POLYDEXTROSE

OTHER NAME(S):

(2S,3R ,4S,5S,6R)-6-[[(3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Polydextrose is made up of sugars linked in chains. It is made in laboratories. People use these sugar chains in food and as medicine.

Polydextrose is taken by mouth for scaly, itchy skin (eczema), diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes), infant development, and as a prebiotic.

In foods, polydextrose is used as a sweetener and to improve the texture of foods.

How does it work?

Polydextrose passes undigested into the colon where it can increase bowel mass and possibly promote growth of certain bacteria that are thought to be beneficial.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Infant development. Research shows that adding polydextrose along with other prebiotics to infant formula does not affect how quickly a healthy infant gains weight or increases in length.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Scaly, itchy skin (eczema). Some research shows that feeding infants at risk for allergy a formula containing 8 grams/L of a prebiotic mixture that includes polydextrose increases the risk of developing eczema by 11% compared to control formula. However, other research shows that feeding similar infants a formula containing 4 grams/L of a prebiotic mixture including polydextrose does not affect the risk of developing eczema.
  • Diabetes. Early research shows that drinking a beverage containing polydextrose twice daily for 12 weeks does not affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes), or impair fasting glucose.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes). Early research shows that drinking a beverage containing polydextrose twice daily for 12 weeks does not affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes), or impair fasting glucose.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of polydextrose for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Polydextrose is LIKELY SAFE when used as a food additive, provided a serving contains less than 15 grams of polydextrose.

Polydextrose is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in doses of less than 50 grams per day. Polydextrose can cause intestinal gas (flatulence), bloating, stomachcramps, and diarrhea.

Polydextrose is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in single doses of more than 50 grams or in daily doses of more than 90 grams. High doses of polydextrose might cause severe diarrhea.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking polydextrose if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid using in amounts greater than what is normally found in food.

Children: Polydextrose is POSSIBLY SAFE for infants when added to formula at concentrations of approximately 2-4 grams/L.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for POLYDEXTROSE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of polydextrose depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for polydextrose. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Schwab, U., Louheranta, A., Torronen, A., and Uusitupa, M. Impact of sugar beet pectin and polydextrose on fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids in middle-aged subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
  • Achour L, Flourie B, Briet F, et al. Gastrointestinal effects and energy value of polydextrose in healthy nonobese men. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59(6):1362-1368. View abstract.
  • Auerbach MH, Craig SA, Howlett JF, Hayes KC. Caloric availability of polydextrose. Nutr Rev 2007;65(12 Pt 1):544-549. View abstract.
  • Burdock GA, Flamm WG. A review of the studies of the safety of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37(2-3):233-264. View abstract.
  • Craig SAS, Holden JF, Troup JP, Auerbach MH, Frier HI. Polydextrose as soluble fiber: Physiological and analytical aspects. Cereal Foods World 1998;43(5):370-376.
  • Flood MT, Auerbach MH, Craig SA. A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42(9):1531-1542. View abstract.
  • Food Additive Status List. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm091048.htm#abb.
  • Hengst C, Ptok S, Roessler A, Fechner A, Jahreis G. Effects of polydextrose supplementation on different faecal parameters in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 5:96-105. View abstract.
  • Hyvonen L, Linna M, Tuorila H, Dijksterhuis G. Perception of melting and flavor release of ice cream containing different types and contents of fat. J Dairy Sci 2003;86(4):1130-1138. View abstract.
  • Jie Z, Bang-Yao L, Ming-Jie X, et al. Studies on the effects of polydextrose intake on physiologic functions in Chinese people. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(6):1503-1509. View abstract.
  • Kimura Y, Nagata Y, Bryant CW, Buddington RK. Nondigestible oligosaccharides do not increase accumulation of lipid soluble environmental contaminants by mice. J Nutr 2002;132(1):80-87. View abstract.
  • Kimura Y, Nagata Y, Buddington RK. Some dietary fibers increase elimination of orally administered polychlorinated biphenyls but not that of retinol in mice. J Nutr 2004;134(1):135-142. View abstract.
  • King NA, Craig SA, Pepper T, Blundell JE. Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d. Br J Nutr 2005;93(6):911-915. View abstract.
  • Kumemura M, Shimizu S, Tanizaki M, et al. The early phase of colon tumorigenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine in ICR mice. Oncol Rep 1998;5(3):621-624. View abstract.
  • Makivuokko H, Nurmi J, Nurminen P, Stowell J, Rautonen N. In vitro effects on polydextrose by colonic bacteria and caco-2 cell cyclooxygenase gene expression. Nutr Cancer 2005;52(1):94-104. View abstract.
  • Mitchell HL. "The role of the bulking agent polydextrose in fat replacement." Handbook of Fat Replacers. Ed. Roller S, Jones SA. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 1996.
  • Mudgil D, Barak S. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;61:1-6. View abstract.
  • Nakamura N, Gaskins HR, Collier CT, et al. Molecular ecological analysis of fecal bacterial populations from term infants fed formula supplemented with selected blends of prebiotics. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009;75(4):1121-1128. View abstract.
  • Newberne PM, Conner MW, Estes P. The influence of food additives and related materials on lower bowel structure and function. Toxicol Pathol 1988;16(2):184-197. View abstract.
  • Ogata S, Fujimoto K, Iwakiri R, et al. Effect of polydextrose on absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol in mesenteric lymph-fistula rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997;215(1):53-58. View abstract.
  • Saku K, Yoshinaga K, Okura Y, et al. Effects of polydextrose on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in healthy subjects. Clin Ther 1991;13(2):254-258. View abstract.
  • Satoh H, Hara T, Murakawa D, Matsuura M, Takata K. Soluble dietary fiber protects against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage to the small intestine in cats. Dig Dis Sci 2010;55(5):1264-1271. View abstract.
  • Setser CS, Racette WL. Macromolecule replacers in food products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1992;32(3):275-297. View abstract.
  • Setsu E. [Cariogenicity of polydextrose and refined polydextrose as a substrate]. Nichidai Koko Kagaku 1989;15(1):1-11. View abstract.
  • Shimomura, Y., Maeda, K., Nagasaki, M., Matsuo, Y., Murakami, T., Bajotto, G., Sato, J., Seino, T., Kamiwaki, T., and Suzuki, M. Attenuated response of the serum triglyceride concentration to ingestion of a chocolate containing polydextrose and lactitol in place of sugar. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005;69(10):1819-1823. View abstract.
  • Tomlin J, Read NW. A comparative study of the effects on colon function caused by feeding ispaghula husk and polydextrose. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1988;2(6):513-519. View abstract.
  • Willis, H. J., Eldridge, A. L., Beiseigel, J., Thomas, W., and Slavin, J. L. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects. Nutr Res 2009;29(2):100-105. View abstract.
  • Ziegler E, Vanderhoof JA, Petschow B, et al. Term infants fed formula supplemented with selected blends of prebiotics grow normally and have soft stools similar to those reported for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007;44(3):359-364. View abstract.
  • Schwab, U., Louheranta, A., Torronen, A., and Uusitupa, M. Impact of sugar beet pectin and polydextrose on fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids in middle-aged subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
  • Achour L, Flourie B, Briet F, et al. Gastrointestinal effects and energy value of polydextrose in healthy nonobese men. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59(6):1362-1368. View abstract.
  • Auerbach MH, Craig SA, Howlett JF, Hayes KC. Caloric availability of polydextrose. Nutr Rev 2007;65(12 Pt 1):544-549. View abstract.
  • Burdock GA, Flamm WG. A review of the studies of the safety of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37(2-3):233-264. View abstract.
  • Craig SAS, Holden JF, Troup JP, Auerbach MH, Frier HI. Polydextrose as soluble fiber: Physiological and analytical aspects. Cereal Foods World 1998;43(5):370-376.
  • Flood MT, Auerbach MH, Craig SA. A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42(9):1531-1542. View abstract.
  • Food Additive Status List. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm091048.htm#abb.
  • Hengst C, Ptok S, Roessler A, Fechner A, Jahreis G. Effects of polydextrose supplementation on different faecal parameters in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 5:96-105. View abstract.
  • Hyvonen L, Linna M, Tuorila H, Dijksterhuis G. Perception of melting and flavor release of ice cream containing different types and contents of fat. J Dairy Sci 2003;86(4):1130-1138. View abstract.
  • Jie Z, Bang-Yao L, Ming-Jie X, et al. Studies on the effects of polydextrose intake on physiologic functions in Chinese people. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(6):1503-1509. View abstract.
  • Kimura Y, Nagata Y, Bryant CW, Buddington RK. Nondigestible oligosaccharides do not increase accumulation of lipid soluble environmental contaminants by mice. J Nutr 2002;132(1):80-87. View abstract.
  • Kimura Y, Nagata Y, Buddington RK. Some dietary fibers increase elimination of orally administered polychlorinated biphenyls but not that of retinol in mice. J Nutr 2004;134(1):135-142. View abstract.
  • King NA, Craig SA, Pepper T, Blundell JE. Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d. Br J Nutr 2005;93(6):911-915. View abstract.
  • Kumemura M, Shimizu S, Tanizaki M, et al. The early phase of colon tumorigenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine in ICR mice. Oncol Rep 1998;5(3):621-624. View abstract.
  • Makivuokko H, Nurmi J, Nurminen P, Stowell J, Rautonen N. In vitro effects on polydextrose by colonic bacteria and caco-2 cell cyclooxygenase gene expression. Nutr Cancer 2005;52(1):94-104. View abstract.
  • Mitchell HL. "The role of the bulking agent polydextrose in fat replacement." Handbook of Fat Replacers. Ed. Roller S, Jones SA. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 1996.
  • Mudgil D, Barak S. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;61:1-6. View abstract.
  • Nakamura N, Gaskins HR, Collier CT, et al. Molecular ecological analysis of fecal bacterial populations from term infants fed formula supplemented with selected blends of prebiotics. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009;75(4):1121-1128. View abstract.
  • Newberne PM, Conner MW, Estes P. The influence of food additives and related materials on lower bowel structure and function. Toxicol Pathol 1988;16(2):184-197. View abstract.
  • Ogata S, Fujimoto K, Iwakiri R, et al. Effect of polydextrose on absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol in mesenteric lymph-fistula rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997;215(1):53-58. View abstract.
  • Saku K, Yoshinaga K, Okura Y, et al. Effects of polydextrose on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in healthy subjects. Clin Ther 1991;13(2):254-258. View abstract.
  • Satoh H, Hara T, Murakawa D, Matsuura M, Takata K. Soluble dietary fiber protects against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage to the small intestine in cats. Dig Dis Sci 2010;55(5):1264-1271. View abstract.
  • Setser CS, Racette WL. Macromolecule replacers in food products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1992;32(3):275-297. View abstract.
  • Setsu E. [Cariogenicity of polydextrose and refined polydextrose as a substrate]. Nichidai Koko Kagaku 1989;15(1):1-11. View abstract.
  • Shimomura, Y., Maeda, K., Nagasaki, M., Matsuo, Y., Murakami, T., Bajotto, G., Sato, J., Seino, T., Kamiwaki, T., and Suzuki, M. Attenuated response of the serum triglyceride concentration to ingestion of a chocolate containing polydextrose and lactitol in place of sugar. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005;69(10):1819-1823. View abstract.
  • Tomlin J, Read NW. A comparative study of the effects on colon function caused by feeding ispaghula husk and polydextrose. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1988;2(6):513-519. View abstract.
  • Willis, H. J., Eldridge, A. L., Beiseigel, J., Thomas, W., and Slavin, J. L. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects. Nutr Res 2009;29(2):100-105. View abstract.
  • Ziegler E, Vanderhoof JA, Petschow B, et al. Term infants fed formula supplemented with selected blends of prebiotics grow normally and have soft stools similar to those reported for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007;44(3):359-364. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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