Feuille de Luzerne, Grand Trèfle, Herbe aux Bisons, Herbe à Vaches, Lucerne, Luzerne, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Phyoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Purple Medick, Sanfoin.
Overview InformationAlfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine.
Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate conditions, and to increase urine flow. It is also used for high cholesterol, asthma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, upset stomach, and a bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, and K4; and minerals calcium, potassium, phosphorous, and iron.
How does it work?Alfalfa seems to prevent cholesterol absorption in the gut.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- High cholesterol. Taking alfalfa seeds seems to lower total cholesterol and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol levels.
- Kidney problems.
- Bladder problems.
- Prostate problems.
- Upset stomach.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyAlfalfa leaves are POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults. However, taking alfalfa seeds long-term is LIKELY UNSAFE. Alfalfa seed products may cause reactions that are similar to the autoimmune disease called lupus erythematosus.
Alfalfa might also cause some people's skin to become extra sensitive to the sun. Wear sunblock outside, especially if you are light-skinned.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy or breast-feeding: Using alfalfa in amounts larger than what is commonly found in food is POSSIBLY UNSAFE during pregnancy and breast-feeding. There is some evidence that alfalfa may act like estrogen, and this might affect the pregnancy.
“Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other conditions: Alfalfa might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of SLE patients experiencing disease flare after taking alfalfa seed products long-term. If you have an auto-immune condition, it’s best to avoid using alfalfa until more is known.
Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Alfalfa might have the same effects as the female hormone estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use alfalfa.
Diabetes: Alfalfa might lower blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes and take alfalfa, monitor your blood sugar levels closely.
Kidney transplant: There is one report of a kidney transplant rejection following the three-month use of a supplement that contained alfalfa and black cohosh. This outcome is more likely due to alfalfa than black cohosh. There is some evidence that alfalfa can boost the immune system and this might make the anti-rejection drug cyclosporine less effective.
Do not take this combination
Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with ALFALFA
Alfalfa contains large amounts of vitamin K. Vitamin K is used by the body to help blood clot. Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. By helping the blood clot, alfalfa might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be cautious with this combination
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs) interacts with ALFALFA
Some birth control pills contain estrogen. Alfalfa might have some of the same effects as estrogen. But alfalfa isn't as strong as the estrogen in birth control pills. Taking alfalfa along with birth control pills might decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. If you take birth control pills along with alfalfa, use an additional form of birth control such as a condom.
Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Estrogens interacts with ALFALFA
Large amounts of alfalfa might have some of the same effects as estrogen. But even large amount of alfalfa aren't as strong as estrogen pills. Taking alfalfa along with estrogen pills might decrease the effects of estrogen pills.
Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with ALFALFA
Alfalfa might increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, alfalfa might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs) interacts with ALFALFA
Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking alfalfa along with medication that increase sensitivity to sunlight could increase the chances of sunburn, blistering or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing when spending time in the sun.
Some drugs that cause photosensitivity include amitriptyline (Elavil), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin (Tequin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Septra), tetracycline, methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen, 8-MOP, Oxsoralen), and Trioxsalen (Trisoralen).
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For high cholesterol: a typical dose is 5-10 grams of the herb, or as a steeped strained tea, three times a day. 5-10 mL of a liquid extract (1:1 in 25% alcohol) three times a day has also been used.
- Strapp, C. M., Shearer, A. E., and Joerger, R. D. Survey of retail alfalfa sprouts and mushrooms for the presence of Escherichia coil O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria with BAX, and evaluation of this polymerase chain reaction-based system with experimentally contaminated samples. J.Food Prot. 2003;66(2):182-187. View abstract.
- Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., and Slutsker, L. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerg.Infect.Dis 1999;5(5):626-634. View abstract.
- Thayer, D. W., Rajkowski, K. T., Boyd, G., Cooke, P. H., and Soroka, D. S. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by gamma irradiation of alfalfa seed intended for production of food sprouts. J.Food Prot. 2003;66(2):175-181. View abstract.
- Van Beneden, C. A., Keene, W. E., Strang, R. A., Werker, D. H., King, A. S., Mahon, B., Hedberg, K., Bell, A., Kelly, M. T., Balan, V. K., Mac Kenzie, W. R., and Fleming, D. Multinational outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections due to contaminated alfalfa sprouts. JAMA 1-13-1999;281(2):158-162. View abstract.
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- Polacheck, I., Levy, M., Guizie, M., Zehavi, U., Naim, M., and Evron, R. Mode of action of the antimycotic agent G2 isolated from alfalfa roots. Zentralbl.Bakteriol. 1991;275(4):504-512. View abstract.
- Polacheck, I., Zehavi, U., Naim, M., Levy, M., and Evron, R. Activity of compound G2 isolated from alfalfa roots against medically important yeasts. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1986;30(2):290-294. View abstract.
- Polacheck, I., Zehavi, U., Naim, M., Levy, M., and Evron, R. The susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to an antimycotic agent (G2) from alfalfa. Zentralbl.Bakteriol.Mikrobiol.Hyg.[A] 1986;261(4):481-486. View abstract.
- Ponka A, Andersson Y, Siitonen A, and et al. Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts. Lancet 1995;345:462-463.
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- Srinivasan, S. R., Patton, D., Radhakrishnamurthy, B., Foster, T. A., Malinow, M. R., McLaughlin, P., and Berenson, G. S. Lipid changes in atherosclerotic aortas of Macaca fascicularis after various regression regimens. Atherosclerosis 1980;37(4):591-601. View abstract.
- Stochmal, A., Piacente, S., Pizza, C., De Riccardis, F., Leitz, R., and Oleszek, W. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) flavonoids. 1. Apigenin and luteolin glycosides from aerial parts. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(2):753-758. View abstract.
- Hwang, J., Hodis, H. N., and Sevanian, A. Soy and alfalfa phytoestrogen extracts become potent low-density lipoprotein antioxidants in the presence of acerola cherry extract. J.Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(1):308-314. View abstract.
- Jackson, I. M. Abundance of immunoreactive thyrotropin-releasing hormone-like material in the alfalfa plant. Endocrinology 1981;108(1):344-346. View abstract.
- Jurzysta, M. and Waller, G. R. Antifungal and hemolytic activity of aerial parts of alfalfa (Medicago) species in relation to saponin composition. Adv.Exp Med Biol 1996;404:565-574. View abstract.
- Kaufman W. Alfalfa seed dermatitis. JAMA 1954;155(12):1058-1059.
- Kim, C., Hung, Y. C., Brackett, R. E., and Lin, C. S. Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water in inactivating Salmonella on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. J.Food Prot. 2003;66(2):208-214. View abstract.
- Liao, C. H. and Fett, W. F. Isolation of Salmonella from alfalfa seed and demonstration of impaired growth of heat-injured cells in seed homogenates. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 5-15-2003;82(3):245-253. View abstract.
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- Mahon, B. E., Ponka, A., Hall, W. N., Komatsu, K., Dietrich, S. E., Siitonen, A., Cage, G., Hayes, P. S., Lambert-Fair, M. A., Bean, N. H., Griffin, P. M., and Slutsker, L. An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. J Infect.Dis 1997;175(4):876-882. View abstract.
- Malinow MR, McLaughlin P, Naito HK, and et al. Regression of atherosclerosis during cholesterol feeding in
- Malinow, M. R. Experimental models of atherosclerosis regression. Atherosclerosis 1983;48(2):105-118. View abstract.
- Malinow, M. R., Bardana, E. J., Jr., Pirofsky, B., Craig, S., and McLaughlin, P. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid. Science 4-23-1982;216(4544):415-417. View abstract.
- Malinow, M. R., Connor, W. E., McLaughlin, P., Stafford, C., Lin, D. S., Livingston, A. L., Kohler, G. O., and McNulty, W. P. Cholesterol and bile acid balance in Macaca fascicularis. Effects of alfalfa saponins. J Clin Invest 1981;67(1):156-162. View abstract.
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