Palm oil is used for preventing and treating vitamin A deficiency. Other uses include cancer and high blood pressure, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
As food, palm oil is used for frying. It is also an ingredient in many processed foods. Palm oil is also used for manufacturing cosmetics, soaps, toothpaste, wax, and ink.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Likely Effective for
- Vitamin A deficiency. Research shows that adding red palm oil to the diets of pregnant women and children in developing countries reduces the chance of having too little vitamin A. It also seems to help increase vitamin A levels in those who have too little. Red palm oil seems to be as effective as taking a vitamin A supplement for preventing or treating low levels of vitamin A. Doses of about 8 grams or less per day seem to work best. Higher doses don't seem to have more benefit.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Malaria. Early research suggests that eating palm oil in the diet does not seem to decrease symptoms of malaria in children under 5 years of age in developing countries.
- Cyanide poisoning.
- Diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, that interfere with thinking (dementia).
- Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
- Heart disease.
- High blood pressure.
- High cholesterol.
- Other conditions.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Children: Palm oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine. Palm oil has been used for up to 6 months in children under 5 years of age and for up to 12 months in children 5 years of age and older.
High cholesterol: Palm oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. Regularly eating meals containing palm oil can increase levels of "bad" low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This might be a problem for people who already have high cholesterol.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with PALM OIL
Palm oil might increase blood clotting. Taking palm oil along with medications that slow clotting might reduce the effectiveness of these medications.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox) heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Be cautious with this combination
- Vitamin A deficiency: About 7-12 grams of red palm oil daily has been used in some research. Some evidence shows that using 8 grams of red palm oil or less per day is most beneficial.
- Vitamin A deficiency: Up to 6 grams of red palm oil per day in children 5 years and under, and up to 9 grams per day in children over 5 years of age, has been used for up to 6 months. Also, 14 grams of red palm oil three times per week for about 9 weeks has been used. Some evidence shows that using 8 grams of red palm oil or less per day is most beneficial.
Adam, S. K., Das, S., and Jaarin, K. A detailed microscopic study of the changes in the aorta of experimental model of postmenopausal rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Int J Exp.Pathol. 2009;90(3):321-327. View abstract.
Anderson, J. T., Grande, F., and Keys, A. Independence of the effects of cholesterol and degree of saturation of the fat in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29(11):1184-1189. View abstract.
Berry, S. E., Woodward, R., Yeoh, C., Miller, G. J., and Sanders, T. A. Effect of interesterification of palmitic acid-rich triacylglycerol on postprandial lipid and factor VII response. Lipids 2007;42(4):315-323. View abstract.
Binns, C. W., Pust, R. E., and Weinhold, D. W. Palm oil: a pilot study of its use in a nutrition intervention programme. J Trop.Pediatr. 1984;30(5):272-274. View abstract.
Bosch, V., Aular, A., Medina, J., Ortiz, N., and Apitz, R. [Changes in of plasma lipoproteins after the use of palm oil in the diet of a group healthy adults]. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 2002;52(2):145-150. View abstract.
Canfield, L. M., Kaminsky, R. G., Taren, D. L., Shaw, E., and Sander, J. K. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. Eur J Nutr 2001;40(1):30-38. View abstract.
Cantwell, M. M., Flynn, M. A., and Gibney, M. J. Acute postprandial effect of hydrogenated fish oil, palm oil and lard on plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acid metabolism in normocholesterolaemic males. Br J Nutr 2006;95(4):787-794. View abstract.
Cater, N. B. and Denke, M. A. Behenic acid is a cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(1):41-44. View abstract.
Cater, N. B., Heller, H. J., and Denke, M. A. Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(1):41-45. View abstract.
Choudhury, N., Tan, L., and Truswell, A. S. Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1043-1051. View abstract.
Cottrell, R. C. Introduction: nutritional aspects of palm oil. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53(4 Suppl):989S-1009S. View abstract.
de Bosch, N. B., Bosch, V., and Apitz, R. Dietary fatty acids in athero-thrombogenesis: influence of palm oil ingestion. Haemostasis 1996;26 Suppl 4:46-54. View abstract.
Dougherty, R. M., Allman, M. A., and Iacono, J. M. Effects of diets containing high or low amounts of stearic acid on plasma lipoprotein fractions and fecal fatty acid excretion of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1120-1128. View abstract.
Ebong, P. E., Owu, D. U., and Isong, E. U. Influence of palm oil (Elaesis guineensis) on health. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;53(3):209-222. View abstract.
Elson, C. E. Tropical oils: nutritional and scientific issues. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr 1992;31(1-2):79-102. View abstract.
Enas, E. A. Cooking oils, cholesterol and CAD: facts and myths. Indian Heart J 1996;48(4):423-427. View abstract.
Filteau, S. M., Lietz, G., Mulokozi, G., Bilotta, S., Henry, C. J., and Tomkins, A. M. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation. Immunology 1999;97(4):595-600. View abstract.
Gouado, I., Mbiapo, T. F., Moundipa, F. P., and Teugwa, M. C. Vitamin A and E status of some rural populations in the north of Cameroon. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1998;68(1):21-25. View abstract.
Grange, A. O., Santosham, M., Ayodele, A. K., Lesi, F. E., Stallings, R. Y., and Brown, K. H. Evaluation of a maize-cowpea-palm oil diet for the dietary management of Nigerian children with acute, watery diarrhea. Acta Paediatr. 1994;83(8):825-832. View abstract.
Hallebeek, J. M. and Beynen, A. C. The plasma level of triacylglycerols in horses fed high-fat diets containing either soybean oil or palm oil. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2002;86(3-4):111-116. View abstract.
Heber, D., Ashley, J. M., Solares, M. E., and Wang, J. H. The effects of a palm-oil enriched diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men. Nutrition Research 1992;12(Suppl 1):S53-S59.
Hinds, E. A. Government policy and the Nigerian palm oil export industry, 1939-49. Journal of African History 1997;38(3):459-478.
Jensen, J., Bysted, A., Dawids, S., Hermansen, K., and Holmer, G. The effect of palm oil, lard, and puff-pastry margarine on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women. Br.J Nutr. 1999;82(6):469-479. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Comparison between the effects of dietary saturated (16:0), monounsaturated (18:1), and polyunsaturated (18:2) fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein metabolism in cebus and rhesus monkeys fed cholesterol-free diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(1):51-62. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Dietary fat saturation in rhesus monkeys affects LDL concentrations by modulating the independent production of LDL apolipoprotein B. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 4-24-1991;1083(1):46-56. View abstract.
Khosla, P. and Hayes, K. C. Pa
Kooyenga, D. K., Geller, M., Watkins, T. R., Gapor, A., Diakoumakis, E., and Bierenbaum, M. L. Palm oil antioxidant effects in patients with hyperlipidaemia and carotid stenosis-2 year experience. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;6(1):72-75.
Kritchevsky, D., Tepper, S. A., Chen, S. C., Meijer, G. W., and Krauss, R. M. Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis. 23. Effects of specific synthetic triglycerides. Lipids 2000;35(6):621-625. View abstract.
Ladeia, A. M., Costa-Matos, E., Barata-Passos, R., and Costa, Guimaraes A. A palm oil-rich diet may reduce serum lipids in healthy young individuals. Nutrition 2008;24(1):11-15. View abstract.
Lai, H. C. and Ney, D. M. Corn oil, palm oil and butterfat fractions affect postprandial lipemia and lipoprotein lipase in meal-fed rats. J Nutr 1995;125(6):1536-1545. View abstract.
Lietz, G., Mulokozi, G., Henry, J. C., and Tomkins, A. M. Xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoid patterns differ in plasma and breast milk of women supplemented with red palm oil during pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr 2006;136(7):1821-1827. View abstract.
Lynn, M. The profitability of the early Nineteenth Century palm oil trade. African Economic History 1992;20:77-97.
Manorama, R., Brahmam, G. N., and Rukmini, C. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene for combating vitamin A deficiency. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1996;49(1):75-82. View abstract.
Melo, M. D. and Mancini, J. Natural antioxidants from palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq). Revista de Farmacia e Bioquimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) 1989;258:147-157.
Montoya, M. T., Porres, A., Serrano, S., Fruchart, J. C., Mata, P., Gerique, J. A., and Castro, G. R. Fatty acid saturation of the diet and plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle concentrations, and cholesterol efflux capacity. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75(3):484-491. View abstract.
Muller, H., Jordal, O., Kierulf, P., Kirkhus, B., and Pedersen, J. I. Replacement of partially hydrogenated soybean oil by palm oil in margarine without unfavorable effects on serum lipoproteins. Lipids 1998;33(9):879-887. View abstract.
Muller, H., Seljeflot, I., Solvoll, K., and Pedersen, J. I. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil reduces postprandial t-PA activity compared with palm oil. Atherosclerosis 2001;155(2):467-476. View abstract.
Mutalib, M. S. A., Wahle, K. W. J., Duthie, G. G., Whiting, P., Peace, H., and Jenkinson, A. Human Studies-The Effect of Dietary Palm Oil, Hydrogenated Rape and Soya Oil on indices of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Healthy Scottish Volunteers. Nutrition Research 1999;19(3):335.
Narasinga Rao, B. S. Potential use of red palm oil in combating vitamin A deficiency in India. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2000;21(2):202-211.
Nestel, P. and Trumbo, P. The role of provitamin A carotenoids in the prevention and control of vitamin A deficiency. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 1999;49(3 Suppl 1):26S-33S. View abstract.
Nestel, P. J., Noakes, M., Belling, G. B., McArthur, R., and Clifton, P. M. Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(5):950-955. View abstract.
Ng, T. K., Hassan, K., Lim, J. B., Lye, M. S., and Ishak, R. Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(4 Suppl):1015S-1020S. View abstract.
Ng, T. K., Hayes, K. C., DeWitt, G. F., Jegathesan, M., Satgunasingam, N., Ong, A. S., and Tan, D. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women. J Am Coll.Nutr 1992;11(4):383-390. View abstract.
Nielsen, N. S., Marckmann, P., and Hoy, C. Effect of meal fat quality on oxidation resistance of postprandial VLDL and LDL particles and plasma triacylglycerol level. Br J Nutr 2000;84(6):855-863. View abstract.
Oluba, O. M., Onyeneke, C. E., Ojien, G. C., Eidangbe, G. O., and Orole, R. T. Effects of palm oil supplementation on lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity in cholesterol-fed rats. The Internet Journal of Cardiovascular Research 2009;6(1)
Pedersen, J. I., Muller, H., Seljeflot, I., and Kirkhus, B. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2005;14(4):348-357. View abstract.
Pletcher, J. Public interventions in agricultural markets in Malaysia: rice and palm oil. Modern Asian Studies 1990;24(2):323-340.
Pronczuk, A., Khosla, P., and Hayes, K. C. Dietary myristic, palmitic, and linoleic acids modulate cholesterolemia in gerbils. FASEB J 1994;8(14):1191-1200. View abstract.
Schlierf, G., Jessel, S., Ohm, J., Heuck, C. C., Klose, G., Oster, P., Schellenberg, B., and Weizel, A. Acute dietary effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lipolytic enzymes in healthy normal males. Eur J Clin Invest 1979;9(5):319-325. View abstract.
Schwab, U. S., Niskanen, L. K., Maliranta, H. M., Savolainen, M. J., Kesaniemi, Y. A., and Uusitupa, M. I. Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. J Nutr 1995;125(3):466-473. View abstract.
Sivan, Y. S., Alwin, Jayakumar Y., Arumughan, C., Sundaresan, A., Jayalekshmy, A., Suja, K. P., Soban Kumar, D. R., Deepa, S. S., Damodaran, M., Soman, C. R., Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. J.Trop.Pediatr. 2002;48(1):24-28. View abstract.
Sivan, Y. S., Jayakumar, Y. A., Arumughan, C., Sundaresan, A., Balachandran, C., Job, J., Deepa, S. S., Shihina, S. L., Damodaran, M., Soman, C. R., Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of beta-carotene supplementation through red palm. J Trop.Pediatr 2001;47(2):67-72. View abstract.
Solomons, N. W. Plant sources of vitamin A and human nutrition: red palm oil does the job. Nutr.Rev 1998;56(10):309-311. View abstract.
Stack, K. M., Churchwell, M. A., and Skinner, R. B., Jr. Xanthoderma: case report and differential diagnosis. Cutis 1988;41(2):100-102. View abstract.
Sundram, K., Hayes, K. C., and Siru, O. H. Both dietary 18:2 and 16:0 may be required to improve the serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio in normocholesterolemic men. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 1995;6(4):179-187.
Sundram, K., Hayes, K. C., and Siru, O. H. Dietary palmitic acid results in lower serum cholesterol than does a lauric-myristic acid combination in normolipemic humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59(4):841-846. View abstract.
Sundram, K., Hornstra, G., von Houwelingen, A. C., and Kester, A. D. Replacement of dietary fat with palm oil: effect on human serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Br.J Nutr. 1992;68(3):677-692. View abstract.
Tholstrup, T., Marckmann, P., Jespersen, J., Vessby, B., Jart, A., and Sandstrom, B. Effect on blood lipids, coagulation, and fibrinolysis of a fat high in myristic acid and a fat high in palmitic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60(6):919-925. View abstract.
Utarwuthipong, T., Komindr, S., Pakpeankitvatana, V., Songchitsomboon, S., and Thongmuang, N. Small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration and oxidative susceptibility changes after consumption of soybean oil, rice bran oil, palm oil and mixed rice bran/palm oil in hypercholesterolaemic women. J Int Med Res 2009;37(1):96-104. View abstract.
van Jaarsveld, P. J., Smuts, C. M., Tichelaar, H. Y., Kruger, M., and Benade, A. J. Effect of palm oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations and plasma low-density lipoprotein composition in non-human primates. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51 Suppl:S21-S30. View abstract.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E. and Benade, A. J. S. South African experience with the use of red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of primary school children. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2000;21(2):212-221.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E., Dhansay, M. A., Lombard, C. J., Faber, M., and Benade, A. J. The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children: a comparison with beta-carotene from a synthetic source in a randomised controlled trial. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(8):657-662. View abstract.
van Stuijvenberg, M. E., Faber, M., Dhansay, M. A., Lombard, C. J., Vorster, N., and Benade, A. J. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene in a school biscuit used to address vitamin A deficiency in primary school children. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2000;51 Suppl:S43-S50. View abstract.
Vega-Lopez, S., Ausman, L. M., Jalbert, S. M., Erkkila, A. T., and Lichtenstein, A. H. Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils adversely alter lipoprotein profiles compared with soybean and canola oils in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):54-62. View abstract.
Wardlaw, G. M., Snook, J. T., Park, S., Patel, P. K., Pendley, F. C., Lee, M. S., and Jandacek, R. J. Relative effects on serum lipids and apolipoproteins of a caprenin-rich diet compared with diets rich in palm oil/palm-kernel oil or butter. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1995;61(3):535-542. View abstract.
Zeba, A. N., Martin, Prevel Y., Some, I. T., and Delisle, H. F. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso. Nutr J 2006;5:17. View abstract.
Zhang, J., Ping, W., Chunrong, W., Shou, C. X., and Keyou, G. Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm oil diet in Chinese adults. J Nutr. 1997;127(3):509S-513S. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., de Vries, J. H., and Katan, M. B. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1994;14(4):567-575. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., de Vries, J. H., de Fouw, N. J., and Katan, M. B. Positional distribution of fatty acids in dietary triglycerides: effects on fasting blood lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(1):48-55. View abstract.
Zock, P. L., Gerritsen, J., and Katan, M. B. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans. Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26(2):141-150. View abstract.
Agarwal MK, Agarwal ML, Athar M, Gupta S. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil activates p53, modulates Bax/Bcl2 ratio and induces apoptosis independent of cell cycle association. Cell Cycle 2004;3;205-11. View abstract.
Aguila MB, Pinheiro AR, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Spontaneously hypertensive rats left ventricular cardiomyocyte loss attenuation through different edible oils long-term intake. Int J Cardiol 2005;100:461-6. View abstract.
Aguila MB, Sa Silva SP, Pinheiro AR, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Effects of long-term intake of edible oils on hypertension and myocardial and aortic remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 2004;22:921-9. View abstract.
Akanda MJ, Sarker MZ, Ferdosh S, et al. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources. Molecules 2012;17:1764-94. View abstract.
Atinmo T, Bakre AT. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:350-4. View abstract.
Bautista LE, Herran OF, Serrano C. Effects of palm oil and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins: results from a dietary crossover trial in free-living subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:748-54. View abstract.
Benade AJ. A place for palm fruit oil to eliminate vitamin A deficiency. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:369-72. View abstract.
Beshel FN, Antai AB, Osim EE. Chronic consumption of three forms of palm oil diets alters glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2014;33(2):251-6. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2013069. Epub 2013 Oct 31. View abstract.
Bester DJ, van Rooyen J, du Toit EF, et al. Red palm oil protects against the consequences of oxidative stress when supplemented with dislipidemic diets. Med Tech SA 2006;20:3-10.
Bronsky J, Campoy C, Embleton N, et al. Palm oil and beta-palmitate in infant formula: a position paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019;68(5):742-60. View abstract.
Chen BK, Seligman B, Farquhar JW, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997. Global Health 2011;7:45. View abstract.
Clandinin MT, Larsen B, Van Aerde J. Reduced bone mineralization in infants fed palm olein-containing formula: a randomized, double-blinded, prospective trial. Pediatrics 2004;114:899-900. View abstract.
Cooper KA, Adelekan DA, Esimai AO, et al. Lack of influence of red palm oil on severity of malaria infection in pre-school Nigerian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2002;96;216-23. View abstract.
Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8. View abstract.
Dong S, Xia H, Wang F, Sun G. The Effect of Red Palm Oil on Vitamin A Deficiency: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2017;9(12). View abstract.
Edem DO. Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2002;57:319-41. View abstract.
Esterhuyse AJ, du Toit EF, Benade AJ, van Rooyen J. Dietary red palm oil improves reperfusion cardiac function in the isolated perfused rat heart of animals fed a high cholesterol diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72:153-61. View abstract.
Esterhuyse AJ, du Toit EF, Benade AJS, et al. Dietary red palm oil improves reperfusion cardiac function in the isolated perfused rat heart of animals fed a high cholesterol diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72:153-61. View abstract.
Esterhuyse JS, van Rooyen J, Strijdom H, et al. Proposed mechanisms for red palm oil-induced cardioprotection in a model of hyperlipidemia in the rat. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006;75:375-84. View abstract.
Fattore E, Bosetti C, Brighenti F, et al. Palm oil and blood lipid-related markers of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary intervention trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99:1331-50. View abstract.
Ganafa AA, Socci RR, Eatman D, et al. Effect of palm oil on oxidative stress-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:725-31. View abstract.
Ghosh S, An D, Pulinilkunnil T, et al. Role of dietary fatty acids and acute hyperglycemia in modulating cardiac cell death. Nutrition 2004;20:916-23. View abstract.
Jaarin K, Gapor MT, Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM. Effect of various doses of palm vitamin E and tocopherol on aspirin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Int J Exp Pathol 2002;83:295-302. View abstract.
Jackson KG, Wolstencroft EJ, Bateman PA, et al. Greater enrichment of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins with apolipoproteins E and C-III after meals rich in saturated fatty acids than after meals rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:25-34. View abstract.
Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Czarnecki SK, Sundram K. Red palm oil in experimental atherosclerosis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:S433-7. View abstract.
Lietz G, Henry CJ, Mulokozi G, et al. Comparison of the effects of supplemental red palm oil and sunflower oil on maternal vitamin A status. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:501-9. View abstract.
Loganathan R, Vethakkan SR, Radhakrishnan AK, Razak GA, Kim-Tiu T. Red palm olein supplementation on cytokines, endothelial function and lipid profile in centrally overweight individuals: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2019;73(4):609-16. View abstract.
Lucci P, Borrero M, Ruiz A, et al. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns. Food Funct 2016;7:347-54. View abstract.
Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM, Kamsiah J, Gapor MT. Comparative effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction and tocopherol in aspirin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:309-13. View abstract.
Narang D, Sood S, Thomas MK, et al. Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. BMC Pharmacol 2004;4:29. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in athymic mice. Lipids 2004;39:459-67. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:143-57. View abstract.
Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan A, Selvaduray KR, et al. Effect of palm oil carotene on breast cancer tumorigenicity in nude mice. Lipids 2002;37:557-60. View abstract.
Ng MH, Choo YM, Ma AN, et al. Separation of vitamin E (tocopherol, tocotrienol, tocomonoenol) in palm oil. Lipids 2004;39:1031-5. View abstract.
Oguntibeju OO, Esterhuyse AJ, Truter EJ. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic role in improving human wellbeing and quality of life. Br J Biomed Sci 2009;66:216-22. View abstract.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S, et al. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;102:447-56. View abstract.
Ong AS, Goh SH. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component. Food Nutr Bull 2002;23;11-22. View abstract.
Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1021S-6S. View abstract.
Radhika MS, Bhaskaram P, Balakrishna N, Ramalakshmi BA. Red palm oil supplementation: a feasible diet-based approach to improve vitamin A status of pregnant women and their infants. Food Nutr Bull 2003;24:208-17. View abstract.
Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Oubina P, Rodenas S, et al. Platelet aggregation, thromboxane production and thrombogenic ratio in postmenopausal women consuming high oleic acid-sunflower oil or palmolein. Eur J Nutr 2003:42:299-306. View abstract.
Scholtz SC, Pieters M, Oosthuizen W, et al. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects. Thromb Res 2004;113:13-25. View abstract.
Singh I, Nair RS, Gan S, Cheong V, Morris A. An evaluation of crude palm oil (CPO) and tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil as percutaneous permeation enhancers using full-thickness human skin. Pharm Dev Technol 2019;24(4):448-54. View abstract.
Soelaiman IN, Ahmad NS, Khalid BA. Palm oil tocotrienol mixture is better than alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bones against free-radical induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2004;13:S111. View abstract.
Solomons NW, Orozco M. Alleviation of vitamin A deficiency with palm fruit and its products. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:373-84. View abstract.
Sun Y, Neelakantan N, Wu Y, et al. Palm oil consumption increases LDL cholesterol compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Nutr 2015;145:1549-58. View abstract.
Sundram K, Sambanthamurthi R, Tan YA. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:369-72. View abstract.
Tholstrup T, Marckmann P, Jespersen J, Sandstrom B. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:371-7. View abstract.
Tiahou G, Maire B, Dupuy A, et al. Lack of oxidative stress in a selenium deficient area in Ivory Coast--potential nutritional antioxidant role of crude palm oil. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:367-74. View abstract.
Tomeo AC, Geller M, Watkins TR, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 1995;30:1179-83. View abstract.
Voon PT, Lee ST, Ng TKW, et al. Intake of palm olein and lipid status in healthy adults: a meta-analysis. Adv Nutr 2019;10(4):647-59. View abstract.
Wang F, Zhao D, Yang Y, Zhang L. Effect of palm oil consumption on plasma lipid concentrations related to cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2019;28(3):495-506. View abstract.
Wattanapenpaiboon N, Wahlqvist MW. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003;12:363-8. View abstract.
Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Kotyla T, et al. Different oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Biochem 2005;16:633-40. View abstract.
Zagre NM, Delpeuch F, Traissac P, Delisle H. Red palm oil as a source of vitamin A for mothers and children: impact of a pilot project in Burkina Faso. Public Health Nutr 2003;6:733-42. View abstract.
Zhang J, Wang CR, Xue AN, Ge KY. Effects of red palm oil on serum lipids and plasma carotenoids level in Chinese male adults. Biomed Environ Sci 2003;16:348-54. View abstract.
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.