Brassica Oleracea Italica Group, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Brocoli, Brócoli, Broccoli Flower, Calabrese, Purple Sprouting Broccoli.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBroccoli is a vegetable. The parts that grow above the ground are used to make medicine.
Broccoli is used for high cholesterol, fibromyalgia, preventing several types of cancer, and other conditions, there is no strong scientific evidence to support these uses.
How does it work?Chemicals in broccoli might have cancer-preventing and antioxidant effects. Additionally, when broccoli is eaten with a starch, it slows down how quickly sugar from the starch goes into the blood. This is beneficial for people with diabetes.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- High cholesterol. Drinking a beverage containing broccoli, cabbage, and fruit twice daily for 12 weeks seems to reduce “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Bladder cancer. There is some evidence that eating 1.75 cups of broccoli or cabbage daily might lower the risk of developing bladder cancer by about 30%.
- Breast cancer. There is some evidence that eating broccoli might modestly reduce younger women's risk of getting breast cancer. However, eating broccoli does not seem to help prevent breast cancer in older (postmenopausal) women.
- Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Some research suggests that eating broccoli might help prevent colorectal cancer.
- Fibromyalgia. Early research shows that taking ascorbigen and broccoli powder by mouth might reduce pain and other symptoms in people with fibromyalgia.
- Stomach cancer. Some research has found that eating broccoli might prevent stomach cancer.
- Prostate cancer. Some research has found that eating more broccoli and related vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, is linked with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. But other research finds no link. There is some evidence that taking a blend of broccoli powder, turmeric powder, pomegranate whole fruit powder, and green tea extract for 6 months can prevent prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels from rising in men with prostate cancer. PSA levels are measured to monitor how well prostate cancer treatment is working. But it's not yet known if this formula, or broccoli alone, reduces the risk of prostate cancer progression or recurrence.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Broccoli is LIKELY SAFE in the small amounts found in a normal diet. There's not enough information to know if broccoli is safe when taken in larger medicinal amounts.
When applied to the skin: Broccoli can cause an allergic rash in hypersensitive people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Broccoli is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women in food amounts. But larger medicinal amounts should be avoided until more is known.
We currently have no information for BROCCOLI Interactions.
The appropriate dose of broccoli depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for broccoli. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Ambrosone CB, McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, et al. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype. J Nutr 2004;134:1134-8. View abstract.
- Anon. Broccoli compound inhibits HSV. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2003;17:609. View abstract.
- Bailey GS, Dashwood RH, Fong AT, et al. Modulation of mycotoxin and nitrosamine carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol: quantitative analysis of inhibition versus promotion. IARC Sci Publ 1991;105:275-80. View abstract.
- Balk JL. Indole-3-carbinol for cancer prevention. Altern Med Alert 2000; 3:105-7.
- Ballance S, Knutsen SH, Fosvold ØW, Wickham M, Trenado CD, Monro J. Glyceamic and insulinaemic response to mashed potato alone, or with broccoli, broccoli fibre or cellulose in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57(1):199-207. View abstract.
- Barcelo S, Mace K, Pfeifer AM, Chipman JK. Production of DNA strand breaks by N-nitrosodimethylamine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in THLE cells expressing human CYP isoenzymes and inhibition by sulforaphane. Mutat Res 1998;402:111-20. View abstract.
- Bell MC, Crowley-Nowick P, Bradlow HL, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN. Gynecol Oncol 2000;78:123-9. View abstract.
- Bradlow HL, Michnovicz J, Telang NT, Osborne MP. Effects of dietary indole-3-carbinol on estradiol metabolism and spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis 1991;12:1571-4. View abstract.
- Bradlow HL, Sepkovic DW, Telang NT, Osborne MP. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;889:204-13. View abstract.
- Bramwell, B., Ferguson, S., Scarlett, N., and Macintosh, A. The use of ascorbigen in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients: a preliminary trial. Altern.Med Rev 2000;5(5):455-462. View abstract.
- Brooks JD, Paton V. Potent induction of carcinogen defense enzymes with sulforaphane, a putative prostate cancer chemopreventive agent. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 1999;2:S8.. View abstract.
- Chakrabarti A, Prais L, Foulds IS. Allergic contact dermatitis to broccoli. Br J Dermatol 2003;148:172-3. View abstract.
- Chiao JW, Chung FL, Kancherla R, et al. Sulforaphane and its metabolite mediate growth arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2002;20:631-6.. View abstract.
- Chu YF, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:6910-6. View abstract.
- Conaway CC, Getahun SM, Liebes LL, et al. Disposition of glucosinolates and sulforaphane in humans after ingestion of steamed and fresh broccoli. Nutr Cancer 2000;38:168-78.View abstract.
- Dashwood RH. Indole-3-carbinol: anticarcinogen or tumor promoter in brassica vegetables? Chem Biol Interact 1998;110:1-5. View abstract.
- Ekiz F, Yuksel I, Kertmen N, Yuksel O. Liver toxicity due to broccoli juice. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22(7):898. View abstract.
- Exon JH, South EH. Dietary indole-3-carbinol alters immune functions in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2000;59:271-9. View abstract.
- Finley JW. Reduction of cancer risk by consumption of selenium-enriched plants: enrichment of broccoli with selenium increases the anticarcinogenic properties of broccoli. J Med Food 2003;6:19-26. View abstract.
- Finley JW. The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) may explain the protective effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancer. Nutr Rev 2003;61:250-4. View abstract.
- Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, et al. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1403-9. View abstract.
- Grubbs CJ, Steele VE, Casebolt T, et al. Chemoprevention of chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol. Anticancer Res 1995;15:709-16. View abstract.
- Hakooz, N. and Hamdan, I. Effects of dietary broccoli on human in vivo caffeine metabolism: a pilot study on a group of Jordanian volunteers. Curr Drug Metab 2007;8(1):9-15. View abstract.
- Hara M, Hanaoka T, Kobayashi M, et al. Cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, and gastrointestinal cancer risks in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Nutr Cancer 2003;46:138-47. View abstract.
- He YH, Friesen MD, Ruch RJ, Schut HA. Indole-3-carbinol as a chemopreventive agent in 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) carcinogenesis: inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation, acceleration of PhIP metabolism, and induction of cytochrome P450 in female F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38:15-23. View abstract.
- Heiss E, Herhaus C, Klimo K, et al. Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem 2001;276:32008-15. View abstract.
- Hintze KJ, Keck AS, Finley JW, Jeffery EH. Induction of hepatic thioredoxin reductase activity by sulforaphane, both in Hepa1c1c7 cells and in male Fisher 344 rats. J Nutr Biochem 2003;14:173-9. View abstract.
- Jin L, Qi M, Chen DZ, et al. Indole-3-carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice. Cancer Res 1999;59:3991-7. View abstract.
- Kim DJ, Han BS, Ahn B, et al. Enhancement by indole-3-carbinol of liver and thyroid gland neoplastic development in a rat medium-term multiorgan carcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis 1997;18:377-81. View abstract.
- Kojima T, Tanaka T, Mori H. Chemoprevention of spontaneous endometrial cancer in female Donryu rats by dietary indole-3-carbinol. Cancer Res 1994;54:1446-9. View abstract.
- Kristal AR, Lampe JW. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 2002;42:1-9. View abstract.
- Lampe JW, Peterson S. Brassica, biotransformation and cancer risk: genetic polymorphisms alter the preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables. J Nutr 2002;132:2991-4. View abstract.
- Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:947-9. View abstract.
- Michnovicz JJ. Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole-3-carbinol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:227-9. View abstract.
- Mithen R, Faulkner K, Magrath R, et al. Development of isothiocyanate-enriched broccoli, and its enhanced ability to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes in mammalian cells. Theor Appl Genet 2003;106:727-34. View abstract.
- Natl Inst Health, Natl Inst Environmental Health Sci. Indole-3-carbinol. Available at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov.
- Nestle M. Broccoli sprouts in cancer prevention. Nutr Rev 1998;56:127-30. View abstract.
- Pence BC, Buddingh F, Yang SP. Multiple dietary factors in the enhancement of dimethylhydrazine carcinogenesis: main effect of indole-3-carbinol. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986;77:269-76. View abstract.
- Rangkadilok N, Tomkins B, Nicolas ME, et al. The effect of post-harvest and packaging treatments on glucoraphanin concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7386-91. View abstract.
- Rosen CA, Woodson GE, Thompson JW, et al. Preliminary results of the use of indole-3-carbinol for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;118:810-5. View abstract.
- Saha S, Hollands W, Teucher B, et al. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56(12):1906-16. View abstract.
- Srivastava B, Shukla Y. Antitumour promoting activity of indole-3-carbinol in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1998;134:91-5. View abstract.
- Stram DO, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:1193-207. View abstract.
- Takai, M., Suido, H., Tanaka, T., Kotani, M., Fujita, A., Takeuchi, A., Makino, T., Sumikawa, K., Origasa, H., Tsuji, K., and Nakashima, M. [LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of a mixed green vegetable and fruit beverage containing broccoli and cabbage in hypercholesterolemic subjects]. Rinsho Byori 2003;51(11):1073-1083. View abstract.
- Telang NT, Katdare M, Bradlow HL, et al. Inhibition of proliferation and modulation of estradiol metabolism: novel mechanisms for breast cancer prevention by the phytochemical indole-3-carbinol. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997;216:246-52. View abstract.
- Thomas R, Williams M, Sharma H, Chaudry A, Bellamy P. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial evaluating the effect of a polyphenol-rich whole food supplement on PSA progression in men with prostate cancer--the U.K. NCRN Pomi-T study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2014;17(2):180-6. View abstract.
- Tse G, Eslick GD. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):128-39. View abstract.
- Walters DG, Young PJ, Agus C, et al. Cruciferous vegetable consumption alters the metabolism of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in humans. Carcinogenesis 2004;25:1659-69. View abstract.
- Wu L, Noyan Ashraf MH, Facci M, et al. Dietary approach to attenuate oxidative stress, hypertension, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:7094-9. View abstract.
- Wu QJ, Yang Y, Vogtmann E, et al. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(4):1079-87. View abstract.
- Yu L, Gao B, Li Y, Wang TTY, Luo Y, Wang J, Yu LL. Home food preparation techniques impacted the availability of natural antioxidants and bioactivities in kale and broccoli. Food Funct. 2018;9(1):585-593. View abstract.
- Yuan F, Chen DZ, Liu K, et al. Anti-estrogenic activities of indole-3-carbinol in cervical cells: implication for prevention of cervical cancer. Anticancer Res 1999;19:1673-80. View abstract.
- Zhang J, Svehlikova V, Bao Y, et al. Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis 2003;24:497-503.. View abstract.
- Zhang Y, Callaway EC. High cellular accumulation of sulphoraphane, a dietary anticarcinogen, is followed by rapid transporter-mediated export as a glutathione conjugate. Biochem J 2002;364:301-7.. View abstract.
- Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2007;120:2208-13. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased BROCCOLI?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)