DIMETHYLAMYLAMINE

OTHER NAME(S):

1,3-Dimethylamylamine, 1,3-Dimethyl-5-Amine, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine HCL, 1,3 Dimethylpentylamine, 1,3-dimethylpentylamine, 2-amino-4-methylhexane, 2-Hexanamine,4-Methyl-(9Cl), 4-methyl-2-hexanamine, 4-methyl-2-hexyl-amine, 4-methylhexan-2-amine, C7H17N, CAS 105-41-9, Dimetilamilamina, Dimethylpentylamine, Diméthylpentylamine, DMAA, Forthan, Forthane, Floradrene, Fouramin, Geranamine, Geranium, Géranium, Metexaminum, Methexaminum, Methylhexanamine, Méthylhexanamine, Methylhexaneamine, Méthylhexanéamine, Pelargonium, Pentylamine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Dimethylamylamine is a drug made synthetically in a laboratory. It was originally used as a nasal decongestant. Today, dimethylamylamine is sold as a dietary supplement used for attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD), weight loss, improving athletic performance, and body building.

Some products claim that dimethylamylamine naturally comes from rose geranium oil. Supplements that contain this ingredient sometimes list rose geranium, geranium oil, or geranium stems on the label. However, laboratory analysis shows that this drug probably does not come from this natural source. It is thought that these manufacturers have artificially added this drug to the supplement rather than obtaining it from a natural source. Dimethylamylamine is considered a drug in Canada and is not permitted in dietary supplements or natural health products.

Many athletes take dimethylamylamine to improve performance. However, dimethylamylamine was added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's prohibited substances list in 2010. Therefore, competitive athletes should avoid taking it.

Due to safety concerns, dimethylamylamine has been removed from military stores in the US. It has also been banned in New Zealand. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers supplements containing dimethylamylamine to be illegal. Its use has been linked to several reports of serious, life-threatening side effects.

How does it work?

Dimethylamylamine is thought to have stimulant effects similar to decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and others. Some promoters say that it is a safer alternative to ephedrine. However, there is no scientific information to back up this claim.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Weight loss. Early research shows that taking dimethylamylamine does not seem to help with weight loss.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD).
  • Athletic performance.
  • Body building.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate dimethylamylamine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Dimethylamylamine is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. Since it is thought to work like a stimulant, there is concern that it might increase the chance of serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure, and increased risk of heart attack or stroke.

There have been several reports of dangerous side effects including stroke, a condition called lactic acidosis, heart attack, liver injury, and death in people who have taken dimethylamylamine.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of dimethylamylamine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

High blood pressure: Dimethylamylamine might have stimulant effects and can increase blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, avoid taking dimethylamylamine.

Glaucoma: Dimethylamylamine might have stimulant effects and cause blood vessels to constrict. This could worsen some types of glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, avoid taking dimethylamylamine.

Irregular heartbeat (heart arrhythmia): Dimethylamylamine might have stimulant effects and can cause a rapid heartbeat. This could worsen heart arrhythmias.

Surgery: Dimethylamylamine might have stimulant effects, so it might interfere with surgery by increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Stop taking dimethylamylamine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for DIMETHYLAMYLAMINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of dimethylamylamine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for dimethylamylamine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Adverse Event Report. Jack3d. Natural MedWatch, May 28, 2011.
  • AHPA clarifies its position on the science linking DMAA to geranium oil; new research on DMAA in geranium reported. AHPA News Room, August 11, 2011. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=69&aId=709. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • Classification of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Health Canada, July 7, 2011.
  • Daniells S. AHPA takes '1st stand' on labeling of DMAA-geranium oil. Nutraingredients-usa.com, August 9, 2011. Available at: http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Industry/AHPA-takes-1st-stand-on-labeling-of-DMAA-geranium-oil. (Accessed 12 August 2011).
  • DMAA Banned from 9 April 2012. Ministry of Health, New Zealand, March 23, 2012. Available at: http://www.health.govt.nz/news-media/news-items/dmaa-banned-9-april-2012
  • Farney TM, McCarthy C, Canale RE, et al. Hemodynamic and hematologic profile of health adults ingesting dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:1-12.
  • FDA challenges marketing of DMAA products for lack of safety evidence. US Food and Drug Administration, April 27, 2012. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm302133.htm
  • Gee P, Jackson S, Easton J. Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills. N Z Med J 2010;123:124-7. View abstract.
  • McCarthy C, Canale RE, Alleman RJ, et al. Biochemical and anthropometric effects of a weight loss dietary supplement in health men and women. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:13-22.
  • McCarthy C, Farney TM, Canale RE, et al. A finished dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and metabolic rate in young men and women. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:23-31.
  • Removal of the dietary supplement DMAA. Army Medicine, Office of the Surgeon General, 2011. Available at: http://humanperformanceresourcecenter.org/dietary-supplements/files/dmaa-pdf. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • Starling S. Synthetic geranium substance raises ephedra-like red flags. Nutraingredients-use.com, May 11, 2010. Available at: http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Industry/Synthetic-geranium-substance-raises-ephedra-like-red-flags. (Accessed 12 August 2011).
  • The World Anti-Doping Code. The 2010 Prohibited List International Standard. Word Anti-Doping Agency, September 19, 2009. Available at: http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-Prohibited-list/WADA_Prohibited_List_2010_EN.pdf
  • UPDATE to ALFOODACT 034-2011 and ALFOODACT 036-2011, and 041-2011 Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) Is Placed On Medical Hold Due To Possible Serious Adverse Health Effects. DLA Troop Support, December 30, 2011. Available at: http://www.dscp.dla.mil/subs/fso/alfood/2011/alf04411.pdf. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • Vorce SP, Holler JM, Cawrse BM, Magluilo J. Dimethylamylamine: A drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol 2011;35:183-7. View abstract.
  • Adverse Event Report. Jack3d. Natural MedWatch, May 28, 2011.
  • AHPA clarifies its position on the science linking DMAA to geranium oil; new research on DMAA in geranium reported. AHPA News Room, August 11, 2011. Available at: http://www.ahpa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=69&aId=709. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • Archer JR, Dargan PI, Lostia AM, van der Walt J, Henderson K, Drake N, Sharma S, Wood DM, Walker CJ, Kicman AT. Running an unknown risk: a marathon death associated with the use of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Drug Test Anal. 2015 May;7(5):433-8. View abstract.
  • Armstrong M. Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response following use of Dietary Supplement Containing 1,3 Dimethylamylamine and Caffeine. J Spec Oper Med. 2012 Winter;12(4):1-4. View abstract.
  • Austin KG, Travis J, Pace G, Lieberman HR. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements. Drug Test Anal. 2014 Jul-Aug;6(7-8):797-804. View abstract.
  • Bloomer RJ, Farney TM, Harvey IC, Alleman RJ. Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013 Nov;32(11):1126-36. View abstract.
  • Brown JA, Buckley NA. Toxicity from bodybuilding supplements and recreational use of products containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine. Med J Aust. 2013 May 6;198(8):414-5. View abstract.
  • Classification of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Health Canada, July 7, 2011.
  • Daniells S. AHPA takes '1st stand' on labeling of DMAA-geranium oil. Nutraingredients-usa.com, August 9, 2011. Available at: http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Industry/AHPA-takes-1st-stand-on-labeling-of-DMAA-geranium-oil. (Accessed 12 August 2011).
  • Di Lorenzo C, Moro E, Dos Santos A, Uberti F, Restani P. Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin? Drug Test Anal. 2013 Feb;5(2):116-21. View abstract.
  • DMAA Banned from 9 April 2012. Ministry of Health, New Zealand, March 23, 2012. Available at: http://www.health.govt.nz/news-media/news-items/dmaa-banned-9-april-2012
  • Dolan SB, Gatch MB. Abuse liability of the dietary supplement dimethylamylamine. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jan 1;146:97-102. View abstract.
  • Dunn M. Have prohibition policies made the wrong decision? A critical review of studies investigating the effects of DMAA. Int J Drug Policy. 2017 Feb;40:26-34. View abstract.
  • Eliason MJ, Eichner A, Cancio A, Bestervelt L, Adams BD, Deuster PA. Case reports: Death of active duty soldiers following ingestion of dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Mil Med. 2012 Dec;177(12):1455-9. View abstract.
  • Farney TM, McCarthy C, Canale RE, et al. Hemodynamic and hematologic profile of health adults ingesting dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:1-12.
  • FDA challenges marketing of DMAA products for lack of safety evidence. US Food and Drug Administration, April 27, 2012. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm302133.htm
  • Fleming HL, Ranaivo PL, Simone PS. Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations. Anal Chem Insights. 2012;7:59-78. View abstract.
  • Forrester M. Exposures to 1,3-dimethylamylamine-containing products reported to Texas poison centers. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013 Jan;32(1):18-23. View abstract.
  • Gauthier TD. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials. Anal Chem Insights. 2013 Jun 6;8:29-40. View abstract.
  • Gee P, Jackson S, Easton J. Another bitter pill: a case of toxicity from DMAA party pills. N Z Med J 2010;123:124-7. View abstract.
  • Liu Y, Santillo MF. Cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 enzyme inhibition by amine stimulants in dietary supplements. Drug Test Anal. 2016;8(3-4):307-10. View abstract.
  • McCarthy C, Canale RE, Alleman RJ, et al. Biochemical and anthropometric effects of a weight loss dietary supplement in health men and women. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:13-22.
  • McCarthy C, Farney TM, Canale RE, et al. A finished dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and metabolic rate in young men and women. Nutr Metab Insights 2012;5:23-31.
  • Palmer PG Jr. Deadly dimethylamylamine: "health" supplements are killing consumers while current regulations impede FDA action. J Leg Med. 2014;35(2):311-36. View abstract.
  • Removal of the dietary supplement DMAA. Army Medicine, Office of the Surgeon General, 2011. Available at: http://humanperformanceresourcecenter.org/dietary-supplements/files/dmaa-pdf. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 1,3 DIMETHYLAMYLAMINE (DMAA) SAFETY REVIEW PANEL. June 3, 2013. Available at: http://hprc-online.org/dietary-supplements/opss/operation-supplement-safety-OPSS/tools-for-providers/files/ReportoftheDoDDMAASafetyReviewPanel2013.pdf
  • Rodricks JV, Lumpkin MH, Schilling BK. Pharmacokinetic data distinguish abusive versus dietary supplement uses of 1,3-dimethylamylamine. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Jun;61(6):718-9. View abstract.
  • Schilling BK, Hammond KG, Bloomer RJ, Presley CS, Yates CR. Physiological and pharmacokinetic effects of oral 1,3-dimethylamylamine administration in men. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013 Oct 4;14:52. View abstract.
  • Smith TB, Staub BA, Natarajan GM, et al. Acute myocardial infarction associated with dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and Citrus aurantium. Tex Heart Inst J 2014;41(1):70-2. View abstract.
  • Starling S. Synthetic geranium substance raises ephedra-like red flags. Nutraingredients-use.com, May 11, 2010. Available at: http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Industry/Synthetic-geranium-substance-raises-ephedra-like-red-flags. (Accessed 12 August 2011).
  • The World Anti-Doping Code. The 2010 Prohibited List International Standard. Word Anti-Doping Agency, September 19, 2009. Available at: http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-Prohibited-list/WADA_Prohibited_List_2010_EN.pdf
  • UPDATE to ALFOODACT 034-2011 and ALFOODACT 036-2011, and 041-2011 Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) Is Placed On Medical Hold Due To Possible Serious Adverse Health Effects. DLA Troop Support, December 30, 2011. Available at: http://www.dscp.dla.mil/subs/fso/alfood/2011/alf04411.pdf. (Accessed 4 January 2012).
  • Van Hout MC, Hearne E. "Plant or poison": A netnographic study of recreational use of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Dec;26(12):1279-81. View abstract.
  • Vorce SP, Holler JM, Cawrse BM, Magluilo J. Dimethylamylamine: A drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol 2011;35:183-7. View abstract.
  • Whitehead PN, Schilling BK, Farney TM, Bloomer RJ. Impact of a dietary supplement containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine on blood pressure and bloodborne markers of health: a 10-week intervention study. Nutr Metab Insights. 2012 Feb 2;5:33-9. View abstract.
  • Young C, Oladipo O, Frasier S, et al. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. Mil Med 2012;177(12):1450-4. View abstract.

More Resources for DIMETHYLAMYLAMINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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