2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid, 2-Aminoethane Sulfonic Acid, Acide Aminoéthylsulfonique, Acide Kétoisocaproïque de Taurine, Acid Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoéthylsulfonique, Dibicor, Éthyl Ester de Taurine, L-Taurine, Taurina, Taurine Ethyl Ester, Taurine Ketoisocaproic Acid.


Overview Information

Taurine is often referred to as an amino acid. Amino acids are the building block of proteins. But taurine is actually an amino sulfonic acid. It is not used to build protein but has many other important functions in the body. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets. The best food sources are meat, fish, and eggs.

Taurine can be manufactured in the body of most people from other amino acids. But some people cannot make it and need to get taurine from their diet or supplements. Breast milk is rich in taurine, but infants who are not breastfed do not get enough taurine and do not have the ability to make it, so taurine is often added to infant formulas. It is also added to the formulas used for tube-feeding in adults.

People take taurine for congestive heart failure (CHF) and swelling (inflammation) of the liver (hepatitis). It is also used for athletic performance, boosting energy, diabetes, and other conditions, is but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Taurine has important functions in the heart and brain. It helps support nerve growth. It might also benefit people with heart failure by lowering blood pressure and calming the nervous system. This might help prevent heart failure from becoming worse.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Congestive heart failure (CHF). Taurine seems to improve heart function, symptoms, and ability to exercise in people with CHF.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the liver (hepatitis). Early research shows that taking taurine improves liver function in people with hepatitis.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Early research shows that taurine might improve athletic endurance by a small amount. But it's unclear which athletes are most likely to benefit.
  • Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment. Early research shows that taurine improves the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cancer drug treatment.
  • Kidney damage caused by cancer drugs. Early research shows that taurine may help prevent kidney and liver damage caused by cancer drugs.
  • Liver scarring (cirrhosis). Early research shows that taurine reduces the pressure in the vein supplying blood to the liver. But it's unclear if this reduced pressure leads to fewer complications.
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early clinical research shows that taurine, in combination with caffeine and B vitamins (Red Bull Energy Drink), can improve attention, reasoning, and wakefulness, but does not improve memory.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Taurine supplements might be useful along with usual treatment to reduce fat in the feces of children with cystic fibrosis. But taking taurine doesn't seem to improve growth, lung function, or other symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
  • Diabetes. Some early research shows that taurine can improve blood sugar and blood fats in people with diabetes. But not all research agrees.
  • Fatigue. Early research shows that taking an energy drink containing taurine prior to driving may reduce driver fatigue.
  • A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Early research shows that taking taurine with conventional treatments reduces H. pylori infection and improves ulcer healing.
  • High blood pressure. Early research shows that taurine reduces blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  • Infant development. Research shows that feeding infants a formula containing taurine for up to 12 weeks does not affect their growth or behavior.
  • Low levels of healthy red blood cells (anemia) due to iron deficiency. Early research shows that taking taurine with iron improves red blood cell counts and iron levels in women with anemia due to iron deficiency.
  • Muscle soreness. Early research shows that taking taurine together with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) reduces muscle soreness associated with exercise in healthy people who do not exercise regularly.
  • A group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy). Early research shows that taurine improves muscle relaxation in people with muscular dystrophy.
  • Recovery after surgery. Early research shows that taurine does not improve recovery rate or prevent deaths in elderly people recovering from surgery after hip fracture.
  • A mental disorder marked by hallucinations and delusion (psychosis). Early research shows that taking taurine with prescribed medications for psychosis reduces some symptoms in young adults experiencing psychosis for the first time.
  • Lack of sleep (sleep deprivation). Early research shows that taking taurine plus caffeine or a combination product containing taurine, caffeine, and B vitamins reduces sleepiness and improves reaction time in people who are sleep deprived.
  • Tourette syndrome. Early research in children 6-16 years of age with this condition shows that taking taurine along with the drug tiapride can make tics less severe than taking tiapride alone.
  • An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD).
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Autism.
  • Seizure disorder (epilepsy).
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate taurine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Taurine is LIKELY SAFE for adults when used in amounts found in foods. Taurine is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults when used as a medicine for up to 3 months.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taurine is LIKELY SAFE when used in amounts found in foods. There isn't enough reliable information to know if taurine is safe to use as a medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Taurine is LIKELY SAFE for children when used in amounts found in foods. Taurine is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when used as a medicine for up to 4 months.

Bipolar disorder: There is some concern that taking too much taurine might make bipolar disorder worse.



Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

  • Lithium interacts with TAURINE

    Taurine might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking taurine might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For congestive heart failure (CHF): 1.5-6 grams of taurine has been taken daily, divided into two or three doses.
  • For hepatitis: 1.5-4 grams of taurine has been taken daily for up to 3 months.

View References


  • Konig, P., Kriechbaum, G., Presslich, O., Schubert, H., Schuster, P., and Sieghart, W. [Orally-administered taurine in therapy-resistant epilepsy (author's transl)]. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 2-10-1977;89(4):111-113. View abstract.
  • Kopple, J. D., Vinton, N. E., Laidlaw, S. A., and Ament, M. E. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1990;52(5):846-853. View abstract.
  • Kumpf, V. J. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in adult and pediatric patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006;21(3):279-290. View abstract.
  • Lee, J. H., Jarreau, T., Prasad, A., Lavie, C., O'Keefe, J., and Ventura, H. Nutritional assessment in heart failure patients. Congest.Heart Fail. 2011;17(4):199-203. View abstract.
  • Li, Q., Guo, J. C., Jin, H. B., Cheng, J. S., and Yang, R. Involvement of taurine in penicillin-induced epilepsy and anti-convulsion of acupuncture: a preliminary report. Acupunct Electrother Res 2005;30(1-2):1-14. View abstract.
  • Livshits, Z., Hoffman, R. S., Hymes, K. B., and Nelson, L. S. If vitamins could kill: massive hemolysis following naturopathic vitamin infusion. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7(3):224-226. View abstract.
  • Lloyd, D. A. and Gabe, S. M. Managing liver dysfunction in parenteral nutrition. Proc.Nutr Soc. 2007;66(4):530-538. View abstract.
  • Luna, Ortiz P., Serrano, Valdes, X, Rojas, Perez E., and de, Micheli A. [Metabolic support of the ischemic heart during cardiac surgery]. Arch Cardiol.Mex. 2006;76 Suppl 4:S121-S136. View abstract.
  • Maciejak, P., Szyndler, J., Turzynska, D., Sobolewska, A., Taracha, E., Skorzewska, A., Lehner, M., Bidzinski, A., Hamed, A., Wislowska-Stanek, A., and Plaznik, A. The effects of group III mGluR ligands on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling of seizures and hippocampal amino acids concentration. Brain Res 7-28-2009;1282:20-27. View abstract.
  • Maenhaut, N., Boussery, K., Delaey, C., and Van, de, V. Control of retinal arterial tone by a paracrine retinal relaxing factor. Microcirculation. 2007;14(1):39-48. View abstract.
  • Malminen, O. and Kontro, P. Modulation of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex by taurine in rat brain membranes. Neurochem.Res 1986;11(1):85-94. View abstract.
  • Marchesi, G. F., Quattrini, A., Scarpino, O., and Dellantonio, R. [Therapeutic effects of taurine in epilepsy: a clinical and polyphysiographic study (author's transl)]. Riv.Patol.Nerv.Ment. 1975;96(3):166-184. View abstract.
  • Mas, M. R., Isik, A. T., Yamanel, L., Inal, V., Tasci, I., Deveci, S., Mas, N., Comert, B., and Akay, C. Antioxidant treatment with taurine ameliorates chronic pancreatitis in an experimental rat model. Pancreas 2006;33(1):77-81. View abstract.
  • Mates, J. M., Segura, J. A., Alonso, F. J., and Marquez, J. Sulphur-containing non enzymatic antioxidants: therapeutic tools against cancer. Front Biosci.(Schol.Ed) 2012;4:722-748. View abstract.
  • McCarty, M. F. Practical prevention of cardiac remodeling and atrial fibrillation with full-spectrum antioxidant therapy and ancillary strategies. Med Hypotheses 2010;75(2):141-147. View abstract.
  • Michalk, D. V., Ringeisen, R., Tittor, F., Lauffer, H., Deeg, K. H., and Bohles, H. J. Development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems in low-birth-weight infants fed a taurine-supplemented formula. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1988;147(3):296-299. View abstract.
  • Milei, J., Ferreira, R., Llesuy, S., Forcada, P., Covarrubias, J., and Boveris, A. Reduction of reperfusion injury with preoperative rapid intravenous infusion of taurine during myocardial revascularization. Am.Heart J. 1992;123(2):339-345. View abstract.
  • Mizushima, S., Nara, Y., Sawamura, M., and Yamori, Y. Effects of oral taurine supplementation on lipids and sympathetic nerve tone. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:615-622. View abstract.
  • Moloney, M. A., Casey, R. G., O'Donnell, D. H., Fitzgerald, P., Thompson, C., and Bouchier-Hayes, D. J. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics. Diab.Vasc.Dis Res 2010;7(4):300-310. View abstract.
  • Mongiovi, A. [Clinical study on the control of epilepsy using taurine]. Riv.Neurol. 1978;48(3):305-325. View abstract.
  • Morchon, Simon D. and Perez Castrillon, J. L. [Hypoglycemia by intake of taurine]. Rev.Clin Esp. 2010;210(1):49. View abstract.
  • Moreno Villares, J. M. [Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease]. Nutr Hosp. 2008;23 Suppl 2:25-33. View abstract.
  • Murakami, S., Kondo-Ohta, Y., and Tomisawa, K. Improvement in cholesterol metabolism in mice given chronic treatment of taurine and fed a high-fat diet. Life Sci 1999;64(1):83-91. View abstract.
  • Nandhini, A. T. and Anuradha, C. V. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Amino.Acids 2002;22(1):27-38. View abstract.
  • Oehlenschlager, J. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2012;82(3):168-176. View abstract.
  • Oja, S. S., Korpi, E. R., and Saransaari, P. Modification of chloride flux across brain membranes by inhibitory amino acids in developing and adult mice. Neurochem.Res 1990;15(8):797-804. View abstract.
  • Oja, S. S., Lehtinen, I., and Lahdesmaki, P. Taurine transport rates between plasma and tissues in adult and 7-day-old mice. Q.J Exp.Physiol Cogn Med Sci 1976;61(2):133-143. View abstract.
  • Okamoto, E., Rassin, D. K., Zucker, C. L., Salen, G. S., and Heird, W. C. Role of taurine in feeding the low-birth-weight infant. J.Pediatr. 1984;104(6):936-940. View abstract.
  • Oriyanhan, W., Yamazaki, K., Miwa, S., Takaba, K., Ikeda, T., and Komeda, M. Taurine prevents myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in prolonged hypothermic rat heart preservation. Heart Vessels 2005;20(6):278-285. View abstract.
  • Paauw, J. D. and Davis, A. T. Taurine supplementation at three different dosages and its effect on trauma patients. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1994;60(2):203-206. View abstract.
  • Pandya, K. G., Patel, M. R., and Lau-Cam, C. A. Comparative study of the binding characteristics to and inhibitory potencies towards PARP and in vivo antidiabetogenic potencies of taurine, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide. J Biomed.Sci 2010;17 Suppl 1:S16. View abstract.
  • Raiha N, Rassin D, Heinonen K, and Gaull GE. Milk protein quality and quantity: Biochemical and growth effects in low birth weight infants (LBWI). Pediatr Res 1975;9:370.
  • Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, J. R., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Faigenbaum, A. D., and Kang, J. Effects of an amino acid/creatine energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2007;17(6):608-623. View abstract.
  • Remacle, C., Dumortier, O., Bol, V., Goosse, K., Romanus, P., Theys, N., Bouckenooghe, T., and Reusens, B. Intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2007;9 Suppl 2:196-209. View abstract.
  • Rikimaru, M., Ohsawa, Y., Wolf, A. M., Nishimaki, K., Ichimiya, H., Kamimura, N., Nishimatsu, S., Ohta, S., and Sunada, Y. Taurine ameliorates impaired the mitochondrial function and prevents stroke-like episodes in patients with MELAS. Intern.Med 2012;51(24):3351-3357. View abstract.
  • Rumpl, E., Gerstenbrand, F., Hengl, W., and Binder, H. [Electrophysiogical and neuropharmacological studies in a patient with progressive myoclonus-epilepsy (author's transl)]. EEG.EMG.Z.Elektroenzephalogr.Elektromyogr.Verwandte.Geb. 1977;8(2):77-81. View abstract.
  • Sadzuka, Y., Matsuura, M., and Sonobe, T. The effect of taurine, a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32(9):1584-1587. View abstract.
  • Schaffer, S. W., Kramer, J., and Chovan, J. P. Regulation of calcium homeostasis in the heart by taurine. Fed.Proc. 1980;39(9):2691-2694. View abstract.
  • Schoffl, I., Kothmann, J. F., Schoffl, V., Rupprecht, H. D., and Rupprecht, T. "Vodka energy": too much for the adolescent nephron? Pediatrics 2011;128(1):e227-e231. View abstract.
  • Sedova, E. M. and Magnitskaia, O. V. [A clinical experience of taurine and trimetazidine use in premenopausal women with chronic heart failure]. Kardiologiia. 2010;50(1):62-63. View abstract.
  • Seidl, R., Peyrl, A., Nicham, R., and Hauser, E. A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Amino.Acids 2000;19(3-4):635-642. View abstract.
  • Shao, A. and Hathcock, J. N. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol 2008;50(3):376-399. View abstract.
  • Shao, X., Hu, Z., Hu, C., Bu, Q., Yan, G., Deng, P., Lv, L., Wu, D., Deng, Y., Zhao, J., Zhu, R., Li, Y., Li, H., Xu, Y., Yang, H., Zhao, Y., and Cen, X. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 5-1-2012;260(3):260-270. View abstract.
  • Soukoulis, V., Dihu, J. B., Sole, M., Anker, S. D., Cleland, J., Fonarow, G. C., Metra, M., Pasini, E., Strzelczyk, T., Taegtmeyer, H., and Gheorghiade, M. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 10-27-2009;54(18):1660-1673. View abstract.
  • Spencer, A. U., Yu, S., Tracy, T. F., Aouthmany, M. M., Llanos, A., Brown, M. B., Brown, M., Shulman, R. J., Hirschl, R. B., Derusso, P. A., Cox, J., Dahlgren, J., Strouse, P. J., Groner, J. I., and Teitelbaum, D. H. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in neonates: multivariate analysis of the potential protective effect of taurine. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2005;29(5):337-343. View abstract.
  • Suzuki, T., Nagao, A., and Suzuki, T. Human mitochondrial diseases caused by lack of taurine modification in mitochondrial tRNAs. Wiley.Interdiscip.Rev.RNA. 2011;2(3):376-386. View abstract.
  • Tahrani, A. A., Askwith, T., and Stevens, M. J. Emerging drugs for diabetic neuropathy. Expert.Opin.Emerg.Drugs 2010;15(4):661-683. View abstract.
  • Tanaka, T., Oka, T., Shimada, Y., Umemoto, N., Kuroyanagi, J., Sakamoto, C., Zang, L., Wang, Z., and Nishimura, Y. Pharmacogenomics of cardiovascular pharmacology: pharmacogenomic network of cardiovascular disease models. J Pharmacol Sci 2008;107(1):8-14. View abstract.
  • Trenkner, E., El Idrissi, A., Dumas, R., and Rabe, A. Functional consequences of calcium uptake modulation by taurine in vivo and in vitro. Adv.Exp Med Biol 1998;442:277-284. View abstract.
  • van de Poll, M. C., Dejong, C. H., and Soeters, P. B. Adequate range for sulfur-containing amino acids and biomarkers for their excess: lessons from enteral and parenteral nutrition. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1694S-1700S. View abstract.
  • van den Eynde, F., van Baelen, P. C., Portzky, M., and Audenaert, K. [The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance]. Tijdschr.Psychiatr. 2008;50(5):273-281. View abstract.
  • Vinton, N. E., Laidlaw, S. A., Ament, M. E., and Kopple, J. D. Taurine concentrations in plasma and blood cells of patients undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1986;44(3):398-404. View abstract.
  • Wasserhess, P., Becker, M., and Staab, D. Effect of taurine on synthesis of neutral and acidic sterols and fat absorption in preterm and full-term infants. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1993;58(3):349-353. View abstract.
  • Wojcik, O. P., Koenig, K. L., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Costa, M., and Chen, Y. The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis 2010;208(1):19-25. View abstract.
  • Worthley, M. I., Prabhu, A., De, Sciscio P., Schultz, C., Sanders, P., and Willoughby, S. R. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function. Am J Med 2010;123(2):184-187. View abstract.
  • Xu, Z. W. and Li, Y. S. Pathogenesis and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. Hepatobiliary.Pancreat.Dis Int 12-15-2012;11(6):586-593. View abstract.
  • Yamori, Y., Nara, Y., Ikeda, K., and Mizushima, S. Is taurine a preventive nutritional factor of cardiovascular diseases or just a biological marker of nutrition? Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:623-629. View abstract.
  • Yarandi, S. S., Zhao, V. M., Hebbar, G., and Ziegler, T. R. Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence? Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14(1):75-82. View abstract.
  • Yokogoshi, H. and Oda, H. Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Amino.Acids 2002;23(4):433-439. View abstract.
  • Zamboni, G., Piemonte, G., Bolner, A., Antoniazzi, F., Dall'Agnola, A., Messner, H., Gambaro, G., and Tato, L. Influence of dietary taurine on vitamin D absorption. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82(10):811-815. View abstract.
  • Zhang, M., Bi, L. F., Ai, Y. D., Yang, L. P., Wang, H. B., Liu, Z. Y., Sekine, M., and Kagamimori, S. Effects of taurine supplementation on VDT work induced visual stress. Amino.Acids 2004;26(1):59-63. View abstract.
  • Zhang, M., Bi, L. F., Fang, J. H., Su, X. L., Da, G. L., Kuwamori, T., and Kagamimori, S. Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino.Acids 2004;26(3):267-271. View abstract.
  • Zinellu, A., Sotgia, S., Loriga, G., Deiana, L., Satta, A. E., and Carru, C. Oxidative stress improvement is associated with increased levels of taurine in CKD patients undergoing lipid-lowering therapy. Amino.Acids 2012;43(4):1499-1507. View abstract.
  • Zulli, A. Taurine in cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14(1):57-60. View abstract.
  • Zvenigorodskaia, L. A., Ovsiannikova, O. N., Noskova, K. K., Nilova, T. V., and Elizarova, E. P. [Taurine in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease]. Eksp.Klin.Gastroenterol. 2010;(7):43-50. View abstract.
  • Aggarwal, R., Mishra, A., Crochet, P., Sirimanna, P., and Darzi, A. Effect of caffeine and taurine on simulated laparoscopy performed following sleep deprivation. Br J Surg 2011;98(11):1666-1672. View abstract.
  • Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 2001;21:139-50. View abstract.
  • Anon. Taurine involvement in retinal and heart muscle function. Nutr Rev 1975;33:343-7.
  • Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Awata N, et al. Taurine for the treatment of congestive heart failure in humans. Prog Clin Biol Res 1983;125:61-72. View abstract.
  • Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Sawamura A, et al. Taurine for treatment of congestive heart failure. Int J Cardiol 1982;2:303-4. View abstract.
  • Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Sawamura A, et al. Therapy of congestive heart failure with orally administered taurine. Clin Ther 1983;5:398-408. View abstract.
  • Azuma J, Sawamura A, Awata N, et al. Therapeutic effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: a double-blind crossover trial. Clin Cardiol 1985;8:276-82. View abstract.
  • Azuma J, Sawamura A, Awata N. Usefulness of taurine in chronic congestive heart failure and its prospective application. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:95-9. View abstract.
  • Azuma J, Takihara K, Awata N, et al. Taurine and failing heart: experimental and clinical aspects. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;179:195-213. View abstract.
  • Azuma J. Long-term effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: preliminary report. Heart Failure Research with Taurine Group. Adv Exp Med Biol 1994;359:425-33. View abstract.
  • Balshaw, T. G., Bampouras, T. M., Barry, T. J., and Sparks, S. A. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners. Amino Acids 2013;44(2):555-561. View abstract.
  • Baskaran K, Kizar Ahamath B, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Shanmugasundaram ER. Antidiabetic effect of leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295-300. View abstract.
  • Belli, D. C., Levy, E., Darling, P., Leroy, C., Lepage, G., Giguere, R., and Roy, C. C. Taurine improves the absorption of a fat meal in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 1987;80(4):517-523. View abstract.
  • Beyranvand, M. R., Khalafi, M. K., Roshan, V. D., Choobineh, S., Parsa, S. A., and Piranfar, M. A. Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. J Cardiol 2011;57(3):333-337. View abstract.
  • Bichler, A., Swenson, A., and Harris, M. A. A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino Acids 2006;31(4):471-476. View abstract.
  • Calabro, R. S., Italiano, D., Gervasi, G., and Bramanti, P. Single tonic-clonic seizure after energy drink abuse. Epilepsy Behav 2012;23(3):384-385. View abstract.
  • Cangemi, F. E. TOZAL Study: an open case control study of an oral antioxidant and omega-3 supplement for dry AMD. BMC Ophthalmol 2007;7:3. View abstract.
  • Chauncey, K. B., Tenner, T. E. Jr., Lombardini, J. B., Jones, B. G., Brooks, M. L., Warner, R. D., Davis, R. L., and Ragain, R. M. The effect of taurine supplementation on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;526:91-96. View abstract.
  • Chesney RW. Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications. Adv Pediatr 1985;32:1-42. View abstract.
  • Colombo, C., Battezzati, P. M., Podda, M., Bettinardi, N., and Giunta, A. Ursodeoxycholic acid for liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis: a double-blind multicenter trial. The Italian Group for the Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Cystic Fibrosis. Hepatology 1996;23(6):1484-1490. View abstract.
  • Curran CP, Marczinski CA. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain. Birth Defects Res 2017;109(20):1640-8. View abstract.
  • Darling, P. B., Lepage, G., Leroy, C., Masson, P., and Roy, C. C. Effect of taurine supplements on fat absorption in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Res 1985;19(6):578-582. View abstract.
  • Ding L, Yang Z, Liu G, et al. Safety and efficacy of taurine as an add-on treatment for tics in youngsters. Eur J Neurol. 2020;27(3):490-7. View abstract.
  • Durelli, L., Mutani, R., and Fassio, F. The treatment of myotonia: evaluation of chronic oral taurine therapy. Neurology 1983;33(5):599-603. View abstract.
  • Fujita, T., Ando, K., Noda, H., Ito, Y., and Sato, Y. Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension. Circulation 1987;75(3):525-532. View abstract.
  • Galan BS, Carvalho FG, Santos PC, et al. Effects of taurine on markers of muscle damage, inflammatory response and physical performance in triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018;58(9):1318-1324. View abstract.
  • Gwacham, N. and Wagner, D. R. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2012;22(2):109-116. View abstract.
  • Head KA. Peripheral neuropathy: Pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies. Altern Med Rev 2006;11:294-329. View abstract.
  • Herzog N, Laager R, Thommen E, et al. Association of taurine with in-hospital mortality in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results from the prospective, observational COMMUNICATE study. J Clin Med. 2020;9(5):E1405. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22(3):874-882. View abstract.
  • Horne, J. A. and Reyner, L. A. Beneficial effects of an "energy drink" given to sleepy drivers. Amino Acids 2001;20(1):83-89. View abstract.
  • Hu, Y. H., Lin, C. L., Huang, Y. W., Liu, P. E., and Hwang, D. F. Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients. Amino Acids 2008;35(2):469-473. View abstract.
  • Huxtable R, Bressler R. Elevation of taurine in human congestive heart failure. Life Sci 1974;14:1353-9. View abstract.
  • Huxtable RJ, Chubb J, Azari J. Physiological and experimental regulation of taurine content in the heart. Fed Proc 1980;39:2685-90. View abstract.
  • Islambulchilar M, Asvadi I, Sanaat Z, Esfahani A, Sattari M. Effect of taurine on attenuating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Cancer Res Ther 2015 Apr-Jun;11(2):426-32. View abstract.
  • Islambulchilar M, Asvadi I, Sanaat Z, Esfahani A, Sattari M. Taurine attenuates chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Amino Acids. 2015 Jan;47(1):101-9.
  • Ivy, J. L., Kammer, L., Ding, Z., Wang, B., Bernard, J. R., Liao, Y. H., and Hwang, J. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(1):61-78. View abstract.
  • Iyadurai, S. J. and Chung, S. S. New-onset seizures in adults: possible association with consumption of popular energy drinks. Epilepsy Behav 2007;10(3):504-508. View abstract.
  • Jarvenpaa, A. L., Raiha, N. C., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E. Feeding the low-birth-weight infant: I. Taurine and cholesterol supplementation of formula does not affect growth and metabolism. Pediatrics 1983;71(2):171-178. View abstract.
  • Jung YM, Choi MJ. Relation of Taurine Intake During Pregnancy and Newborns' Growth. Adv Exp Med Biol 2019;1155:283-92. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-8023-5_27. View abstract.
  • Koivisto, K., Sivenius, J., Keranen, T., Partanen, J., Riekkinen, P., Gothoni, G., Tokola, O., and Neuvonen, P. J. Clinical trial with an experimental taurine derivative, taltrimide, in epileptic patients. Epilepsia 1986;27(1):87-90. View abstract.
  • Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA. Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science 2001;292:2083-4. View abstract.
  • Lim ZIX, Singh A, Leow ZZX, Arthur PG, Fournier PA. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Human Maximal Voluntary Muscle Contraction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(2):344-352. View abstract.
  • Machado-Vieira R, Viale CI, Kapczinski F. Mania associated with an energy drink: the possible role of caffeine, taurine, and inositol. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46:454-5. View abstract.
  • Maleki V, Alizadeh M, Esmaeili F, Mahdavi R. The effects of taurine supplementation on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Amino Acids. 2020;52(6-7):905-914. View abstract.
  • Maleki V, Mahdavi R, Hajizadeh-Sharafabad F, Alizadeh M. The effects of taurine supplementation on oxidative stress indices and inflammation biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020;12:9. View abstract.
  • Matsuyama Y, Morita T, Higuchi M, Tsujii T. The effect of taurine administration on patients with acute hepatitis. Prog Clin Biol Res 1983;125:461-8.. View abstract.
  • Merli, M., Bertasi, S., Servi, R., Diamanti, S., Martino, F., De Santis, A., Goffredo, F., Quattrucci, S., Antonelli, M., and Angelico, M. Effect of a medium dose of ursodeoxycholic acid with or without taurine supplementation on the nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;19(2):198-203. View abstract.
  • Mets, M. A., Ketzer, S., Blom, C., van Gerven, M. H., van Willigenburg, G. M., Olivier, B., and Verster, J. C. Positive effects of Red Bull(R) Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214(3):737-745. View abstract.
  • Milioni F, Malta Ede S, Rocha LG, Mesquita CA, de Freitas EC, Zagatto AM. Acute administration of high doses of taurine dose not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 May; 41(5):498-503. View abstract.
  • Niittynen L, Nurminen ML, Korpela R, et al. Role of arginine, taurine, and homocysteine in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Med 1999;31:318-26. View abstract.
  • O'Donnell CP, Allott KA, Murphy BP, Yuen HP, et al. Adjunctive taurine in first-episode pscyhosis: a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2016 Dec; 77(12):31610-1617. View abstract.
  • Obermann M, Schorn CF, Mummel P, et al. Taurine induced toxic encephalopathy? Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2006;108:812-3. View abstract.
  • Osadchuk, A. M., Milova-Filippova, L. A., and Kvetnoi, I. M. [Eradication therapy and processes of proliferation and apoptosis in the stomach of patients with duodenal ulcer]. Klin Med (Mosk) 2009;87(5):43-47. View abstract.
  • Paasonen MK, Penttila O, Himberg JJ, Solatunturi E. Platelet taurine in patients with arterial hypertension, myocardial failure or infarction. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1980;642:79-84. View abstract.
  • Page LK, Jeffries O, Waldron M. Acute taurine supplementation enhances thermoregulation and endurance cycling performance in the heat. Eur J Sport Sci 2019;19(8):1101-9. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1578417. View abstract.
  • Podda, M., Ghezzi, C., Battezzati, P. M., Crosignani, A., Zuin, M., and Roda, A. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and taurine on serum liver enzymes and bile acids in chronic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1990;98(4):1044-1050. View abstract.
  • PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15(12);151206.
  • Ra SG, Akazawa N, et al. Taurine supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness in young men. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;803:765-72.
  • Ra, S. G., Miyazaki, T., Ishikura, K., Nagayama, H., Suzuki, T., Maeda, S., Ito, M., Matsuzaki, Y., and Ohmori, H. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol 2013;776:179-187. View abstract.
  • Raiha, N. C., Fazzolari-Nesci, A., and Boehm, G. Taurine supplementation prevents hyperaminoacidemia in growing term infants fed high-protein cow's milk formula. Acta Paediatr 1996;85(12):1403-1407. View abstract.
  • Rassin, D. K., Raiha, N. C., Minoli, I., and Moro, G. Taurine and cholesterol supplementation in the term infant: responses of growth and metabolism. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990;14(4):392-397. View abstract.
  • Ronen A, Oron-Gilad T, Gershon P. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers. J Safety Res. 2014 Jun;49:39-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 24. View abstract.
  • Rutherford, J. A., Spriet, L. L., and Stellingwerff, T. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010;20(4):322-329. View abstract.
  • Sak D, Erdenen F, Müderrisoglu C, et al. The relationship between plasma taurine levels and diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biomolecules 2019;9(3). pii: E96. doi: 10.3390/biom9030096. View abstract.
  • Schwarzer R, Kivaranovic D, Mandorfer M, et al. Randomised clinical study: the effects of oral taurine 6g/day vs placebo on portal hypertension. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;47(1):86-94. View abstract.
  • Sirdah, M. M., El Agouza, I. M., and Abu Shahla, A. N. Possible ameliorative effect of taurine in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in female university students of Gaza, Palestine. Eur J Haematol 2002;69(4):236-242. View abstract.
  • Smith LJ, Lacaille F, Lepage G, et al. Taurine decreases fecal fatty acid and sterol excretion in cystic fibrosis. A randomized double-blind trial. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:1401-4.. View abstract.
  • So Yoon Park, Jeong Soon You, Kyung Ja Chang. Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. Adv Exp Med Biol 2013;776:259-65. View abstract.
  • Stohs SJ, Miller M. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jan;63:240-3.
  • Sun Q, Wang B, Li Y, Sun F, et al. Taurine supplementation lowers blood pressure and improves vascular function in prehypertension: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Hypertension 2016 Mar;67(3):541-9. View abstract.
  • Thompson, G. N. and Tomas, F. M. Protein metabolism in cystic fibrosis: responses to malnutrition and taurine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46(4):606-613. View abstract.
  • Thompson, G. N., Robb, T. A., and Davidson, G. P. Taurine supplementation, fat absorption, and growth in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1987;111(4):501-506. View abstract.
  • Tyson, J. E., Lasky, R., Flood, D., Mize, C., Picone, T., and Paule, C. L. Randomized trial of taurine supplementation for infants less than or equal to 1,300-gram birth weight: effect on auditory brainstem-evoked responses. Pediatrics 1989;83(3):406-415. View abstract.
  • Van Stijn MF, Bruins AA, Vermeulen MA, Witlox J, et al. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial. Int J Mol Sci 2015 May 29;16(6):12288-306. View abstract.
  • Verner, A., Craig, S., and McGuire, W. Effect of taurine supplementation on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006072. View abstract.
  • Waldron M, Patterson SD, Jeffries O. Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise tolerance. Amino Acids. 2019;51(10-12):1433-41. View abstract.
  • Waldron M, Patterson SD, Tallent J, Jeffries O. The Effects of an Oral Taurine Dose and Supplementation Period on Endurance Exercise Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2018;48(5):1247-1253. View abstract.
  • Warburton DM, Bersellini E, Sweeney E. An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;158:322-8.. View abstract.
  • Warnock R, Jeffries O, Patterson S, Waldron M. The Effects of Caffeine, Taurine, or Caffeine-Taurine Coingestion on Repeat-Sprint Cycling Performance and Physiological Responses. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(10):1341-1347. View abstract.
  • Yeh, T. S., Chan, K. H., Hsu, M. C., and Liu, J. F. Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans. J Med Food 2011;14(3):219-225. View abstract.
  • Zhou J, Lu Y, Li F, Wu W, Xie D, Feng Y. In vitro and in vivo antiallergic effects of taurine on allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2020;181(6):404-416. View abstract.
  • [Taurin in combined treatment of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus]. Ter.Arkh. 2011;83(10):31-36. View abstract.
  • Airaksinen, E. M., Koivisto, K., Keranen, T., Pitkanen, A., Riekkinen, P. J., Oja, S. S., Marnela, K. M., Partanen, J. V., Tokola, O., Gothoni, G., and . Biochemical and clinical studies on epileptic patients during two phase I trials with the novel anticonvulsant taltrimide. Epilepsy Res 1987;1(5):308-311. View abstract.
  • Airaksinen, E. M., Oja, S. S., Marnela, K. M., Leino, E., and Paakkonen, L. Effects of taurine treatment on epileptic patients. Prog.Clin.Biol.Res. 1980;39:157-166. View abstract.
  • Anderson, C. M., Howard, A., Walters, J. R., Ganapathy, V., and Thwaites, D. T. Taurine uptake across the human intestinal brush-border membrane is via two transporters: H+-coupled PAT1 (SLC36A1) and Na+- and Cl(-)-dependent TauT (SLC6A6). J Physiol 2-15-2009;587(Pt 4):731-744. View abstract.
  • Angelico, M., Tisone, G., Baiocchi, L., Palmieri, G., Pisani, F., Negrini, S., Anselmo, A., Vennarecci, G., and Casciani, C. U. One-year pilot study on tauroursodeoxycholic acid as an adjuvant treatment after liver transplantation. Ital J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1999;31(6):462-468. View abstract.
  • Anuradha, C. V. Aminoacid support in the prevention of diabetes and diabetic complications. Curr Protein Pept.Sci 2009;10(1):8-17. View abstract.
  • Anuradha, C. V. and Balakrishnan, S. D. Taurine attenuates hypertension and improves insulin sensitivity in the fructose-fed rat, an animal model of insulin resistance. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1999;77(10):749-754. View abstract.
  • Armentano, M. J., Brenner, A. K., Hedman, T. L., Solomon, Z. T., Chavez, J., Kemper, G. B., Salzberg, D., Battafarano, D. F., and Christie, D. S. The effect and safety of short-term creatine supplementation on performance of push-ups. Mil.Med 2007;172(3):312-317. View abstract.
  • Atanassova, S. S., Panchev, P., and Ivanova, M. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi. Amino.Acids 2010;38(5):1277-1282. View abstract.
  • Atluri, D. K., Veluru, C., and Mullen, K. An alternative treatment for muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis. Liver Int 2013;33(3):496-497. View abstract.
  • Balkan, J., Oztezcan, S., Hatipoglu, A., Cevikbas, U., Aykac-Toker, G., and Uysal, M. Effect of a taurine treatment on the regression of existing atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68(5):1035-1039. View abstract.
  • Baum, M. and Weiss, M. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Amino.Acids 2001;20(1):75-82. View abstract.
  • Bellentani, S., Rocchi, E., Casalgrandi, G., Pecorari, M., Farina, F., and Capella, L. Effect of enteral taurine supplementation on nutritional indices and hepatic function in preterm infants [Effetto della supplementazione di taurine nell'alimentazione del neonato prematuro su alcuni indici bioumorali di funzionalita' epatica]. Pediatrica oggi 1988;8:402-407.
  • Berger, A. J. and Alford, K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks". Med J Aust. 1-5-2009;190(1):41-43. View abstract.
  • Bijleveld, C. M., Vonk, R. J., Okken, A., and Fernandes, J. Fat absorption in preterm infants fed a taurine-enriched formula. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1987;146(2):128-130. View abstract.
  • Brons, C., Spohr, C., Storgaard, H., Dyerberg, J., and Vaag, A. Effect of taurine treatment on insulin secretion and action, and on serum lipid levels in overweight men with a genetic predisposition for type II diabetes mellitus. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;58(9):1239-1247. View abstract.
  • Brosnan, J. T. and Brosnan, M. E. The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1636S-1640S. View abstract.
  • Chen, W., Matuda, K., Nishimura, N., and Yokogoshi, H. The effect of taurine on cholesterol degradation in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. Life Sci 2-27-2004;74(15):1889-1898. View abstract.
  • Cooke, R. J., Whitington, P. F., and Kelts, D. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic function during short-term parenteral nutrition in the premature infant. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1984;3(2):234-238. View abstract.
  • Cross, A. J., Major, J. M., and Sinha, R. Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(6):1107-1111. View abstract.
  • Dalbo, V. J., Roberts, M. D., Stout, J. R., and Kerksick, C. M. Effect of gender on the metabolic impact of a commercially available thermogenic drink. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(6):1633-1642. View abstract.
  • Das, J., Roy, A., and Sil, P. C. Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review. Food Funct. 2012;3(12):1251-1264. View abstract.
  • De la Puerta, C., Arrieta, F. J., Balsa, J. A., Botella-Carretero, J. I., Zamarron, I., and Vazquez, C. Taurine and glucose metabolism: a review. Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(6):910-919. View abstract.
  • del, Olmo N., Bustamante, J., del Rio, R. M., and Solis, J. M. Taurine activates GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors in rat hippocampal CA1 area. Brain Res 5-12-2000;864(2):298-307. View abstract.
  • Dunn-Lewis, C., Kraemer, W. J., Kupchak, B. R., Kelly, N. A., Creighton, B. A., Luk, H. Y., Ballard, K. D., Comstock, B. A., Szivak, T. K., Hooper, D. R., Denegar, C. R., and Volek, J. S. A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 2011;10:90. View abstract.
  • Eby, G. and Halcomb, W. W. Elimination of cardiac arrhythmias using oral taurine with l-arginine with case histories: Hypothesis for nitric oxide stabilization of the sinus node. Med Hypotheses 2006;67(5):1200-1204. View abstract.
  • El Idrissi, A. and Trenkner, E. Growth factors and taurine protect against excitotoxicity by stabilizing calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. J Neurosci 11-1-1999;19(21):9459-9468. View abstract.
  • Elizarova, E. P. and Nedosugova, L. V. First experiments in taurine administration for diabetes mellitus. The effect on erythrocyte membranes. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:583-588. View abstract.
  • Elizarova, E. P., Orlova, T. R., and Medvedeva, N. V. Effects on heart membranes after taurine treatment in rabbits with congestive heart failure. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(3):308-312. View abstract.
  • Elshorbagy, A. K., Kozich, V., Smith, A. D., and Refsum, H. Cysteine and obesity: consistency of the evidence across epidemiologic, animal and cellular studies. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15(1):49-57. View abstract.
  • Elshorbagy, A. K., Valdivia-Garcia, M., Graham, I. M., Palma, Reis R., Sales, Luis A., Smith, A. D., and Refsum, H. The association of fasting plasma sulfur-containing compounds with BMI, serum lipids and apolipoproteins. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2012;22(12):1031-1038. View abstract.
  • Fallahzadeh, M. K., Namazi, M. R., and Gupta, R. C. Taurine: a potential novel addition to the anti-systemic sclerosis weaponry. Arch Med Res 2010;41(1):59-61. View abstract.
  • Fitzpatrick, W. J., Zentler-Munro, P. L., and Northfield, T. C. Ileal resection: effect of cimetidine and taurine on intrajejunal bile acid precipitation and lipid solubilisation. Gut 1986;27(1):66-72. View abstract.
  • Flora, S. J., Bhadauria, S., Kannan, G. M., and Singh, N. Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: a review. J Environ.Biol 2007;28(2 Suppl):333-347. View abstract.
  • Flora, S. J., Flora, G., Saxena, G., and Mishra, M. Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation. Cell Mol.Biol (Noisy.-le-grand) 2007;53(1):26-47. View abstract.
  • Franconi, F., Bennardini, F., Mattana, A., Miceli, M., Ciuti, M., Mian, M., Gironi, A., Anichini, R., and Seghieri, G. Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1995;61(5):1115-1119. View abstract.
  • Freeman, L. M. and Rush, J. E. Nutrition and cardiomyopathy: lessons from spontaneous animal models. Curr Heart Fail.Rep. 2007;4(2):84-90. View abstract.
  • FRENDO, J., KOJ, A., and ZGLICZYNSKI, J. M. Taurine in human blood platelets. Nature 3-7-1959;183(4662):685-686. View abstract.
  • Frosini, M., Sesti, C., Dragoni, S., Valoti, M., Palmi, M., Dixon, H. B., Machetti, F., and Sgaragli, G. Interactions of taurine and structurally related analogues with the GABAergic system and taurine binding sites of rabbit brain. Br J Pharmacol 2003;138(6):1163-1171. View abstract.
  • Fujihira, E., Takahashi, H., and Nakazawa, M. Effect of long-term feeding of taurine in hereditary hyperglycemic obese mice. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1970;18(8):1636-1642. View abstract.
  • Fukuyama, Y. and Ochiai, Y. Therapeutic trial by taurine for intractable childhood epilepsies. Brain Dev. 1982;4(1):63-69. View abstract.
  • Funke, S., Azimi, D., Wolters, D., Grus, F. H., and Pfeiffer, N. Longitudinal analysis of taurine induced effects on the tear proteome of contact lens wearers and dry eye patients using a RP-RP-Capillary-HPLC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS approach. J Proteomics. 6-18-2012;75(11):3177-3190. View abstract.
  • Gaby, A. R. Natural approaches to epilepsy. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(1):9-24. View abstract.
  • Galeano, N. F., Darling, P., Lepage, G., Leroy, C., Collet, S., Giguere, R., and Roy, C. C. Taurine supplementation of a premature formula improves fat absorption in preterm infants. Pediatr.Res. 1987;22(1):67-71. View abstract.
  • Ganio, M. S., Klau, J. F., Lee, E. C., Yeargin, S. W., McDermott, B. P., Buyckx, M., Maresh, C. M., and Armstrong, L. E. Effect of various carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids on cycling performance and maximal voluntary contraction. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2010;20(2):104-114. View abstract.
  • Gaull, G. E., Rassin, D. K., Raiha, N. C., and Heinonen, K. Milk protein quantity and quality in low-birth-weight infants. III. Effects on sulfur amino acids in plasma and urine. J Pediatr 1977;90(3):348-355. View abstract.
  • Giles, G. E., Mahoney, C. R., Brunye, T. T., Gardony, A. L., Taylor, H. A., and Kanarek, R. B. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2012;102(4):569-577. View abstract.
  • Gray, G. E., Landel, A. M., and Meguid, M. M. Taurine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition and taurine status of malnourished cancer patients. Nutrition 1994;10(1):11-15. View abstract.
  • Grimble, R. F. The effects of sulfur amino acid intake on immune function in humans. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1660S-1665S. View abstract.
  • Gupta, R. C., Seki, Y., and Yosida, J. Role of taurine in spinal cord injury. Curr Neurovasc.Res 2006;3(3):225-235. View abstract.
  • Hagar, H. H., El Etter, E., and Arafa, M. Taurine attenuates hypertension and renal dysfunction induced by cyclosporine A in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33(3):189-196. View abstract.
  • Hagiwara, K., Kuroki, G., Yuan, P. X., Suzuki, T., Murakami, M., Hano, T., Sasano, H., and Yanagisawa, T. The effect of taurine on the salt-dependent blood pressure increase in the voltage-dependent calcium channel beta 3-subunit-deficient mouse. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2003;41 Suppl 1:S127-S131. View abstract.
  • Harding, G. F., Grose, J., Wilton, A. Y., and Bissenden, J. G. The pattern reversal VEP in short-gestation infants on taurine or taurine-free diet. Doc.Ophthalmol. 1989;73(2):103-109. View abstract.
  • Hayes, K. C., Stephan, Z. F., and Sturman, J. A. Growth depression in taurine-depleted infant monkeys. J Nutr 1980;110(10):2058-2064. View abstract.
  • Huxtable, R. and Bressler, R. Elevation of taurine in human congestive heart failure. Life Sci. 4-1-1974;14(7):1353-1359. View abstract.
  • Iizuka, T. [Pathogenesis and treatment of stroke-like episodes in MELAS]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2008;48(11):1006-1009. View abstract.
  • Ishizaka, S., Kuriyama, S., Kikuchi, E., Nishimura, K., and Tsujii, T. A novel oral adjuvant for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. J Hepatol. 1990;11(3):326-329. View abstract.
  • Ishizaka, S., Yoshikawa, M., Kitagami, K., and Tsujii, T. Oral adjuvants for viral vaccines in humans. Vaccine 1990;8(4):337-341. View abstract.
  • Ito, T., Schaffer, S. W., and Azuma, J. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Amino.Acids 2012;42(5):1529-1539. View abstract.
  • Jarvenpaa, A. L. Feeding the low-birth-weight infant. IV. Fat absorption as a function of diet and duodenal bile acids. Pediatrics 1983;72(5):684-689. View abstract.
  • Jeukendrup, A. E. and Randell, R. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes.Rev. 2011;12(10):841-851. View abstract.
  • Keith, M. E., Ball, A., Jeejeebhoy, K. N., Kurian, R., Butany, J., Dawood, F., Wen, W. H., Madapallimattam, A., and Sole, M. J. Conditioned nutritional deficiencies in the cardiomyopathic hamster heart. Can J Cardiol 2001;17(4):449-458. View abstract.
  • Kim, S. J., Gupta, R. C., and Lee, H. W. Taurine-diabetes interaction: from involvement to protection. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007;3(3):165-175. View abstract.
  • Kim, S. J., Ramesh, C., Gupta, H., and Lee, W. Taurine-diabetes interaction: from involvement to protection. J Biol Regul.Homeost.Agents 2007;21(3-4):63-77. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased TAURINE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department.Read More

More Resources for TAURINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty .