TOCOTRIENOLS

OTHER NAME(S):

(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trienyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol; (2R)-2,5,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trienyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol; (2R)-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trienyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol; (2R)-2,8-dimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trienyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol, 8-Methyltocotrienol, Alpha-Tocotrienol, Beta-Tocotrienol, Delta-Tocotrienol, Epsilon-Tocopherol, Epsilon-Tokoferol, Gamma-Tocotrienol, Zeta1-Tocopherol.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that contains tocotrienols and tocopherols. Both tocotrienols and tocopherols have similar chemical structures. The difference between tocotrienols and tocopherols is that tocotrienols have double bonds. Tocotrienols are often found in natural sources such as palm or rice brain oil.

People take tocotrienols by mouth for aging, Alzheimer's disease, clogged arteries, cancer, diabetes, a genetic disorder called familial dysautonomia, high cholesterol, kidney failure, and stroke.

People apply tocotrienols to the skin for buns, hair growth, and scars.

How does it work?

Tocotrienols exist in four different forms: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienols. Tocotrienols seem to have many different effects in the body. Tocotrienols might lower cholesterol levels and provide heart health benefits. Tocotrienols also seem to benefit people with a genetic disorder called familial dysautonomia by increasing levels of a certain protein in blood cells.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Genetic disorder affecting the development of the senses (familial dysautonomia). Early research suggests that taking tocotrienols for 3-4 months reduces blood pressure problems in people with an inherited disorder called familial dysautonomia.
  • High cholesterol. Research about the effects of tocotrienols on high cholesterol is not consistent. Some research suggests that taking tocotrienols for 60 days reduces total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol. Similar findings were found in other studies. However, not all research is positive. Some evidence shows that taking alpha-, delta-, or gamma-tocotrienols daily for 8 weeks, while following the American Heart Association (AHA) Step 1 diet, does not reduce cholesterol levels. Overall, the findings are mixed.
  • Aging.
  • Alzheimer's disease.
  • Clogged arteries.
  • Cancer.
  • Diabetes.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Stroke.
  • Burns.
  • Hair growth.
  • Scars.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate tocotrienols for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

There isn't enough reliable information available about Tocotrienols to know if it is safe. In some people, applying vitamin E, which contains tocopherols and tocotrienols, may cause contact dermatitis.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking tocotrienols if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Tocotrienols might lower blood sugar levels. People with diabetes should monitor their blood glucose levels closely. If you have diabetes, it's best to check with your healthcare provider before starting tocotrienols.

Surgery: Tocotrienols might affect blood sugar levels, so there is a concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using tocotrienols at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for TOCOTRIENOLS Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of tocotrienols depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for tocotrienols (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Baliarsingh, S., Beg, Z. H., and Ahmad, J. The therapeutic impacts of tocotrienols in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2005;182(2):367-374. View abstract.
  • Choudhury, N., Tan, L., and Truswell, A. S. Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1043-1051. View abstract.
  • Mustad, V. A., Smith, C. A., Ruey, P. P., Edens, N. K., and DeMichele, S. J. Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(6):1237-1243. View abstract.
  • Agarwal MK, Agarwal ML, Athar M, Gupta S. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil activates p53, modulates Bax/Bcl2 ratio and induces apoptosis independent of cell cycle association. Cell Cycle 2004;3;205-11. View abstract.
  • Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Prasad S, Kannappan R. Tocotrienols, the vitamin E of the 21st century: Its potential against cancer and other chronic diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 2010;80(11):1613-1631. View abstract.
  • Ahn, K. S., Sethi, G., Krishnan, K., and Aggarwal, B. B. Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway through inhibition of receptor-interacting protein and TAK1 leading to suppression of antiapoptotic gene products and potentiation of apoptosis. J Biol Chem 2007;282(1):809-820. View abstract.
  • Anderson, S. L., Qiu, J., and Rubin, B. Y. Tocotrienols induce IKBKAP expression: a possible therapy for familial dysautonomia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003;306(1):303-309. View abstract.
  • Baumann LS, Spencer JS. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg 1999;25:311-5. View abstract.
  • Birringer, M., Pfluger, P., Kluth, D., Landes, N., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. Identities and differences in the metabolism of tocotrienols and tocopherols in HepG2 cells. J Nutr 2002;132(10):3113-3118. View abstract.
  • Chao, J. T., Gapor, A., and Theriault, A. Inhibitory effect of delta-tocotrienol, a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, on monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2002;48(5):332-337. View abstract.
  • Das, S., Nesaretnam, K., and Das, D. K. Tocotrienols in cardioprotection. Vitam Horm 2007;76:419-433. View abstract.
  • Elangovan, S., Hsieh, T. C., and Wu, J. M. Growth inhibition of human MDA-mB-231 breast cancer cells by delta-tocotrienol is associated with loss of cyclin D1/CDK4 expression and accompanying changes in the state of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. Anticancer Res 2008;28(5A):2641-2647. View abstract.
  • Fairus, S., Nor, R. M., Cheng, H. M., and Sundram, K. Postprandial metabolic fate of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E differs significantly from that of alpha-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(4):835-842. View abstract.
  • Fuchs, J., Weber, S., Podda, M., Groth, N., Herrling, T., Packer, L., and Kaufmann, R. HPLC analysis of vitamin E isoforms in human epidermis: correlation with minimal erythema dose and free radical scavenging activity. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;34(3):330-336. View abstract.
  • Goh, S. H., Hew, N. F., Norhanom, A. W., and Yadav, M. Inhibition of tumour promotion by various palm-oil tocotrienols. Int J Cancer 1994;57(4):529-531. View abstract.
  • Guthrie, N., Gapor, A., Chambers, A. F., and Carroll, K. K. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127(3):544S-548S. View abstract.
  • Hayes, K. C., Pronczuk, A., and Liang, J. S. Differences in the plasma transport and tissue concentrations of tocopherols and tocotrienols: observations in humans and hamsters. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;202(3):353-359. View abstract.
  • Hussein, D. and Mo, H. d-&#948;-tocotrienol-mediated suppression of the proliferation of human PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells. Pancreas 2009;38(4):e124-e136. View abstract.
  • Khosla, P., Patel, V., Whinter, J. M., Khanna, S., Rakhkovskaya, M., Roy, S., and Sen, C. K. Postprandial levels of the natural vitamin E tocotrienol in human circulation. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006;8(5-6):1059-1068. View abstract.
  • Lodge, J. K., Ridlington, J., Leonard, S., Vaule, H., and Traber, M. G. Alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols are metabolized to carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman derivatives and excreted in human urine. Lipids 2001;36(1):43-48. View abstract.
  • Mensink RP, van Houwelingen AC, Kromhout D, Hornstra G. A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:213-9. View abstract.
  • Naguib, Y., Hari, S. P., Passwater, R., Jr., and Huang, D. Antioxidant activities of natural vitamin E formulations. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003;49(4):217-220. View abstract.
  • Naito, Y., Shimozawa, M., Kuroda, M., Nakabe, N., Manabe, H., Katada, K., Kokura, S., Ichikawa, H., Yoshida, N., Noguchi, N., and Yoshikawa, T. Tocotrienols reduce 25-hydroxycholesterol-induced monocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibiting the surface expression of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis 2005;180(1):19-25. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in athymic mice. Lipids 2004;39:459-67. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:143-57. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Dorasamy, S., and Darbre, P. D. Tocotrienols inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51 Suppl:S95-103. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Guthrie, N., Chambers, A. F., and Carroll, K. K. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 1995;30(12):1139-1143. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Stephen, R., Dils, R., and Darbre, P. Tocotrienols inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells irrespective of estrogen receptor status. Lipids 1998;33(5):461-469. View abstract.
  • O'Byrne, D., Grundy, S., Packer, L., Devaraj, S., Baldenius, K., Hoppe, P. P., Kraemer, K., Jialal, I., and Traber, M. G. Studies of LDL oxidation following alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienyl acetate supplementation of hypercholesterolemic humans. Free Radic Biol Med 2000;29(9):834-845. View abstract.
  • Parker, R. A., Pearce, B. C., Clark, R. W., Gordon, D. A., and Wright, J. J. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem 1993;268(15):11230-11238. View abstract.
  • Qureshi AA, Bradlow BA, Brace L, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 1995;30:1171-7. View abstract.
  • Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1021S-6S. View abstract.
  • Qureshi, A. A., Sami, S. A., Salser, W. A., and Khan, F. A. Dose-dependent suppression of serum cholesterol by tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF25) of rice bran in hypercholesterolemic humans. Atherosclerosis 2002;161(1):199-207. View abstract.
  • Rubin, B. Y., Anderson, S. L., and Kapas, L. Can the therapeutic efficacy of tocotrienols in neurodegenerative familial dysautonomia patients be measured clinically? Antioxid Redox Signal 2008;10(4):837-841. View abstract.
  • Schaffer, S., Muller, W. E., and Eckert, G. P. Tocotrienols: constitutional effects in aging and disease. J Nutr 2005;135(2):151-154. View abstract.
  • Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Troost, R., and Boger, R. H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antioxidants and their impact on systemic oxidative stress. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003;42(5):437-459. View abstract.
  • Sen, C. K., Khanna, S., and Roy, S. Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:127-142. View abstract.
  • Song, B. L. and DeBose-Boyd, R. A. Insig-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase stimulated by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols. J Biol Chem 2006;281(35):25054-25061. View abstract.
  • Sontag, T. J. and Parker, R. S. Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res 2007;48(5):1090-1098. View abstract.
  • Suarna, C., Hood, R. L., Dean, R. T., and Stocker, R. Comparative antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and other natural lipid-soluble antioxidants in a homogeneous system, and in rat and human lipoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993;1166(2-3):163-170. View abstract.
  • Sun, W., Wang, Q., Chen, B., Liu, J., Liu, H., and Xu, W. Gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells is associated with a suppression in mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. Br J Nutr 2008;99(6):1247-1254. View abstract.
  • Sylvester, P. W., Nachnani, A., Shah, S., and Briski, K. P. Role of GTP-binding proteins in reversing the antiproliferative effects of tocotrienols in preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11 Suppl 7:S452-S459. View abstract.
  • Takahashi, K. and Loo, G. Disruption of mitochondria during tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2004;67(2):315-324. View abstract.
  • van Haaften, R. I., Haenen, G. R., Evelo, C. T., and Bast, A. Tocotrienols inhibit human glutathione S-transferase P1-1. IUBMB Life 2002;54(2):81-84. View abstract.
  • Wada, S., Satomi, Y., Murakoshi, M., Noguchi, N., Yoshikawa, T., and Nishino, H. Tumor suppressive effects of tocotrienol in vivo and in vitro. Cancer Lett 2005;229(2):181-191. View abstract.
  • Weng-Yew, W., Selvaduray, K. R., Ming, C. H., and Nesaretnam, K. Suppression of tumor growth by palm tocotrienols via the attenuation of angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(3):367-373. View abstract.
  • Yap, S. P. and Yuen, K. H. Influence of lipolysis and droplet size on tocotrienol absorption from self-emulsifying formulations. Int J Pharm 2004;281(1-2):67-78. View abstract.
  • Yu, W., Simmons-Menchaca, M., Gapor, A., Sanders, B. G., and Kline, K. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols. Nutr Cancer 1999;33(1):26-32. View abstract.
  • Zhou, C., Tabb, M. M., Sadatrafiei, A., Grun, F., and Blumberg, B. Tocotrienols activate the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, and selectively regulate expression of its target genes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32(10):1075-1082. View abstract.
  • Baliarsingh, S., Beg, Z. H., and Ahmad, J. The therapeutic impacts of tocotrienols in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2005;182(2):367-374. View abstract.
  • Choudhury, N., Tan, L., and Truswell, A. S. Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(5):1043-1051. View abstract.
  • Mustad, V. A., Smith, C. A., Ruey, P. P., Edens, N. K., and DeMichele, S. J. Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(6):1237-1243. View abstract.
  • Agarwal MK, Agarwal ML, Athar M, Gupta S. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil activates p53, modulates Bax/Bcl2 ratio and induces apoptosis independent of cell cycle association. Cell Cycle 2004;3;205-11. View abstract.
  • Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Prasad S, Kannappan R. Tocotrienols, the vitamin E of the 21st century: Its potential against cancer and other chronic diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 2010;80(11):1613-1631. View abstract.
  • Ahn, K. S., Sethi, G., Krishnan, K., and Aggarwal, B. B. Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway through inhibition of receptor-interacting protein and TAK1 leading to suppression of antiapoptotic gene products and potentiation of apoptosis. J Biol Chem 2007;282(1):809-820. View abstract.
  • Anderson, S. L., Qiu, J., and Rubin, B. Y. Tocotrienols induce IKBKAP expression: a possible therapy for familial dysautonomia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003;306(1):303-309. View abstract.
  • Baumann LS, Spencer JS. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg 1999;25:311-5. View abstract.
  • Birringer, M., Pfluger, P., Kluth, D., Landes, N., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. Identities and differences in the metabolism of tocotrienols and tocopherols in HepG2 cells. J Nutr 2002;132(10):3113-3118. View abstract.
  • Chao, J. T., Gapor, A., and Theriault, A. Inhibitory effect of delta-tocotrienol, a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, on monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2002;48(5):332-337. View abstract.
  • Das, S., Nesaretnam, K., and Das, D. K. Tocotrienols in cardioprotection. Vitam Horm 2007;76:419-433. View abstract.
  • Elangovan, S., Hsieh, T. C., and Wu, J. M. Growth inhibition of human MDA-mB-231 breast cancer cells by delta-tocotrienol is associated with loss of cyclin D1/CDK4 expression and accompanying changes in the state of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. Anticancer Res 2008;28(5A):2641-2647. View abstract.
  • Fairus, S., Nor, R. M., Cheng, H. M., and Sundram, K. Postprandial metabolic fate of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E differs significantly from that of alpha-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(4):835-842. View abstract.
  • Fuchs, J., Weber, S., Podda, M., Groth, N., Herrling, T., Packer, L., and Kaufmann, R. HPLC analysis of vitamin E isoforms in human epidermis: correlation with minimal erythema dose and free radical scavenging activity. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;34(3):330-336. View abstract.
  • Goh, S. H., Hew, N. F., Norhanom, A. W., and Yadav, M. Inhibition of tumour promotion by various palm-oil tocotrienols. Int J Cancer 1994;57(4):529-531. View abstract.
  • Guthrie, N., Gapor, A., Chambers, A. F., and Carroll, K. K. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127(3):544S-548S. View abstract.
  • Hayes, K. C., Pronczuk, A., and Liang, J. S. Differences in the plasma transport and tissue concentrations of tocopherols and tocotrienols: observations in humans and hamsters. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;202(3):353-359. View abstract.
  • Hussein, D. and Mo, H. d-&#948;-tocotrienol-mediated suppression of the proliferation of human PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells. Pancreas 2009;38(4):e124-e136. View abstract.
  • Khosla, P., Patel, V., Whinter, J. M., Khanna, S., Rakhkovskaya, M., Roy, S., and Sen, C. K. Postprandial levels of the natural vitamin E tocotrienol in human circulation. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006;8(5-6):1059-1068. View abstract.
  • Lodge, J. K., Ridlington, J., Leonard, S., Vaule, H., and Traber, M. G. Alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols are metabolized to carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman derivatives and excreted in human urine. Lipids 2001;36(1):43-48. View abstract.
  • Mensink RP, van Houwelingen AC, Kromhout D, Hornstra G. A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:213-9. View abstract.
  • Naguib, Y., Hari, S. P., Passwater, R., Jr., and Huang, D. Antioxidant activities of natural vitamin E formulations. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003;49(4):217-220. View abstract.
  • Naito, Y., Shimozawa, M., Kuroda, M., Nakabe, N., Manabe, H., Katada, K., Kokura, S., Ichikawa, H., Yoshida, N., Noguchi, N., and Yoshikawa, T. Tocotrienols reduce 25-hydroxycholesterol-induced monocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibiting the surface expression of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis 2005;180(1):19-25. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in athymic mice. Lipids 2004;39:459-67. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, et al. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:143-57. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Dorasamy, S., and Darbre, P. D. Tocotrienols inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51 Suppl:S95-103. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Guthrie, N., Chambers, A. F., and Carroll, K. K. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 1995;30(12):1139-1143. View abstract.
  • Nesaretnam, K., Stephen, R., Dils, R., and Darbre, P. Tocotrienols inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells irrespective of estrogen receptor status. Lipids 1998;33(5):461-469. View abstract.
  • O'Byrne, D., Grundy, S., Packer, L., Devaraj, S., Baldenius, K., Hoppe, P. P., Kraemer, K., Jialal, I., and Traber, M. G. Studies of LDL oxidation following alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienyl acetate supplementation of hypercholesterolemic humans. Free Radic Biol Med 2000;29(9):834-845. View abstract.
  • Parker, R. A., Pearce, B. C., Clark, R. W., Gordon, D. A., and Wright, J. J. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem 1993;268(15):11230-11238. View abstract.
  • Qureshi AA, Bradlow BA, Brace L, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 1995;30:1171-7. View abstract.
  • Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1021S-6S. View abstract.
  • Qureshi, A. A., Sami, S. A., Salser, W. A., and Khan, F. A. Dose-dependent suppression of serum cholesterol by tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF25) of rice bran in hypercholesterolemic humans. Atherosclerosis 2002;161(1):199-207. View abstract.
  • Rubin, B. Y., Anderson, S. L., and Kapas, L. Can the therapeutic efficacy of tocotrienols in neurodegenerative familial dysautonomia patients be measured clinically? Antioxid Redox Signal 2008;10(4):837-841. View abstract.
  • Schaffer, S., Muller, W. E., and Eckert, G. P. Tocotrienols: constitutional effects in aging and disease. J Nutr 2005;135(2):151-154. View abstract.
  • Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Troost, R., and Boger, R. H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antioxidants and their impact on systemic oxidative stress. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003;42(5):437-459. View abstract.
  • Sen, C. K., Khanna, S., and Roy, S. Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1031:127-142. View abstract.
  • Song, B. L. and DeBose-Boyd, R. A. Insig-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase stimulated by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols. J Biol Chem 2006;281(35):25054-25061. View abstract.
  • Sontag, T. J. and Parker, R. S. Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res 2007;48(5):1090-1098. View abstract.
  • Suarna, C., Hood, R. L., Dean, R. T., and Stocker, R. Comparative antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and other natural lipid-soluble antioxidants in a homogeneous system, and in rat and human lipoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993;1166(2-3):163-170. View abstract.
  • Sun, W., Wang, Q., Chen, B., Liu, J., Liu, H., and Xu, W. Gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells is associated with a suppression in mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. Br J Nutr 2008;99(6):1247-1254. View abstract.
  • Sylvester, P. W., Nachnani, A., Shah, S., and Briski, K. P. Role of GTP-binding proteins in reversing the antiproliferative effects of tocotrienols in preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11 Suppl 7:S452-S459. View abstract.
  • Takahashi, K. and Loo, G. Disruption of mitochondria during tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2004;67(2):315-324. View abstract.
  • van Haaften, R. I., Haenen, G. R., Evelo, C. T., and Bast, A. Tocotrienols inhibit human glutathione S-transferase P1-1. IUBMB Life 2002;54(2):81-84. View abstract.
  • Wada, S., Satomi, Y., Murakoshi, M., Noguchi, N., Yoshikawa, T., and Nishino, H. Tumor suppressive effects of tocotrienol in vivo and in vitro. Cancer Lett 2005;229(2):181-191. View abstract.
  • Weng-Yew, W., Selvaduray, K. R., Ming, C. H., and Nesaretnam, K. Suppression of tumor growth by palm tocotrienols via the attenuation of angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(3):367-373. View abstract.
  • Yap, S. P. and Yuen, K. H. Influence of lipolysis and droplet size on tocotrienol absorption from self-emulsifying formulations. Int J Pharm 2004;281(1-2):67-78. View abstract.
  • Yu, W., Simmons-Menchaca, M., Gapor, A., Sanders, B. G., and Kline, K. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols. Nutr Cancer 1999;33(1):26-32. View abstract.
  • Zhou, C., Tabb, M. M., Sadatrafiei, A., Grun, F., and Blumberg, B. Tocotrienols activate the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, and selectively regulate expression of its target genes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32(10):1075-1082. View abstract.

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Vitamins Survey

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More Resources for TOCOTRIENOLS

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.