Alanyl-L-Histidine, B-Alanyl-L-Histidine, B-Alanyl Histidine, Beta-alanyl-L-histidine, Bêta-Alanyl-L-Histidine, Carnosina, L-Carnosine, Levo-Carnosine, N-Acetyl-Carnosine, N-Acétyl-Carnosine, N-Acetyl-L-Carnosine, N-Acétyl-L-Carnosine.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationCarnosine is a protein building block that is naturally produced in the body. It is found in muscles when they are working, and it is also found in the heart, brain, and many other parts of the body.
Carnosine is used by mouth to prevent signs of aging and for preventing or treating complications of diabetes such as nerve damage, eye disorders (cataracts), and kidney problems. It is also used to improve muscle strength and exercise performance along with many other uses. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.
How does it work?Carnosine is important for many normal body functions including the proper function and development of the muscles, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and many other organs. There is some interest in using carnosine to prevent aging because it seems to interfere with certain chemicals that might play a role in the aging process.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- Autism. Taking L-carnosine by mouth for 8 weeks may improve symptoms in children with autistism.
- Heart failure. Taking carnosine by mouth for 6 months might help people with heart failure walk farther by helping the body take in more oxygen. This might also make people feel happier.
- A group of symptoms experienced by people fighting in the Gulf War (Gulf War illness). Taking carnosine along with other medicine by mouth does not improve most symptoms of this disease, like tiredness and pain. However, it might improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as diarrhea. Also, it might help memory by a small amount.
- A condition of uncontrollable thoughts or behaviors (obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD). Early research shows that taking carnosine twice daily by mouth for 10 weeks with the prescription drug fluvoxamine might reduce symptoms of repetition by a small amount in people with moderate to severe OCD.
- Pressure ulcers. Taking carnosine alone or with zinc by mouth might help to speed up the healing of pressure ulcers.
- Schizophrenia. Taking carnosine by mouth does not seem to make people with schizophrenia feel happier. However, it might help to improve memory.
- Complications of diabetes.
- Dry skin.
- Exercise performance.
- Memory loss with aging.
- Ulcerative colitis.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyCarnosine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth, or in adults when used on the skin or in an enema. However, there can be some rare side effects. These might include a rash or itchiness, dry mouth, changes in appetite, feelings of tiredness, or vivid dreams.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking carnosine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Low blood pressure: Carnosine might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking carnosine might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.
We currently have no information for CARNOSINE Interactions.
The appropriate dose of carnosine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for carnosine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
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- Volkov, O. A., Neshkova, G. A., Moshetova, L. K., and Iarovaia, G. A. [The effect of carnosine on inflammatory processes during contusion of the eyeball]. Biomed.Khim. 2006;52(2):188-191. View abstract.
- Arabzadeh S, Shahhossenie M, Mesgarpour B, Rezaei F, Shalbafan MR, Ghiasi Z, et al. L-carnosine as an adjuvant to fluvoxamine in treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: A randomized double-blind study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2017;32(4). doi: 10.1002/hup.2584. View abstract.
- Baguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W. Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2010;109(4):1096-101. View abstract.
- Baraniuk JN, El-Amin S, Corey R, Rayhan R, Timbol C. Carnosine treatment for gulf war illness: a randomized controlled trial. Glob J Health Sci 2013;5(3):69-81. View abstract.
- Brownson C, Hipkiss AR. Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein. Free Radic Biol Med 2000;28:1564-1570.. View abstract.
- Chengappa KN, Turkin SR, DeSanti S, et al. A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnosine to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2012;142(1-3):145-52. View abstract.
- Chung W, Baguet A, Bex T, Bishop DJ, Derave W. Doubling of muscle carnosine concentration does not improve laboratory 1-hr cycling time-trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2014;24(3):315-24. View abstract.
- Federici A, Federici G, Milani M. Use of a urea, arginine and carnosine cream versus a standard emollient glycerol cream for treatment of severe xerosis of the feet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, 8 month, assessor-blinded, controlled trial. Curr Med Res Opin 2015;31(6):1063-9. View abstract.
- Guliaeva NV. Superoxide-scavenging activity of carnosine in the presence of copper and zinc ions. Biokhimiia 1987;52:1216-1220.. View abstract.
- Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30:279-89. View abstract.
- Hipkiss AR, Chana H. Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;248:28-32. View abstract.
- Hipkiss AR, Preston JE, Himswoth DT, et al. Protective effects of carnosine against malondialdehyde-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells. Neurosci Lett 1997;238:135-8.. View abstract.
- Hipkiss, A. R. Would carnosine or a carnivorous diet help suppress aging and associated pathologies? Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2006;1067:369-374. View abstract.
- Hisatsune T, Kaneko J, Kurashige H, et al. Effect of anserine/carnosine supplementation on verbal episodic memory in elderly people. J Alzheimers Dis 2016;50(1):149-59. View abstract.
- Horning MS, Blakemore LJ, Trombley PQ. Endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine. Brain Res 2000;852:56-61. View abstract.
- Invernizzi PL, Limonta E, Riboli A, Bosio A, Scurati R, Esposito F. Effects of acute carnosine and ß-alanine on isometric force and jumping performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2016;11(3):344-9. View abstract.
- Itagaki M, Saruta M, Saijo H, et al. Efficacy of zinc-carnosine chelate compound, Polaprezinc, enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 2014;49(2):164-72. View abstract.
- Kantha SS, Wada S, Tanaka H, et al. Carnosine sustains the retention of cell morphology in continuous fibroblast culture subjected to nutritional insult. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;223:278-82. View abstract.
- Liu Y, Cotillard A, Vatier C, et al. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS One. 201;10(9):e0138646. View abstract.
- Lombardi C, Carubelli V, Lazzarini V, et al. Effects of oral administration of orodispersible levo-carnosine on quality of life and exercise performance in patients with chronic heart failure. Nutrition 2015;31(1):72-8. View abstract.
- Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr 2001;131:287-90. View abstract.
- Mutolo MG, Albanese G, Rusciano D, Pescosolido N. Oral administration of forskolin, homotaurine, carnosine, and folic acid in patients with primary open angle glaucoma: changes in intraocular pressure, pattern electroretinogram amplitude, and foveal sensitivity. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2016;32(3):178-83. View abstract.
- Preston JE, Hipkiss AR, Himsworth DT, et al. Toxic effects of beta-amyloid(25-35) on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alanine. Neurosci Lett 1998;242:105-8.. View abstract.
- Sakae K, Agata T, Kamide R, Yanagisawa H. Effects of L-carnosine and its zinc complex (Polaprezinc) on pressure ulcer healing. Nutr Clin Pract 2013;28(5):609-16. View abstract.
- Sakae K, Yanagisawa H. Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial. Biol Trace Elem Res 2014;158(3):280-8. View abstract.
- Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H462-8. View abstract.
- Babizhayev, M. A. Antioxidant activity of L-carnosine, a natural histidine-containing dipeptide in crystalline lens. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 8-22-1989;1004(3):363-371. View abstract.
- Babizhayev, M. A., Deyev, A. I., and Linberg, L. F. Lipid peroxidation as a possible cause of cataract. Mech.Ageing Dev. 1988;44(1):69-89. View abstract.
- Babizhayev, M. A., Deyev, A. I., Yermakova, V. N., Semiletov, Y. A., Davydova, N. G., Kurysheva, N. I., Zhukotskii, A. V., and Goldman, I. M. N-Acetylcarnosine, a natural histidine-containing dipeptide, as a potent ophthalmic drug in treatment of human cataracts. Peptides 2001;22(6):979-994. View abstract.
- Babizhayev, M. A., Seguin, M. C., Gueyne, J., Evstigneeva, R. P., Ageyeva, E. A., and Zheltukhina, G. A. L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. Biochem.J 12-1-1994;304 ( Pt 2):509-516. View abstract.
- Babizhayev, M. A., Yermakova, V. N., Sakina, N. L., Evstigneeva, R. P., Rozhkova, E. A., and Zheltukhina, G. A. N alpha-acetylcarnosine is a prodrug of L-carnosine in ophthalmic application as antioxidant. Clin.Chim.Acta 10-15-1996;254(1):1-21. View abstract.
- Bauman, M. and Kemper, T. L. Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology 1985;35(6):866-874. View abstract.
- Begum, G., Cunliffe, A., and Leveritt, M. Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2005;15(5):493-514. View abstract.
- Bhuyan, K. C. and Bhuyan, D. K. Molecular mechanism of cataractogenesis: III. Toxic metabolites of oxygen as initiators of lipid peroxidation and cataract. Curr.Eye Res. 1984;3(1):67-81. View abstract.
- Boldyrev, A. A., Dupin, A. M., Bunin, A. Y., Babizhaev, M. A., and Severin, S. E. The antioxidative properties of carnosine, a natural histidine containing dipeptide. Biochem.Int. 1987;15(6):1105-1113. View abstract.
- Bowen, W. J. Effects of pH, buffers, carnosine, histidine, and beta-alanine on the shortening of glycerol-treated muscle fibers. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 1965;112(3):436-442. View abstract.
- Chez, M. G., Buchanan, C. P., Aimonovitch, M. C., Becker, M., Schaefer, K., Black, C., and Komen, J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J.Child Neurol. 2002;17(11):833-837. View abstract.
- Guiotto, A., Calderan, A., Ruzza, P., and Borin, G. Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr.Med Chem. 2005;12(20):2293-2315. View abstract.
- Guo, Y. and Yan, H. [Preventive effect of carnosine on cataract development]. Yan.Ke.Xue.Bao. 2006;22(2):85-88. View abstract.
- Harris, R. C., Dunnett, M., and Greenhaff, P. L. Carnosine and taurine contents in individual fibres of human vastus lateralis muscle. J Sports Sci 1998;16:639-943.
- Himukai, M. The characteristics of carnosine transport and carnosine-induced electrical phenomena by the everted intestine of guinea pig. Jpn J Physiol 1985;35(6):945-952. View abstract.
- Hipkiss, A. R., Brownson, C., Bertani, M. F., Ruiz, E., and Ferro, A. Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;959:285-294. View abstract.
- Jackson, M. C., Kucera, C. M., and Lenney, J. F. Purification and properties of human serum carnosinase. Clin.Chim.Acta 2-15-1991;196(2-3):193-205. View abstract.
- Lee, Y. T., Hsu, C. C., Lin, M. H., Liu, K. S., and Yin, M. C. Histidine and carnosine delay diabetic deterioration in mice and protect human low density lipoprotein against oxidation and glycation. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-18-2005;513(1-2):145-150. View abstract.
- Maichuk, IuF, Formaziuk, V. E., and Sergienko, V. I. [Development of carnosine eyedrops and assessing their efficacy in corneal diseases]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 1997;113(6):27-31. View abstract.
- Matsukura, T. and Tanaka, H. Applicability of zinc complex of L-carnosine for medical use. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 2000;65(7):817-823. View abstract.
- Ozonoff, S., Strayer, D. L., McMahon, W. M., and Filloux, F. Executive function abilities in autism and Tourette syndrome: an information processing approach. J Child Psychol.Psychiatry 1994;35(6):1015-1032. View abstract.
- Parkhouse, W. S., McKenzie, D. C., Hochachka, P. W., and Ovalle, W. K. Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle. J Appl.Physiol 1985;58(1):14-17. View abstract.
- Petroff, O. A., Hyder, F., Rothman, D. L., and Mattson, R. H. Homocarnosine and seizure control in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and complex partial seizures. Neurology 3-27-2001;56(6):709-715. View abstract.
- Quinn, P. J., Boldyrev, A. A., and Formazuyk, V. E. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Mol.Aspects Med. 1992;13(5):379-444. View abstract.
- Robertson, J. M., Donner, A. P., and Trevithick, J. R. A possible role for vitamins C and E in cataract prevention. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53(1 Suppl):346S-351S. View abstract.
- Suzuki, Y., Ito, O., Mukai, N., Takahashi, H., and Takamatsu, K. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn.J.Physiol 2002;52(2):199-205. View abstract.
- Suzuki, Y., Nakao, T., Maemura, H., Sato, M., Kamahara, K., Morimatsu, F., and Takamatsu, K. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(2):334-338. View abstract.
- Takahashi, H. Studies on homocarnosine in cerebrospinal fluid in infancy and childhood. Part II. Homocarnosine levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with epilepsy, febrile convulsion or meningitis. Brain Dev. 1981;3(3):263-270. View abstract.
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