LIMONENE

OTHER NAME(S):

Alpha-Limonene, Alpha-Limon&egrave;ne, Dipentene, D-Limonene, D-Limon&egrave;ne, L-Limonene, L-Limon&egrave;ne, Limonène, Limoneno, R-Limonene, R-Limon&egrave;ne, S-Limonene, S-Limon&egrave;ne.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Limonene is a chemical found in the peels of citrus fruits and in other plants. It is used to make medicine.

Limonene is used to promote weight loss, prevent cancer, treat cancer, and treat bronchitis.

In foods, beverages, and chewing gum, limonene is used as a flavoring.

In pharmaceuticals, limonene is added to help medicinal ointments and creams penetrate the skin.

In manufacturing, limonene is used as a fragrance, cleaner (solvent), and as an ingredient in water-free hand cleansers.

How does it work?

Limonene may block cancer-forming chemicals and kill cancer cells in the laboratory. But more research is needed to know if this occurs in humans.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Cancer treatment. One form of limonene (D-limonene) seems to build up in tumors in people with advanced cancer, when it is taken by mouth in 21-day cycles. The high levels of limonene in the tumors may slow down the progress of the cancer, but their effect on the person’s survival is uncertain.
  • Cancer prevention.
  • Weight loss.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of limonene for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Limonene is safe in food amounts. It also appears to be safe for most people in medicinal amounts when taken by mouth for up to one year.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Limonene is safe in food amounts, but there's not enough information to know if it's safe in larger medicinal amounts. Stay on the safe side and avoid using limonene as a medicine until more is known.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with LIMONENE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br/><br/> Limonene might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking limonene along with some medications that are changed by the liver can lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking limonene talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.<br/><br/> Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), ibuprofen (Motrin), meloxicam (Mobic), and piroxicam (Feldene), amitriptyline (Elavil), warfarin (Coumadin), glipizide (Glucotrol), losartan (Cozaar), and others.

  • Medications that decrease the break down of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) inhibitors) interacts with LIMONENE

    Limonene might be broken down by the liver. Taking limonene along with medications that decrease the break down of limonene in the liver might increase the effects and side effects of limonene.<br/><br/> Some medications that might decrease the breakdown of limonene in the liver include cimetidine (Tagamet), fluvoxamine (Luvox), omeprazole (Prilosec); ticlopidine (Ticlid), topiramate (Topamax), and others.

  • Medications that decrease the break down of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) inhibitors) interacts with LIMONENE

    Limonene might be broken down by the liver. Taking limonene along with medications that decrease the break down of limonene in the liver might increase the effects and side effects of limonene.<br/><br/> Some medications that might decrease the breakdown of limonene in the liver include amiodarone (Cordarone), fluconazole (Diflucan), lovastatin (Mevacor), paroxetine (Paxil), zafirlukast (Accolate), and many others.

  • Medications that increase the break down of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) inducers) interacts with LIMONENE

    Limonene might be broken down by the liver. Taking limonene along with medications that increase the break down of limonene in the liver might decrease the effects of limonene.<br/><br/> Some medications that might increase the breakdown of limonene in the liver include carbamazepine (Tegretol), prednisone (Deltasone), and rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane).

  • Medications that increase the break down of other medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) inducers) interacts with LIMONENE

    Limonene might be broken down by the liver. Taking limonene along with medications that increase the break down of limonene in the liver might decrease the effects of limonene.<br/><br/> Some medications that might increase the breakdown of limonene in the liver include rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) and secobarbital (Seconal).

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of limonene depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for limonene. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Crowell PL. Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. J Nutr 1999;129:775S-778S. View abstract.
  • Duetz WA, Bouwmeester H, van Beilen JB, Witholt B. Biotransformation of limonene by bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and plants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2003;61:269-77. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Larsen ST, Hougaard KS, Hammer M, et al. Effects of R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene on the respiratory tract in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 2000;19:457-66. View abstract.
  • Matura M, Goossens A, Bordalo O, et al. Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:709-14. View abstract.
  • Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T. Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002;30:602-7. View abstract.
  • Ota Y, Hamada A, Nakano M, Saito H. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of midazolam by terpenes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003;18:261-6. View abstract.
  • Raphael TJ, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory activity of naturally occurring monoterpenes carvone, limonene, and perillic acid. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2003;25:285-94. View abstract.
  • Rolseth V, Djurhuus R, Svardal AM. Additive toxicity of limonene and 50% oxygen and the role of glutathione in detoxification in human lung cells. Toxicology 2002;170:75-88. View abstract.
  • Topham EJ, Wakelin SH. D-Limonene contact dermatitis from hand cleansers. Contact Dermatitis 2003;49:108-9. View abstract.
  • Turner SD, Tinwell H, Piegorsch W, et al.The male rat carcinogens limonene and sodium saccharin are not mutagenic to male Big Blue rats. Mutagenesis 2001;16:329-32. View abstract.
  • Vigushin DM, Poon GK, Boddy A, et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1998;42:111-7. View abstract.

More Resources for LIMONENE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.