysteine in patients with paracetamol overdosage. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1989;37(5):501-506. View abstract.
  • Prescott, L. F., Illingworth, R. N., Critchley, J. A., Stewart, M. J., Adam, R. D., and Proudfoot, A. T. Intravenous N-acetylcystine: the treatment of choice for paracetamol poisoning. Br Med J 11-3-1979;2(6198):1097-1100. View abstract.
  • Prescott, L. F., Park, J., Ballantyne, A., Adriaenssens, P., and Proudfoot, A. T. Treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning with N-acetylcysteine. Lancet 8-27-1977;2(8035):432-434. View abstract.
  • Pulle, D. F., Glass, P., and Dulfano, M. J. A controlled study of the safety and efficacy of acetylcysteine-isoproterenol combination. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1970;12(8):485-492. View abstract.
  • Rahman, I. and Adcock, I. M. Oxidative stress and redox regulation of lung inflammation in COPD. Eur.Respir.J 2006;28(1):219-242. View abstract.
  • Rahman, I. Antioxidant therapies in COPD. Int.J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis. 2006;1(1):15-29. View abstract.
  • Rasmussen, J. B. and Glennow, C. Reduction in days of illness after long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine controlled-release tablets in patients with chronic bronchitis. Eur.Respir.J 1988;1(4):351-355. View abstract.
  • Ratjen, F., Wonne, R., Posselt, H. G., Stover, B., Hofmann, D., and Bender, S. W. A double-blind placebo controlled trial with oral ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine for mucolytic treatment in cystic fibrosis. Eur.J Pediatr 1985;144(4):374-378. View abstract.
  • Rattan, A. K. and Arad, Y. Temporal and kinetic determinants of the inhibition of LDL oxidation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Atherosclerosis 1998;138(2):319-327. View abstract.
  • Ravez, P., Delwarte, J., Lebert, P., and et al. Short treatment of respiratory disorders with an oral mucolytic agent. Double-blind study with acetycysteine vs. placebo. Eur J Respir.Dis 1980;61(Suppl 111):76.
  • REAS, H. W. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of tracheobronchial secretions in cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. J Pediatr 1963;62:31-35. View abstract.
  • REAS, H. W. THE USE OF N-ACETYLCYSTEINE IN THE TREATMENT OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS. J Pediatr 1964;65:542-557. View abstract.
  • Recio-Mayoral, A., Chaparro, M., Prado, B., Cozar, R., Mendez, I., Banerjee, D., Kaski, J. C., Cubero, J., and Cruz, J. M. The reno-protective effect of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine in patients undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention: the RENO Study. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 3-27-2007;49(12):1283-1288. View abstract.
  • Redondo, P., Bandres, E., Solano, T., Okroujnov, I., and Garcia-Foncillas, J. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and melanoma. N-acetylcysteine downregulates VEGF production in vitro. Cytokine 2000;12(4):374-378. View abstract.
  • Reid, M. B. Free radicals and muscle fatigue: Of ROS, canaries, and the IOC. Free Radic.Biol Med 1-15-2008;44(2):169-179. View abstract.
  • Reid, M. B., Stokic, D. S., Koch, S. M., Khawli, F. A., and Leis, A. A. N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J Clin Invest 1994;94(6):2468-2474. View abstract.
  • Remington, R., Chan, A., Paskavitz, J., and Shea, T. B. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for moderate-stage to later-stage Alzheimer's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot study. Am.J Alzheimers.Dis Other Demen. 2009;24(1):27-33. View abstract.
  • Renke, M., Tylicki, L., Rutkowski, P., Larczynski, W., Aleksandrowicz, E., Lysiak-Szydlowska, W., and Rutkowski, B. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on proteinuria and markers of tubular injury in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. A placebo-controlled, randomized, open, cross-over study. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31(6):404-410. View abstract.
  • Reynard, K., Riley, A., and Walker, B. E. Respiratory arrest after N-acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdose. Lancet 9-12-1992;340(8820):675. View abstract.
  • Riise, G. C., Larsson, S., Larsson, P., Jeansson, S., and Andersson, B. A. The intrabronchial microbial flora in chronic bronchitis patients: a target for N-acetylcysteine therapy? Eur.Respir.J 1994;7(1):94-101. View abstract.
  • Ristikankare, A., Kuitunen, T., Kuitunen, A., Uotila, L., Vento, A., Suojaranta-Ylinen, R., Salmenpera, M., and Poyhia, R. Lack of renoprotective effect of i.v. N-acetylcysteine in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97(5):611-616. View abstract.
  • Rivabene, R., Viora, M., Matarrese, P., Rainaldi, G., D'Ambrosio, A., and Malorni, W. N-acetyl-cysteine enhances cell adhesion properties of epithelial and lymphoid cells. Cell Biol.Int. 1995;19(8):681-686. View abstract.
  • Rizk, A. Y., Bedaiwy, M. A., and Al Inany, H. G. N-acetyl-cysteine is a novel adjuvant to clomiphene citrate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil.Steril. 2005;83(2):367-370. View abstract.
  • Roberts, R. L., Aroda, V. R., and Ank, B. J. N-acetylcysteine enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in neutrophils and mononuclear cells from healthy adults and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect.Dis. 1995;172(6):1492-1502. View abstract.
  • Rodenstein, D., DeCoster, A., and Gazzaniga, A. Pharmacokinetics of oral acetylcysteine: absorption, binding and metabolism in patients with respiratory disorders. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1978;3(3):247-254. View abstract.
  • Rodrigues, A. J., Evora, P. R., Bassetto, S., Alves, L., Jr., Scorzoni, Filho A., Origuela, E. A., and Vicente, W. V. Blood cardioplegia with N-acetylcysteine may reduce coronary endothelial activation and myocardial oxidative stress. Heart Surg Forum 2009;12(1):E44-E48. View abstract.
  • Roederer, M., Staal, F. J., Raju, P. A., Ela, S. W., Herzenberg, L. A., and Herzenberg, L. A. Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replication is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Proc Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 1990;87(12):4884-4888. View abstract.
  • Roes, E. M., Raijmakers, M. T., Boo, T. M., Zusterzeel, P. L., Merkus, H. M., Peters, W. H., and Steegers, E. A. Oral N-acetylcysteine administration does not stabilise the process of established severe preeclampsia. Eur.J Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol 2006;127(1):61-67. View abstract.
  • Rogers, D. F. and Jeffery, P. K. Inhibition by oral N-acetylcysteine of cigarette smoke-induced "bronchitis" in the rat. Exp.Lung Res 1986;10(3):267-283. View abstract.
  • Rogers, D. F., Godfrey, R. W., Majumdar, S., and Jeffery, P. K. Oral N-acetylcysteine speeds reversal of cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia in the rat. Exp.Lung Res 1988;14(1):19-35. View abstract.
  • Romano, C., Gargani, G. F., Minicucci, L., and Nantron, M. [Controlled clinical study on the activity of a new mucoregulating drug in obstructive bronchial pathology with a marked hypersecretory feature. The pediatric experience]. Minerva Pediatr 2-15-1984;36(3):127-138. View abstract.
  • Rosner, M. H. and Okusa, M. D. Acute kidney injury associated with cardiac surgery. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(1):19-32. View abstract.
  • Rumack, B. H., Peterson, R. C., Koch, G. G., and Amara, I. A. Acetaminophen overdose. 662 cases with evaluation of oral acetylcysteine treatment. Arch Intern Med 2-23-1981;141(3 Spec No):380-385. View abstract.
  • Rumiris, D., Purwosunu, Y., Wibowo, N., Farina, A., and Sekizawa, A. Lower rate of preeclampsia after antioxidant supplementation in pregnant women with low antioxidant status. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2006;25(3):241-253. View abstract.
  • Sadowska, A. M., Keenoy, B., Vertongen, T., Schippers, G., Radomska-Lesniewska, D., Heytens, E., and De Backer, W. A. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on neutrophil activation markers in healthy volunteers: in vivo and in vitro study. Pharmacol Res 2006;53(3):216-225. View abstract.
  • Safarinejad, M. R. and Safarinejad, S. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2009;181(2):741-751. View abstract.
  • Salahudeen, A., Poovala, V., Parry, W., Pande, R., Kanji, V., Ansari, N., Morrow, J., and Roberts, J. Cisplatin induces N-acetyl cysteine suppressible F2-isoprostane production and injury in renal tubular epithelial cells. J.Am.Soc.Nephrol. 1998;9(8):1448-1455. View abstract.
  • Salom, M. G., Ramirez, P., Carbonell, L. F., Lopez, Conesa E., Cartagena, J., Quesada, T., Parrilla, P., and Fenoy, F. J. Protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the renal failure induced by inferior vena cava occlusion. Transplantation 5-27-1998;65(10):1315-1321. View abstract.
  • Sanders, K. M., Kotowicz, M. A., and Nicholson, G. C. Potential role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in slowing bone resorption in early post-menopausal women: a pilot study. Transl.Res 2007;150(4):215. View abstract.
  • Sandhu, C., Belli, A. M., and Oliveira, D. B. The role of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. Cardiovasc.Intervent.Radiol. 2006;29(3):344-347. View abstract.
  • Sandhu, C., Belli, A. M., and Oliveira, D. B. The role of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. Cardiovasc.Intervent.Radiol. 2006;29(3):344-347. View abstract.
  • Sandilands, E. A. and Bateman, D. N. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine. Clin Toxicol.(Phila) 2009;47(2):81-88. View abstract.
  • Santiago, F. M., Bueno, P., Olmedo, C., Muffak-Granero, K., Comino, A., Serradilla, M., Mansilla, A., Villar, J. M., Garrote, D., and Ferron, J. A. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on intraoperative plasma levels of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 in liver transplant recipients. Transplant.Proc 2008;40(9):2978-2980. View abstract.
  • Saricaoglu, F., Dal, D., Salman, A. E., Atay, O. A., Doral, M. N., Salman, M. A., Kilinc, K., and Aypar, U. Effect of low-dose N-acetyl-cysteine infusion on tourniquet-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury in arthroscopic knee surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand 2005;49(6):847-851. View abstract.
  • Schultz, M. J., Baas, M. C., van der Sluijs, H. P., Stamkot, G. A., and Smit, W. N-acetylcysteine and other preventive measures for contrast-induced nephropathy in the intensive care unit. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(21):2565-2570. View abstract.
  • Shahin, A. Y., Hassanin, I. M., Ismail, A. M., Kruessel, J. S., and Hirchenhain, J. Effect of oral N-acetyl cysteine on recurrent preterm labor following treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2009;104(1):44-48. View abstract.
  • Shaikh, Z. A., Vu, T. T., and Zaman, K. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of chronic cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity and protection by antioxidants. Toxicol.Appl Pharmacol 2-1-1999;154(3):256-263. View abstract.
  • Sheffner, A. L., Medler, E. M., JACOBS, L. W., and Sarett, H. P. THE IN VITRO REDUCTION IN VISCOSITY OF HUMAN TRACHEOBRONCHIAL SECRETIONS BY ACETYLCYSTEINE. Am Rev.Respir.Dis. 1964;90:721-729. View abstract.
  • Sheikh-Hamad, D., Timmins, K., and Jalali, Z. Cisplatin-induced renal toxicity: possible reversal by N-acetylcysteine treatment. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8(10):1640-1644. View abstract.
  • Shohrati, M., Aslani, J., Eshraghi, M., Alaedini, F., and Ghanei, M. Therapeutics effect of N-acetyl cysteine on mustard gas exposed patients: evaluating clinical aspect in patients with impaired pulmonary function test. Respir.Med 2008;102(3):443-448. View abstract.
  • Siriwardena, A. K., Mason, J. M., Balachandra, S., Bagul, A., Galloway, S., Formela, L., Hardman, J. G., and Jamdar, S. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of intravenous antioxidant (n-acetylcysteine, selenium, vitamin C) therapy in severe acute pancreatitis. Gut 2007;56(10):1439-1444. View abstract.
  • Sisillo, E., Ceriani, R., Bortone, F., Juliano, G., Salvi, L., Veglia, F., Fiorentini, C., and Marenzi, G. N-acetylcysteine for prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med 2008;36(1):81-86. View abstract.
  • Sjodin, K., Nilsson, E., Hallberg, A., and Tunek, A. Metabolism of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Some structural requirements for the deacetylation and consequences for the oral bioavailability. Biochem.Pharmacol 11-15-1989;38(22):3981-3985. View abstract.
  • Slavik, M. and Saiers, J. H. Phase I clinical study of acetylcysteine's preventing ifosfamide-induced hematuria. Semin.Oncol 1983;10(1 Suppl 1):62-65. View abstract.
  • Smilkstein, M. J., Bronstein, A. C., Linden, C., Augenstein, W. L., Kulig, K. W., and Rumack, B. H. Acetaminophen overdose: a 48-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine treatment protocol. Ann Emerg.Med 1991;20(10):1058-1063. View abstract.
  • Smilkstein, M. J., Knapp, G. L., Kulig, K. W., and Rumack, B. H. Efficacy of oral N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of acetaminophen overdose. Analysis of the national multicenter study (1976 to 1985). N.Engl.J Med 12-15-1988;319(24):1557-1562. View abstract.
  • Sochman, J., Vrbska, J., Musilova, B., and Rocek, M. Infarct Size Limitation: acute N-acetylcysteine defense (ISLAND trial): preliminary analysis and report after the first 30 patients. Clin Cardiol. 1996;19(2):94-100. View abstract.
  • Soghier, L. M. and Brion, L. P. Cysteine, cystine or N-acetylcysteine supplementation in parenterally fed neonates. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(4):CD004869. View abstract.
  • Soltan-Sharifi, M. S., Mojtahedzadeh, M., Najafi, A., Reza, Khajavi M., Reza, Rouini M., Moradi, M., Mohammadirad, A., and Abdollahi, M. Improvement by N-acetylcysteine of acute respiratory distress syndrome through increasing intracellular glutathione, and extracellular thiol molecules and anti-oxidant power: evidence for underlying toxicological mechanisms. Hum Exp.Toxicol. 2007;26(9):697-703. View abstract.
  • Spapen, H., Zhang, H., Demanet, C., Vleminckx, W., Vincent, J. L., and Huyghens, L. Does N-acetyl-L-cysteine influence cytokine response during early human septic shock? Chest 1998;113(6):1616-1624. View abstract.
  • Matsubara S, Imai K, Murayama K, Higashizawa T. Severe liver dysfunction during nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: folic acid supplement as a suggested culprit. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32(7):701-2. View abstract.
  • Matsui MS, Rozovski SJ. Drug-nutrient interaction. Clin Ther 1982;4:423-40. View abstract.
  • Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:517-27. View abstract.
  • Mayer O, Simon J, Rosolova H, et al. The effects of folate supplementation on some coagulation parameter and oxidative status surrogates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58:1-5.. View abstract.
  • McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, et al. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. J Nutr 2000;130:3090-6.. View abstract.
  • McKeown-Eyssen G, Holloway C, Jazmaji V, et al. A randomized trial of vitamins C and E in the prevention of recurrence of colorectal polyps. Cancer Res 1988;48:4701-5. View abstract.
  • McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2764-72. View abstract.
  • Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, Sandstead HH. Effect of oral folic acid supplements on zinc, copper, and iron absorption and excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:535-9. View abstract.
  • Montes LF, Diaz ML, Lajous J, et al. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo: a nutritional approach. Cutis 1992;50:39-42. View abstract.
  • Moodley J and Norman RJ. Attempts at dietary alteration of prostaglandin pathways in the management of pre-eclampsia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;37(3):145-147. View abstract.
  • Mooij PN, Thomas CM, Doesburg WH, Eskes TK. Multivitamin supplementation in oral contraceptive users. Contraception 1991;44:277-88. View abstract.
  • Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Lee JY, Alarcón GS. Folic acid supplementation prevents deficient blood folate levels and hyperhomocysteinemia during longterm, low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovascular disease prevention. J Rheumatol 1998;25:441-6. View abstract.
  • Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Vaughn WH, et al. Supplementation with folic acid during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:833-41. View abstract.
  • Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Vaughn WH, et al. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the toxicity of low-dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:9-18. View abstract.
  • Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:940-6. View abstract.
  • Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol 2005;62:641-5. View abstract.
  • Morris MS, Fava M, Jacques PF, et al. Depression and folate status in the US Population. Psychother Psychosom 2003;72:80-7.. View abstract.
  • Morrow LE, Grimsley EW. Long-term diuretic therapy in hypertensive patients: effects on serum homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and red blood cell folate concentrations. South Med J 1999;92:866-70. View abstract.
  • Muggia FM, Synold TW, Newman EM, et al. Failure of pretreatment with intravenous folic acid to alter the cumulative hematologic toxicity of lometrexol. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1495-6. View abstract.
  • Murua AL, Quintana I, Janson J, et al. Plasmatic homocysteine response to vitamin supplementation in elderly people. Thromb Res 2000;100:495-500.. View abstract.
  • Naderer O, Nafziger AN, Bertino JS. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:2466-70. View abstract.
  • Nallamothu BK, Fendrick M, Rubenfire M, et al. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3406-12.. View abstract.
  • Nardini M, De Stefano R, Iannuccelli M, et al. Treatment of depression with L-5-hydroxytryptophan combined with chlorimipramine, a double-blind study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1983;3:239-50. View abstract.
  • Navarro-Peran E, Cabezas-Herrera J, Garcia-Canovas F, et al. The antifolate activity of tea catechins. Cancer Res 2005;65:2059-64. View abstract.
  • Negrao L, Almeida P, Alcino S, et al. Effect of the combination of uridine nucleotides, folic acid and vitamin B12 on the clinical expression of peripheral neuropathies. Pain Manag 2014;4(3):191-6. View abstract.
  • Nelen WL, Blom HJ, Steegers EA, et al. Homocysteine and folate levels as risk factors for recurrent early pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:519-24. View abstract.
  • Nunn PP, Allistone JC. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Implication of folinic acid. Chest 1984;86:149-50. View abstract.
  • O'Keefe SJ, Ogden J, Dicker J. Enteral and parenteral branched chain amino acid-supplemented nutritional support in patients with encephalopathy due to alcoholic liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987;11:447-53. View abstract.
  • Oakley GP, Mandel JS. Folic acid fortification remains an urgent health priority. Br Med J 2004;329:1376. View abstract.
  • Ogunmekan AO, Hwang PA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), as add-on therapy, for epilepsy in children. Epilepsia 1989;30:84-9. View abstract.
  • Olsen SF, Sorensen JD, Secher NJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet 1992;339:1003-7. View abstract.
  • Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food on a request from the Commission related to calcium L-methylfolate. EFSA J 2004;135:1-20. Available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/135.pdf. (Accessed 18 March 10).
  • Ortega RM, Manas LR, Andres P, et al. Functional and psychic deterioration in elderly people may be aggravated by folate deficiency. J Nutr 1996;126:1992-9. View abstract.
  • Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez Almazor M, et al. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000951. View abstract.
  • Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, et al. The efficacy of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing methotrexate gastrointestinal toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis. A metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol 1998;25:36-43. View abstract.
  • Pack AR, Thomson ME. Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 1980;7:402-14. View abstract.
  • Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Abate G, et al. Oral 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in senile organic mental disorders with depression: results of a double-blind multicenter study. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:63-71.. View abstract.
  • Pelliniemi TT, Kasanen A, Sundquist H. Lack of haematological side effects during prophylactic use of trimethoprim over four years. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:436-40.
  • Peña-Rosas J. P., Viteri, F. E. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(4):CD004736. View abstract.
  • Prasad AS, Lei KY, Moghissi KS, et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on nutrients. III. Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125:1063-9. View abstract.
  • PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15(12);151206.
  • Prouse PJ, Shawe D, Gumpel JM. Macrocytic anemia in patients treated with sulfasalazine for rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1986;293:1407. View abstract.
  • Pullin CH, Ashfield-Watt PA, Burr ML, et al. Optimization of dietary folate or low-dose folic acid supplements lower homocysteine but do not enhance endothelial function in healthy adults, irrespective of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) genotype. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1799-805.. View abstract.
  • Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V, Dhole S. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 1996;22:425-30. View abstract.
  • Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X. Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cancer. 2013 1;133(5):1033-41. View abstract.
  • Qin X, Fan F, Cui Y, Chen F, Chen Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Wang B, Xu X, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X. Folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B6 and revascularization risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(4):603-12. View abstract.
  • Qin X, Huo Y, Xie D, Hou F, Xu X, Wang X. Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid is effective in cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(5):722-7. View abstract.
  • Qin X, Li J, Spence JD, et al. Folic acid therapy reduces the first stroke risk associated with hypercholesterolemia among hypertensive patients. Stroke. 2016;47(11):2805-2812. View abstract.
  • Rasmussen LB, Ovesen L, Bulow I, et al. Folate intake, lifestyle factors, and homocysteine concentrations in younger and older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1156-63.. View abstract.
  • Reynolds EH, Trimble MR. Adverse neuropsychiatric effects of anticonvulsant drugs. Drugs 1985;29:570-81. View abstract.
  • Reynolds EH. Folate metabolism and anticonvulsant therapy. Proc R Soc Med 1974;67:68. View abstract.
  • Reynolds EH. Neurological aspects of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Clin Haematol 1976;5:661-96. View abstract.
  • Riddell LJ, Chisholm A, Williams S, Mann JI. Dietary strategies for lowering homocysteine concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1448-54. View abstract.
  • Riley LE, Stark AR, Kilpatrick SJ, et al. Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 7th ed. Washington, DC: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2012.
  • Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 1998;279:359-64. View abstract.
  • Roffman JL, Lamberti JS, Achtyes E, et al. Randomized multicenter investigation of folate plus vitamin B12 supplementation in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(5):481-9. View abstract.
  • Roncucci L, Di Donato P, Carati L, et al. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose for the prevention of the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Univ of Modena and the Health Care Dist 16. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:227-34. View abstract.
  • Ronsmans C., Fisher D. J., Osmond C., Margetts B. M., Fall C. H. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality. Food Nutr Bull 2009;30(4 Suppl):S547-S555. View abstract.
  • Rosenblatt DS, Duschenes EA, Hellstrom FV, et al. Folic acid blinded trial in identical twins with fragile X syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 1985;37:543-52. View abstract.
  • Roswall N, Olsen A, Christensen J, et al. Micronutrient intake and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a Danish cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34(1):40-6. View abstract.
  • Ruscica M, Gomaraschi M, Mombelli G, Macchi C, Bosisio R, Pazzucconi F, Pavanello C, Calabresi L, Arnoldi A, Sirtori CR, Magni P. Nutraceutical approach to moderate cardiometabolic risk: results of a randomized, double-blind and crossover study with Armolipid Plus. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8(1):61-8. View abstract.
  • Russell RM, Dutta SK, Oaks EV, et al. Impairment of folic acid absorption by oral pancreatic extracts. Dig Dis Sci 1980;25:369-73. View abstract.
  • Russell RM, Golner BB, Krasinski SD, et al. Effect of antacid and H2 receptor antagonists on the intestinal absorption of folic acid. J Lab Clin Med 1988;112:458-63. View abstract.
  • Russell RM, Krasinski SD, Samloff IM, et al. Folic acid malabsorption in atrophic gastritis: possible compensation by bacterial folate synthesis. Gastroenterology 1986;91:1476-82. View abstract.
  • Saccone G, Berghella V. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;199:76-81. View abstract.
  • Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis 1994;170:912-7. View abstract.
  • Sandoval M, Charbonnet RM, Okuhama NN, et al. Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 2000;29:71-78. View abstract.
  • Schernhammer ES, Ogino S, Fuchs CS. Folate and vitamin B6 intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to p53 expression. Gastroenterology. 2008;135(3):770-80. View abstract
  • Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Swiss Heart Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:973-9. View abstract.
  • Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary stenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract.
  • Schroder H, Clausen N, Ostergard E, Pressler T. Folic acid supplements in vitamin tablets: a determinant of hematological drug tolerance in maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ped Hematol Oncol 1986;3:241-7. View abstract.
  • Seal EC, Metz J, Flicker L, Melny J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral vitamin B12 supplementation in older patients with subnormal or borderline serum vitamin B12 concentrations. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:146-51. View abstract.
  • Cho, K. J., Yun, C. H., Yoon, D. Y., Cho, Y. S., Rimbach, G., Packer, L., and Chung, A. S. Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7. Toxicol Appl.Pharmacol 10-1-2000;168(1):64-71. View abstract.
  • Chovanova, Z., Muchova, J., Sivonova, M., Dvorakova, M., Zitnanova, I., Waczulikova, I., Trebaticka, J., Skodacek, I., and Durackova, Z. Effect of polyphenolic extract, Pycnogenol, on the level of 8-oxoguanine in children suffering from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(9):1003-1010. View abstract.
  • Cisar, P., Jany, R., Waczulikova, I., Sumegova, K., Muchova, J., Vojtassak, J., Durackova, Z., Lisy, M., and Rohdewald, P. Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(8):1087-1092. View abstract.
  • Clark, C. E., Arnold, E., Lasserson, T. J., and Wu, T. Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim.Care Respir.J 2010;19(4):307-314. View abstract.
  • Dene, B. A., Maritim, A. C., Sanders, R. A., and Watkins, J. B., III. Effects of antioxidant treatment on normal and diabetic rat retinal enzyme activities. J Ocul.Pharmacol Ther 2005;21(1):28-35. View abstract.
  • Devaraj, S., Vega-Lopez, S., Kaul, N., Schonlau, F., Rohdewald, P., and Jialal, I. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 2002;37(10):931-934. View abstract.
  • Drieling, R. L., Gardner, C. D., Ma, J., Ahn, D. K., and Stafford, R. S. No beneficial effects of pine bark extract on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Arch.Intern.Med. 9-27-2010;170(17):1541-1547. View abstract.
  • Durackova, B. Trebatický V. Novotný I. Žit®anová J. Breza. Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by Pycnogenol®, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction - a pilot study. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1189-1198.
  • Durackova, Z., Trebaticky, B., Novotny, V., Zitnanova, A., and Breza, J. Lipid metabolism and erectile dysfunction improvement by Pycnogenol(R), extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction -- a pilot study. Nutr.Res. 2003;23:1189-1198.
  • Dvorakova, M., Jezova, D., Blazicek, P., Trebaticka, J., Skodacek, I., Suba, J., Iveta, W., Rohdewald, P., and Durackova, Z. Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). Nutr.Neurosci. 2007;10(3-4):151-157. View abstract.
  • Dvorakova, M., Paduchova, Z., Muchova, J., Durackova, Z., and Collins, A. R. How does pycnogenol(R) influence oxidative damage to DNA and its repair ability in elderly people? Prague.Med.Rep. 2010;111(4):263-271. View abstract.
  • Dvorakova, M., Sivonova, M., Trebaticka, J., Skodacek, I., Waczulikova, I., Muchova, J., and Durackova, Z. The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Redox.Rep. 2006;11(4):163-172. View abstract.
  • Enseleit, F., Sudano, I., Periat, D., Winnik, S., Wolfrum, M., Flammer, A. J., Frohlich, G. M., Kaiser, P., Hirt, A., Haile, S. R., Krasniqi, N., Matter, C. M., Uhlenhut, K., Hogger, P., Neidhart, M., Luscher, T. F., Ruschitzka, F., and Noll, G. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur.Heart J. 2012;33(13):1589-1597. View abstract.
  • Errichi, B. M., Belcaro, G., Hosoi, M., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Feragalli, B., Bavera, P., Hosoi, M., Zulli, C., Corsi, M., Ledda, A., Luzzi, R., and Ricci, A. Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol(R) in a twelve month study. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):21-27. View abstract.
  • Errichi, S., Bottari, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Hosoi, M., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., Ledda, A., and Feragalli, B. Supplementation with Pycnogenol(R) improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):65-70. View abstract.
  • Furumura, M., Sato, N., Kusaba, N., Takagaki, K., and Nakayama, J. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol((R))) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin. Clin.Interv.Aging 2012;7:275-286. View abstract.
  • Grimm, T., Chovanova, Z., Muchova, J., Sumegova, K., Liptakova, A., Durackova, Z., and Hogger, P. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). J Inflamm.(Lond) 2006;3:1. View abstract.
  • Grimm, T., Skrabala, R., Chovanova, Z., Muchova, J., Sumegova, K., Liptakova, A., Durackova, Z., and Hogger, P. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers. BMC.Clin Pharmacol 2006;6:4. View abstract.
  • Grossi, M. G., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Hosoi, M., Cacchio, M., Ippolito, E., and Bavera, P. Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol(R) in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):63-67. View abstract.
  • Hasegawa, N. Stimulation of lipolysis by pycnogenol. Phytother Res 1999;13(7):619-620. View abstract.
  • Henrotin, Y., Lambert, C., Couchourel, D., Ripoll, C., and Chiotelli, E. Nutraceuticals: do they represent a new era in the management of osteoarthritis? - a narrative review from the lessons taken with five products. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2011;19(1):1-21. View abstract.
  • Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S Sadrzadeh SMH Farid F Farid R Watson RR. Pycnogenol in the management of asthma. J Medicinal Food 2001;4(4):201-209.
  • Hosseini, S., Lee, J., Sepulveda, R. T., Fagan, T., Rohdewald, P., and Watson, R. R. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, prospective 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol(R) in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr.Res. 2001;21(9):67-76.
  • Hosseini, S., Pishnamazi, S., Sadrzadeh, S. M., Farid, F., Farid, R., and Watson, R. R. Pycnogenol((R)) in the Management of Asthma. J Med Food 2001;4(4):201-209. View abstract.
  • Huang, W. W., Yang, J. S., Lin, C. F., Ho, W. J., and Lee, M. R. Pycnogenol induces differentiation and apoptosis in human promyeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. Leuk.Res 2005;29(6):685-692. View abstract.
  • Huynh, H. T. and Teel, R. W. Effects of intragastrically administered Pycnogenol on NNK metabolism in F344 rats. Anticancer Res 1999;19(3A):2095-2099. View abstract.
  • Huynh, H. T. and Teel, R. W. Effects of pycnogenol on the microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK as a function of age. Cancer Lett 10-23-1998;132(1-2):135-139. View abstract.
  • Huynh, H. T. and Teel, R. W. Selective induction of apoptosis in human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) by pycnogenol. Anticancer Res 2000;20(4):2417-2420. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. C. and Healey, J. M. Effects of pine bark extract administered to immunosuppressed adult mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Am J Chin Med 2001;29(3-4):469-475. View abstract.
  • Kim, Y. G. and Park, H. Y. The effects of Pycnogenol on DNA damage in vitro and expression of superoxide dismutase and HP1 in Escherichia coli SOD and catalase deficient mutant cells. Phytother.Res 2004;18(11):900-905. View abstract.
  • Kimbrough, C., Chun, M., dela, Roca G., and Lau, B. H. PYCNOGENOL chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation. Phytomedicine 2002;9(5):410-413. View abstract.
  • Kobayashi, M. S., Han, D., and Packer, L. Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Free Radic.Res 2000;32(2):115-124. View abstract.
  • Kohama T, Negami M. Effect of Low-dose French Maritime Pine Bark Extract on Climacteric Syndrome in 170 Perimenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. J Reproductive Med 2013;58(1):39-47.
  • Ledda, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., and Schonlau, F. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU.Int. 2010;106(7):1030-1033. View abstract.
  • Liu, X., Wei, J., Tan, F., Zhou, S., Wurthwein, G., and Rohdewald, P. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci 1-2-2004;74(7):855-862. View abstract.
  • Luzzi, R., Belcaro, G., Zulli, C., Cesarone, M. R., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., Hosoi, M., and Feragalli, B. Pycnogenol(R) supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):75-82. View abstract.
  • Mach, J., Midgley, A. W., Dank, S., Grant, R. S., and Bentley, D. J. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on fatigue during exercise: potential role for NAD+(H). Nutrients. 2010;2(3):319-329. View abstract.
  • Macrides, T. A., Shihata, A., Kalafatis, N., and Wright, P. F. A comparison of the hydroxyl radical scavenging properties of the shark bile steroid 5 beta-scymnol and plant pycnogenols. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997;42(6):1249-1260. View abstract.
  • Marini, A., Grether-Beck, S., Jaenicke, T., Weber, M., Burki, C., Formann, P., Brenden, H., Schonlau, F., and Krutmann, J. Pycnogenol(R) effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin Pharmacol.Physiol 2012;25(2):86-92. View abstract.
  • Maritim, A., Dene, B. A., Sanders, R. A., and Watkins, J. B., III. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2003;17(3):193-199. View abstract.
  • Mochizuki, M. and Hasegawa, N. Pycnogenol stimulates lipolysis in 3t3-L1 cells via stimulation of beta-receptor mediated activity. Phytother Res 2004;18(12):1029-1030. View abstract.
  • Mochizuki, M. and Hasegawa, N. Therapeutic efficacy of pycnogenol in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases. Phytother Res 2004;18(12):1027-1028. View abstract.
  • Moini, H., Arroyo, A., Vaya, J., and Packer, L. Bioflavonoid effects on the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain and cytochrome c redox state. Redox.Rep 1999;4(1-2):35-41. View abstract.
  • Nelson, A. B., Lau, B. H., Ide, N., and Rong, Y. Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation, and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Drug Dev.Ind Pharm 1998;24(2):139-144. View abstract.
  • Ni, Z., Mu, Y., and Gulati, O. Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother.Res. 2002;16(6):567-571. View abstract.
  • Nikolova, V., Stanislavov, R., Vatev, I., Nalbanski, B., and Punevska, M. [Sperm parameters in male idiopathic infertility after treatment with prelox]. Akush.Ginekol.(Sofiia) 2007;46(5):7-12. View abstract.
  • Noda, Y., Anzai, K., Mori, A., Kohno, M., Shinmei, M., and Packer, L. Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of natural source antioxidants using the computerized JES-FR30 ESR spectrometer system. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997;42(1):35-44. View abstract.
  • Ohkita, M., Kiso, Y., and Matsumura, Y. Pharmacology in health foods: improvement of vascular endothelial function by French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol). J.Pharmacol.Sci. 2011;115(4):461-465. View abstract.
  • Packer, L., Rimbach, G., and Virgili, F. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic.Biol Med 1999;27(5-6):704-724. View abstract.
  • Pavone, C., Abbadessa, D., Tarantino, M. L., Oxenius, I., Lagana, A., Lupo, A., and Rinella, M. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients]. Urologia. 2010;77(1):43-51. View abstract.
  • Peng, Q. L., Buz'Zard, A. R., and Lau, B. H. Pycnogenol protects neurons from amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 7-15-2002;104(1):55-65. View abstract.
  • Peng, Q., Wei, Z., and Lau, B. H. Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Cell Mol Life Sci 2000;57(5):834-841. View abstract.
  • Perera, N., Liolitsa, D., Iype, S., Croxford, A., Yassin, M., Lang, P., Ukaegbu, O., and van, Issum C. Phlebotonics for haemorrhoids. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;8:CD004322. View abstract.
  • Reuter, J., Wolfle, U., Korting, H. C., and Schempp, C. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications. J.Dtsch.Dermatol.Ges. 2010;8(11):866-873. View abstract.
  • Roseff SJ, Gulati R. Improvement of sperm quality by pycnogenol. Eur Bull Drug Res 1999;7:33-36.
  • Roseff, S. J. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. J Reprod Med 2002;47(10):821-824. View abstract.
  • Rucklidge, J. J., Johnstone, J., and Kaplan, B. J. Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. Expert.Rev.Neurother. 2009;9(4):461-476. View abstract.
  • Ryan, J., Croft, K., Mori, T., Wesnes, K., Spong, J., Downey, L., Kure, C., Lloyd, J., and Stough, C. An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(5):553-562. View abstract.
  • Schafer, A., Chovanova, Z., Muchova, J., Sumegova, K., Liptakova, A., Durackova, Z., and Hogger, P. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Biomed.Pharmacother. 2006;60(1):5-9. View abstract.
  • Schmidtke I, Schoop W. Pycnogenol: stasis oedema and its medical treatment. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitsMedizin 1995;3:114-115.
  • Schoonees, A., Visser, J., Musekiwa, A., and Volmink, J. Pycnogenol((R)) for the treatment of chronic disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD008294. View abstract.
  • Schoonees, A., Visser, J., Musekiwa, A., and Volmink, J. Pycnogenol(R) (extract of French maritime pine bark) for the treatment of chronic disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD008294. View abstract.
  • Anfossi G, Russo I, Massucco P, et al. N-acetyl-L-cysteine exerts direct anti-aggregating effect on human platelets. Eur J Clin Invest 2001;31:452-61.. View abstract.
  • Ardissino D, Merlini PA, Savonitto S, et al. Effect of transdermal nitroglycerin or N-acetylcysteine, or both, in the long-term treatment of unstable angina pectoris. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:941-7. View abstract.
  • Arstall MA, Yang J, Stafford I, et al. N-acetylcysteine in combination with nitroglycerin and streptokinase for the treatment of evolving acute myocardial infarction. Safety and biochemical effects. Circulation 1995;92:2855-62. View abstract.
  • Back SE, McCauley JL, Korte KJ, et al. A double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial of N-acetylcysteine in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Nov;77(11):e1439-1446. View abstract.
  • Bailey B, McGuigan MA. Management of anaphylactoid reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine. Ann Emerg Med 1998;31:710-5. View abstract.
  • Behr J, Maier K, Degenkolb B, et al. Antioxidative and clinical effects of high-dose N-acetylcysteine in fibrosing alveolitis. Adjunctive therapy to maintenance immunosuppression. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:1897-901. View abstract.
  • Berk M, Dean OM, Cotton SM, et al. Maintenance N-acetyl cysteine treatment for bipolar disorder: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. BMC Med 2012;10:91. View abstract.
  • Bloch MH, Panza KE, Grant JE, et al. N-Acetylcysteine in the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;52(3):231-40. View abstract.
  • Bloch MH, Panza KE, Yaffa A, et al. N-Acetylcysteine in the treatment of pediatric Tourette syndrome: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016 May;26(4):327-34. View abstract.
  • Bostom AG, Shemin D, Yoburn D, et al. Lack of effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on the acute dialysis-related lowering of total plasma homocysteine in hemodialysis patients. Atherosclerosis 1996;120:241-4. View abstract.
  • Brueck M, Cengiz H, Hoeltgen R, et al. Usefulness of N-acetylcysteine or ascorbic acid versus placebo to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization: a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Invasive Cardiol 2013;25(6):276-83. View abstract.
  • Chamberlain JM, Gorman RL, Oderda GM, Klein-Schwartz W, Klein BL. Use of activated charcoal in a simulated poisoning with acetaminophen: a new loading dose for N-acetylcysteine? Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(9):1398-402. View abstract.
  • Chyka PA, Butler AY, Holliman BJ, Herman MI. Utility of acetylcysteine in treating poisonings and adverse drug reactions. Drug Saf 2000;22:123-48. View abstract.
  • Costa DLC, Diniz JB, Requena G, et al. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine augmentation for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;78(7):e799-e773. View abstract.
  • Criner GJ, Bourbeau J, Diekemper RL, et al. Prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: American College of Chest Physicians and Canadian Thoracic Society Guideline. Chest. 2015 Apr;147(4):894-942. View abstract.
  • De Flora S, Grassi C, Carati L. Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment. Eur Respir J 1997;10:1535-41. View abstract.
  • De Rosa SC, Zaretsky MD, Dubs JG, et al. N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest 2000;30:915-29.
  • Dean OM, Bush AI, Copolov DL, et al. Effects of N-acetyl cysteine on cognitive function in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012;66(6):514-7. View abstract.
  • Dean OM, Gray KM, Villagonzalo KA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a fixed dose of N-acetylcysteine in children with autistic disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2017 Mar;51(3):241-49. View abstract.
  • Deharo E, Barkan D, Krugliak M, Golenser J, Ginsburg H. Potentiation of the antimalarial action of chloroquine in rodent malaria by drugs known to reduce cellular glutathione levels. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66(5):809-17. View abstract.
  • Dickey DT, Muldoon LL, Kraemer DF, Neuwelt EA. Protection against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by N-acetylcysteine in a rat model. Hear Res 2004;193:25-30. View abstract.
  • Doosti A, Lotfi Y, Moossavi A, Bakhshi E, Talasaz AH, Hoorzad A. Comparison of the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and ginseng in prevention of noise induced hearing loss in male textile workers. Noise Health 2014;16(71):223-7. View abstract.
  • Dresdale AR, Barr LH, Bonow RO, et al. Prospective randomized study of the role of N-acetyl cysteine in reversing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Am J Clin Oncol 1982;5:657-63. View abstract.
  • Duan M, Qiu J, Laurell G, et al, Dose and time-dependent protection of the antioxidant N-L-acetycysteine against impulse noise trauma. Hear Res 2004;192:1-9. View abstract.
  • Dunning JR, Trella JD, Osterhoudt KC. A Novel Oral Formulation of N-Acetylcysteine. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Sep;32(9):652. View abstract.
  • Ekins BR, Ford DC, Thompson MI, et al. The effect of activated charcoal on N-acetylcysteine absorption in normal subjects. Am J Emerg Med. 1987;5(6):483-7. View abstract.
  • Estensen RD, Levy M, Klopp SJ, et al. N-acetylcysteine suppression of the proliferative index in the colon of patients with previous adenomatous colonic polyps. Cancer Lett 1999;147:109-14. View abstract.
  • Fowdar K, Chen H, He Z, et al. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Heart Lung. 2017 Mar-Apr;46(2):120-128. View abstract.
  • Ghanizadeh A, Moghimi-Sarani E. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disorders. BMC Psychiatry 2013;13:196. View abstract.
  • Ghio S, de Servi S, Perotti R, et al. Different susceptibility to the development of nitroglycerin tolerance in the arterial and venous circulation in humans- effects of N-acetylcysteine administration. Circulation 1992;86:798-802. View abstract.
  • Giacoppo D, Gargiulo G, Buccheri S, et al. Preventive strategies for contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures: evidence from a hierarchical Bayesian network meta-analysis of 124 trials and 28,240 patients. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 May;10(5). View abstract.
  • Gillissen A, Nowak D. Characterization of N-acetylcysteine and ambroxol in anti-oxidant therapy. Respir Med 1998;92:609-23. View abstract.
  • Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). GOLD 2017 global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2017 report. Accessed June 24, 2018.
  • Grandjean EM, Berthet P, Ruffmann R, Leuenberger P. Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther 2000;22:209-21. View abstract.
  • Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66:756-63. View abstract.
  • Gu WJ, Wu ZJ, Wang PF, et al. N-acetylcysteine supplementation for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012;12:10. View abstract.
  • Haase M, Haase-Fielitz A, Ratnaike S, et al. N-Acetylcysteine does not artifactually lower plasma creatinine concentration. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(5):1581-7. View abstract.
  • Hardan AY, Fung LK, Libove RA, et al. A randomized controlled pilot trial of oral N-acetylcysteine in children with autism. Biol Psychiatry 2012;71(11):956-61. View abstract.
  • Hogan JC, Lewis MJ, Henderson AH. Chronic administration of N-acetylcysteine fails to prevent nitrate tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1990;30:573-7. View abstract.
  • Hogan JC, Lewis MJ, Henderson AH. N-acetylcysteine fails to attenuate haemodynamic tolerance to glyceryl trinitrate in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989;28:421-6. View abstract.
  • Holoye PY, Duelge J, Hansen RM, et al. Prophylaxis of Ifosamide toxicity with oral acetylcysteine. Semin Oncol 1983;10:66-71. View abstract.
  • Holt S, Goodier D, Marley R, et al. Improvement in renal function in hepatorenal syndrome with N-acetylcysteine. Lancet 1999;353:294-5. View abstract.
  • Horowitz JD, Henry CA, Syrjanen ML, et al. Nitroglycerine/N-acetylcysteine in the management of unstable angina pectoris. Eur Heart J 1988;9:95-100. View abstract.
  • Horowitz RS, Dart RC, Jarvie DR, et al. Placental transfer of N-acetylcysteine following human maternal acetaminophen toxicity. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35:447-51. View abstract.
  • Hurd RW, Wilder BJ, Helveston WR, et al. Treatment of four siblings with progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type with N-acetylcysteine. Neurology 1996;47:1264-8. View abstract.
  • Iversen HK. N-acetylcysteine enhances nitroglycerin-induced headache and cranial arterial responses. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992;52:125-33. View abstract.
  • Jenkins DD, Wiest DB, Mulvihill DM, et al. Fetal and neonatal effects of N-acetylcysteine when used for neuroprotection in maternal chorioamnionitis. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan;168:67-76.e6. View abstract.
  • Jepsen S, Hansen AB. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1994;54:543-7. View abstract.
  • Johnson K, McEvoy CE, Naqvi S, et al. High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine fails to improve respiratory health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 Apr 21;11:799-807. View abstract.
  • Kelly GS. Clinical applications of N-acetylcysteine. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:114-27. View abstract.
  • Kopke RD, Jackson RL, Coleman JKM, et al. NAC for noise: From the bench top to the clinic. Hear Res 2007;226:114-25. View abstract.
  • Kopke RD, Weisskopf PA, Boone JL, et al. Reduction of noise-induced hearing loss using L-NAC and salicylate in the chinchilla. Hear Res 2000;149:138-146. View abstract.
  • Kranzer K, Elamin WF, Cox H, Seddon JA, Ford N, Drobniewski F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in preventing aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity: implications for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. Thorax. 2015 Nov;70(11):1070-7. View abstract.
  • Kroon AA, Demacker PN, Stalenhoef AF. N-acetylcysteine and serum concentrations of lipoprotein(a). J Intern Med 1991;230:519-26. View abstract.
  • Lai ZW, Hanczko R, Bonilla E, et al. N-acetylcysteine reduces disease activity by blocking mammalian target rapamycin in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2012;64(9):2937-46. View abstract.
  • Loehrer PJ Sr, Birch R, Kramer BS, et al. Ifosfamide plus N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of small cell and non-small cell carcinoma of the lung: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group Trial. Cancer Treat Rep 1986;70:919-20.
  • Loehrer PJ, Williams SD, Einhorn LH. N-acetylcysteine and ifosfamide in the treatment of unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and refractory testicular cancer. Semin Oncol 1983;10:72-5.
  • Lorito G, Giordano P, Prosser S, et al. Noise-induced hearing loss: a study on the pharmacological protection in the Sprague Dawley rat with N-acetyl-cysteine. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2006;26:133-9. View abstract.
  • Loscalzo J. N-Acetylcysteine potentiates inhibition of platelet aggregation by nitroglycerin. J Clin Invest. 1985;76(2):703-8. View abstract.
  • Louwerse ES, Weverling GJ, Bossuyt PM, et al. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of acetylcysteine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1995;52:559-64. View abstract.
  • Magalhaes PV, Dean OM, Bush AI, et al. N-acetyl cysteine add-on treatment for bipolar II disorder: a subgroup analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Affect Disord 2011;129(1-3):317-20. View abstract.
  • Marchetti G, Lodola E, Licciardello L, Colombo A. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the management of coronary artery diseases. Cardiologia 1999;44:633-7. View abstract.
  • Michailidis Y, Karagounis LG, Terzis G, et al. Thiol-based antioxidant supplementation alters human skeletal muscle signaling and attenuates its inflammatory response and recovery after intense eccentric exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98(1):233-45. View abstract.
  • Molnar Z, Shearer E, Lowe D. N-Acetylcysteine treatment to prevent the progression of multisystem organ failure: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1100-4. View abstract.
  • Morgan LR, Donley PJ, Harrison EF, Hunter HL. The control of ifosfamide-induced hematuria with N-acetylcysteine in patients with advanced carcinoma of the lung. Semin Oncol 1982;9:71-4.
  • Morgan LR, Holdiness MR, Gillen LE. N-acetylcysteine: its bioavailability and interaction with ifosfamide metabolites. Semin Oncol 1983;10:56-61.
  • Morini M, Cai T, Aluigi MG, et al. The role of the thiol N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Int J Biol Markers 1999;14:268-71. View abstract.
  • Munshi NC, Loehrer PJ Sr, Williams SD, et al. Comparison of N-acetylcysteine and mesna as uroprotectors with ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in refractory germ cell tumors. Invest New Drugs 1992;10:159-163.. View abstract.
  • Murch SJ, Simmons CB, Saxena PK. Melatonin in feverfew and other medicinal plants. Lancet 1997;350:1598-9. View abstract.
  • North DS, Peterson RG, Krenzelok EP. Effect of activated charcoal administration on acetylcysteine serum levels in humans. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1981;38(7):1022-4. View abstract.
  • Norton EW. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1460. View abstract.
  • Oldemeyer JB, Biddle WP, Wurdeman RL, et al. Acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy after coronary angiography. Am Heart J 2003;146:E23. . View abstract.
  • Oner G, Muderris II. Clinical, endocrine and metabolic effects of metformin vs N-acetyl-cysteine in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;159(1):127-31. View abstract.
  • Pannu, N., Wiebe, N., and Tonelli, M. Prophylaxis strategies for contrast-induced nephropathy. JAMA 2006;295(23):2765-2779. View abstract.
  • Pasupathy S, Tavella R, Grover S, et al. Early use of N-acetylcysteine with nitrate therapy in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction reduces myocardial infarct size (the NACIAM Trial [N-acetylcysteine in acute myocardial infarction]). Circulation. 2017 Sept 5;136(10):894-903. View abstract.
  • Paydary K, Akamaloo A, Ahmadipour A, Pishgar F, Emamzadehfard S, Akhondzadeh S. N-acetylcysteine augmentation therapy for moderate-to-severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016 Apr;41(2):214-9. View abstract.
  • Pela R, Calcagni AM, Subiaco S, et al. N-acetylcysteine reduces the exacerbation rate in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Respiration 1999;66:495-500.. View abstract.
  • Redondo P, Bauza A. Topical N-acetylcysteine for lamellar ichthyosis. Lancet 1999;354:1880. View abstract.
  • Renzi FP, Donovan JW, Martin TG, Morgan L, Harrison EF. Concomitant use of activated charcoal and N-acetylcysteine. Ann Emerg Med. 1985;14(6):568-72. View abstract.
  • Ruiz FJ, Salom MG, Inglés AC, et al. N-acetyl-L-cysteine potentiates depressor response to captopril and enalaprilat in SHRs. Am J Physiol. 1994;267(3 Pt 2):R767-72. View abstract.
  • Sacchinelli A, Venturella R, Lico D, et al. The efficacy of inositol and N-acetyl cysteine administration (Ovaric HP) in improving the ovarian function in infertile women with PCOS with or without insulin resistance. Obstet Gynecol Int 2014;2014:141020. View abstract.
  • Salehpour S, Sene AA, Saharkhiz N, et al. N-Acetylcysteine as an adjuvant to clomiphene citrate for successful induction of ovulation in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2012;38(9):1182-6. View abstract.
  • Sekharam M, Trotti A, Cunnick JM, Wu J. Suppression of fibroblast cell cycle progression in G1 phase by N-acetylcysteine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998;149:210-6. View abstract.
  • Shyu KG, Cheng JJ, Kuan P. Acetylcysteine protects against acute renal damage in patients with abnormal renal function undergoing a coronary procedure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1383-8.. View abstract.
  • Slattery KM, Dascombe B, Wallace LK, et al. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on cycling performance after intensified training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46(6):1114-23. View abstract.
  • Spiller HA, Krenzelok EP, Grande GA, et al. A prospective evaluation of the effect of activated charcoal before oral N-acetylcysteine in acetaminophen overdose. Ann Emerg Med 1994;23:519-23. View abstract.
  • Su X, Xie X, Liu L, et al. Comparative effectiveness of 12 treatment strategies for preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Jan;69(1):69-77. View abstract.
  • Tam J, Nash EF, Ratjen F, et al. Nebulized and oral thiol derivatives for pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD007168. View abstract.
  • Tenenbein PK, Sitar DS, Tenenbein M. Interaction between N-acetylcysteine and activated charcoal: implications for the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:1331-6. View abstract.
  • Tepel M, van der Giet M, Schwarzfeld C, et al. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine. N Engl J Med 2000;343:180-4. View abstract.
  • Tepel M, van der Giet M, Statz M, et al. The antioxidant acetylcysteine reduces cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal failure: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 2003;107:992-5.. View abstract.
  • Thakker D, Raval A, Patel I, Walia R. N-acetylcysteine for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2015;2015:817849.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Approved drug products with therapeutic equivalence evaluation, 36th edition. Accessed 27 December 2016. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ucm/groups/fdagov-public/@fdagov-drugs-gen/documents/document/ucm071436.pdf.
  • Unverferth DV, Jagadeesh JM, Unverferth Bj, et al. Attempt to prevent doxorubicin-induced acute human myocardial morphologic damage with acetylcysteine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983;71:917-20. View abstract.
  • Vadoud-Seyedi J, de Dobbeleer G, Simonart T. Treatment of haemodialysis-associated pseudoporphyria with N-acetylcysteine: report of two cases. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:580-1. View abstract.
  • van Zandwijk N, Dalesio O, Pastorino U, et al. EUROSCAN, a randomized trial of vitamin A and N-acetylcysteine in patients with head and neck cancer or lung cancer. For the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck and Lung Cancer Cooperative Groups. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:977-86. View abstract.
  • van Zandwijk N. N-acetylcysteine for lung cancer prevention. Chest 1995;107:1437-41. View abstract.
  • Weinbroum AA, Rudick V, Ben-Abraham R, Karchevski E. N-acetyl-L-cysteine for preventing lung reperfusion injury after liver ischemia-reperfusion: a possible dual protective mechanism in a dose-response study. Transplantation 2000;69:853-9. View abstract.
  • Wiklund O, Fager G, Andersson A, et al. N-acetylcysteine treatment lowers plasma homocysteine but not serum lipoprotein(a) levels. Atherosclerosis 1996;119:99-106. View abstract.
  • Williamson J, Davidson DF, Boag DE. Contamination of a specimen with N-acetyl cysteine infusion: a cause of spurious ketonaemia and hyperglycaemia. Ann Clin Biochem. 1989;26 ( Pt 2):207. View abstract.
  • Yoon H, Lee DH, Jang ES, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on first-line sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Gut Liver. 2016 Jul 15;10(4):520-5. View abstract.
  • Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
  • Absolon, M. J. and Brown, C. A. Acetylcysteine in kerato-conjunctivitis sicca. Br J Ophthalmol. 1968;52(4):310-316. View abstract.
  • Adabag, A. S., Ishani, A., Koneswaran, S., Johnson, D. J., Kelly, R. F., Ward, H. B., McFalls, E. O., Bloomfield, H. E., and Chandrashekhar, Y. Utility of N-acetylcysteine to prevent acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Am Heart J 2008;155(6):1143-1149. View abstract.
  • Agarwal, A., Munoz-Najar, U., Klueh, U., Shih, S. C., and Claffey, K. P. N-acetyl-cysteine promotes angiostatin production and vascular collapse in an orthotopic model of breast cancer. Am.J.Pathol. 2004;164(5):1683-1696. View abstract.
  • Agrawal, M., Wodlinger, A. M., Huggins, C. E., Tudor, G. E., Pieper, J. A., O'Reilly, K. P., Denu-Ciocca, C. J., Stouffer, G. A., and Ohman, E. M. Effect of Nacetylcysteine on serum creatinine concentration in patients with chronic renal insufficiency who are undergoing coronary
  • Ahola, T., Lapatto, R., Raivio, K. O., Selander, B., Stigson, L., Jonsson, B., Jonsbo, F., Esberg, G., Stovring, S., Kjartansson, S., Stiris, T., Lossius, K., Virkola, K., and Fellman, V. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in immature infants: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 2003;143(6):713-719. View abstract.
  • Akerlund, B., Jarstrand, C., Lindeke, B., Sonnerborg, A., Akerblad, A. C., and Rasool, O. Effect of N-acetylcysteine(NAC) treatment on HIV-1 infection: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50(6):457-461. View abstract.
  • Akerlund, B., Tynell, E., Bratt, G., Bielenstein, M., and Lidman, C. N-acetylcysteine treatment and the risk of toxic reactions to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in primary Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients. J Infect. 1997;35(2):143-147. View abstract.
  • Al-Ghonaim, M. and Pannu, N. Prevention and treatment of contrast-induced nephropathy. Tech.Vasc.Interv.Radiol. 2006;9(2):42-49. View abstract.
  • Allaqaband, S., Tumuluri, R., Malik, A. M., Gupta, A., Volkert, P., Shalev, Y., and Bajwa, T. K. Prospective randomized study of N-acetylcysteine, fenoldopam, and saline for prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. Catheter.Cardiovasc.Interv. 2002;57(3):279-283. View abstract.
  • Alsalim, W. and Fadel, M. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Oral methionine compared with intravenous n-acetyl cysteine for paracetamol overdose. Emerg.Med.J. 2003;20(4):366-367. View abstract.
  • Amin, A. F., Shaaban, O. M., and Bediawy, M. A. N-acetyl cysteine for treatment of recurrent unexplained pregnancy loss. Reprod.Biomed.Online. 2008;17(5):722-726. View abstract.
  • Andreana, A., Zampino, R., Tonziello, A., Adinolfi, L. E., Utili, R., and Ruggiero, G. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or ofloxacin (OFLO) as adjunct to INFN failed to achieve response in chronic hepatitis C patients non responding to IFN alone: a phase II study. Hepatology 1997;26:218.
  • Aylward, M., Maddock, J., and Dewland, P. Clinical evaluation of acetylcysteine in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis: a balanced double-blind trial with placebo control. Eur.J Respir.Dis.Suppl 1980;111:81-89. View abstract.
  • Ayonrinde, O. T., Phelps, G. J., Hurley, J. C., and Ayonrinde, O. A. Paracetamol overdose and hepatotoxicity at a regional Australian hospital: a 4-year experience. Intern Med J 2005;35(11):655-660. View abstract.
  • Azmus, A. D., Gottschall, C., Manica, A., Manica, J., Duro, K., Frey, M., Bulcao, L., and Lima, C. Effectiveness of acetylcysteine in prevention of contrast nephropathy. J Invasive.Cardiol. 2005;17(2):80-84. View abstract.
  • Badawy, A. H., Abdel Aal, S. F., and Samour, S. A. Liver injury associated with N-acetylcysteine administration. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 1989;19(2):563-571. View abstract.
  • Badawy, A., Baker El, Nashar A., and El, Totongy M. Clomiphene citrate plus N-acetyl cysteine versus clomiphene citrate for augmenting ovulation in the management of unexplained infertility: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Fertil.Steril. 2006;86(3):647-650. View abstract.
  • Badawy, A., State, O., and Abdelgawad, S. N-Acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand 2007;86(2):218-222. View abstract.
  • Baker, C. S., Wragg, A., Kumar, S., De, Palma R., Baker, L. R., and Knight, C. J. A rapid protocol for the prevention of contrast-induced renal dysfunction: the RAPPID study. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 6-18-2003;41(12):2114-2118. View abstract.
  • Baker, C. S., Wragg, A., Kumar, S., De, Palma R., Baker, L. R., and Knight, C. J. A rapid protocol for the prevention of contrast-induced renal dysfunction: the RAPPID study. J Am.Coll.Cardiol. 6-18-2003;41(12):2114-2118. View abstract.
  • Baker, W. L., Anglade, M. W., Baker, E. L., White, C. M., Kluger, J., and Coleman, C. I. Use of N-acetylcysteine to reduce post-cardiothoracic surgery complications: a meta-analysis. Eur.J Cardiothorac.Surg 2009;35(3):521-527. View abstract.
  • Bakker, J., Zhang, H., Depierreux, M., van, Asbeck S., and Vincent, J. L. Effects of N-acetylcysteine in endotoxic shock. J Crit Care 1994;9(4):236-243. View abstract.
  • Ballke, E. H., Wiersbitzky, S., Mahner, B., and Konig, A. The effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (Mucosolvin) on the transmural potential difference of the mucosa in children. Padiatr.Grenzgeb. 1992;31(2):97-101. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased N-ACETYL CYSTEINE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

More Resources for N-ACETYL CYSTEINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.