SALVIA DIVINORUM

OTHER NAME(S):

Divine Mexican Mint, Diviner's Mint, Diviners Sage, Divinorin, Divinorin A, Feuilles de la Bergère, Feuilles de la Vierge, Herb-of-the-Virgin, Herb of Mary, Herba de María, Hierba de la Virgen, Hierba Maria, Hojas de la Pastora, Hojas de Maria, La Hembra, Leaf of Mary, Leaves of the Virgin Shepherdess, Magic Mint, Menthe Magique, Mexican Mint, Mexican Sage, Mexican Sage Incense, Pipiltzintzintli, Sadi, Sally-D, Salvia, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin, Salvinorin A, Sage of the Seers, Sauge des Devins, Sauge Divinatoire, Shepherdess, Ska Maria, Ska Maria Pastora, Ska Pastora, Yerba de Maria, Yerba Maria.

Overview

Overview Information

Salvia divinorum is an herb in the mint family. It has been used for centuries in religious ceremonies by the Mazatec Indians, a native people who live in Oaxaca, Mexico. The Mazatecs believe it is an incarnation of the Virgin Mary. Salvia divinorum possession and use is legal in most states in the US, but it has been labelled as a "drug of concern" by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

Salvia divinorum is most commonly used as a recreational drug. It produces hallucinations when inhaled, when the leaves are chewed, or when extracts are placed under the tongue.

How does it work?

Salvia divinorum contains chemicals that can cause hallucinations when inhaled or taken by mouth. There isn't much information about how Salvia divinorum might work as a medicine.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Producing hallucinations.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Depression.
  • Headache.
  • Rheumatism.
  • Bloating.
  • Regulating urination and bowel movements.
  • Use as a tonic.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of Salvia divinorum for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Salvia divinorum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. It can cause serious side effects including dizziness, slurred speech, confusion, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions.

When inhaled: Salvia divinorum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. It can cause serious side effects including dizziness, slurred speech, confusion, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if Salvia divinorum is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Schizophrenia: Salvia divinorum has caused hallucinations and delusions in some people. It is not known if this risk is increased in people with schizophrenia or in people with a family history of schizophrenia. Until more is known, do not use Salvia divinorum if you have schizophrenia or are at risk of schizophrenia.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for SALVIA DIVINORUM Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of Salvia divinorum depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Salvia divinorum. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Ansonoff, M. A., Zhang, J., Czyzyk, T., Rothman, R. B., Stewart, J., Xu, H., Zjwiony, J., Siebert, D. J., Yang, F., Roth, B. L., and Pintar, J. E. Antinociceptive and Hypothermic Effects of Salvinorin A Are Abolished in a Novel Strain of {kappa}-Opioid Receptor-1 Knockout Mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318(2):641-648. View abstract.
  • Bucheler, R., Gleiter, C. H., Schwoerer, P., and Gaertner, I. Use of nonprohibited hallucinogenic plants: increasing relevance for public health? A case report and literature review on the consumption of Salvia divinorum (Diviner's Sage). Pharmacopsychiatry 2005;38(1):1-5. View abstract.
  • Butelman, E. R., Harris, T. J., and Kreek, M. J. The plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, produces kappa-opioid agonist-like discriminative effects in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;172(2):220-224. View abstract.
  • Capasso, R., Borrelli, F., Capasso, F., Siebert, D. J., Stewart, D. J., Zjawiony, J. K., and Izzo, A. A. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. Neurogastroenterol.Motil. 2006;18(1):69-75. View abstract.
  • Pichini, S., Abanades, S., Farre, M., Pellegrini, M., Marchei, E., Pacifici, R., Torre, Rde L., and Zuccaro, P. Quantification of the plant-derived hallucinogen Salvinorin A in conventional and non-conventional biological fluids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after Salvia divinorum smoking. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(12):1649-1656. View abstract.
  • Roth, B. L., Baner, K., Westkaemper, R., Siebert, D., Rice, K. C., Steinberg, S., Ernsberger, P., and Rothman, R. B. Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist. Proc Natl Acad.Sci U.S.A 9-3-2002;99(18):11934-11939. View abstract.
  • Addy PH, Garcia-Romeu A, Metzger M, Wade J. The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29(4):426-35. View abstract.
  • El-Khoury J, Sahakian N. The association of Salvia divinorum and psychotic disorders: A review of the literature and case series. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2015;47(4):286-92. View abstract.
  • Gonzalez D, Riba J, Bouso JC, et al. Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;85:157-62. View abstract.
  • Halpern JH. Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States. Pharmacol Ther 2004; 102:131-8. View abstract.
  • Siebert DJ. Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: new pharmacologic findings. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;43:53-6. View abstract.
  • Singh S. Adolescent salvia substance abuse. Addiction 2007;102:823-4. View abstract.
  • US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Agency, Diversion Control Program. Drugs and Chemicals of Concern: Salvia Divinorum, ska Maria Pastora, Salvia (Salvinorin A, Divinorin A). 2002. Available at: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/salvia_d/summary.htm
  • Valdes LJ 3rd, Diaz JL, Paul AG. Ethnopharmacology of ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Jativa-M.). J Ethnopharmacol 1983;7:287-312. View abstract.
  • Valdes LJ 3rd. Salvia divinorum and the unique diterpene hallucinogen, Salvinorin (divinorin) A. J Psychoactive Drugs 1994;26:277-83. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.