BISHOP'S WEED

OTHER NAME(S):

Ajava Seeds, Ajowan, Ajowan Caraway, Ajowan Seed, Ajowanj, Ajwain, Ajwan, Ameo Bastardo, Ammi Commun, Ammi Élevé, Ammi glaucifolium, Ammi Inodore, Ammi majus, Ammi Officinal, Bishop's Flower, Bisnague, Bullwort, Carum, Espuma del Mar, Flowering Ammi, Grand Ammi, Omum, Yavani.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Bishop's weed is a plant. The seeds are used to make medicine.

The prescription drug methoxsalen (Oxsoralen, Methoxypsoralen) was originally prepared from bishop's weed, but it is now made in the laboratory. Methoxsalen is used to treat psoriasis, a skin condition.

Bishop's weed is used for digestive disorders, asthma, chest pain (angina), kidney stones, and fluid retention.

Some people apply bishop's weed directly to the skin for skin conditions including psoriasis and vitiligo.

Be careful not to confuse bishop’s weed (Ammi majus) with its more commonly used relative, khella (Ammi visnaga). The two species do contain some of the same chemicals and have some similar effects in the body. But Bishop's weed is more commonly used for skin conditions, and khella is usually used for heart and lung conditions.

How does it work?

Bishop's weed contains several chemicals, including methoxsalen, a chemical used to make a prescription medication for the skin condition psoriasis.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of bishop’s weed for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

There isn't enough information to know if bishop's weed is safe. When taken by mouth, bishop's weed might cause nausea, vomiting, and headache. Some people are allergic to bishop's weed. They can get a runny nose, rash, or hives. There is also some concern that bishop's weed might harm the liver or the retina of the eye.

Bishop's weed can cause skin to become extra sensitive to the sun. This might put you at greater risk for skin cancer. Wear sunblock outside, especially if you are light-skinned.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s UNSAFE to use bishop’s weed if you are pregnant. It contains a chemical called khellin that can cause the uterus to contract, and this might threaten the pregnancy.

It’s also best to avoid using bishop’s weed if you are breast-feeding. There isn’t enough information to know whether it is safe for a nursing infant.

Liver disease: There is some evidence that bishop’s weed might make liver disease worse.

Surgery: Bishop's weed might slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using bishop’s weed at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with BISHOP'S WEED

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br><nb>Bishop's weed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Bishop's weed along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Bishop's weed, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.<br><nb>Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

  • Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs) interacts with BISHOP'S WEED

    Bishop's weed might harm the liver. Taking bishop's weed along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take bishop's weed if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.<br><nb>Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.

  • Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs) interacts with BISHOP'S WEED

    Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Bishop's weed might also increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking bishop's weed along with medication that increases sensitivity to sunlight could increase the chances of sunburn, blistering or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing when spending time in the sun.<br><nb>Some drugs that cause photosensitivity include amitriptyline (Elavil), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin (Tequin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Septra), tetracycline, methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen, 8-MOP, Oxsoralen), and Trioxsalen (Trisoralen).

  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with BISHOP'S WEED

    Bishop's weed might slow blood clotting. Taking bishop's weed along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br><nb>Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of bishop's weed depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for bishop's weed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Dollahite, J. W., Younger, R. L., and Hoffman, G. O. Photosensitization in cattle and sheep caused by feeding Ammi majus (greater Ammi; Bishop's-Weed). Am J Vet.Res 1978;39(1):193-197. View abstract.
  • EL MOFTY, A. M. Observations on the use of Ammi majus Linn. In vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 1952;64(12):431-441. View abstract.
  • EL MOFTY, A. M., el Sawalhy, H., and el Mofty, M. Clinical study of a new preparation of 8-methoxypsoralen in photochemotherapy. Int J Dermatol 1994;33(8):588-592. View abstract.
  • Kavli, G. and Volden, G. Phytophotodermatitis. Photodermatol. 1984;1(2):65-75. View abstract.
  • Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.
  • Abdel-Fattah A, Aboul-Enein MN, Wassel GM, El-Menshawi BS. An approach to the treatment of vitiligo by khellin. Dermatologica 1982;165:136-40. View abstract.
  • Ahsan SK, Tariq M, Ageel AM, et al. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26:249-54. View abstract.
  • Bethea D, Fullmer B, Syed S, et al. Psoralen photobiology and photochemotherapy: 50 years of science and medicine. J Dermatol Sci 1999;19:78-88. View abstract.
  • Bourinbaiar AS, Tan X, Nagorny R. Inhibitory effect of coumarins on HIV-1 replication and cell-mediated or cell-free viral transmission. Acta Virol 1993;37:241-50.
  • Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: DK Publ, Inc., 2000.
  • Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
  • Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  • Hamerski D, Schmitt D, Matern U. Induction of two prenyltransferases for the accumulation of coumarin phytoalexins in elicitor-treated Ammi majus cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 1990;29:1131-5. View abstract.
  • Harvengt C, Desager JP. HDL-cholesterol increase in normolipaemic subjects on khellin: a pilot study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1983;3:363-6. View abstract.
  • Kiistala R, Makinen-Kiljunen S, Heikkinen K, et al. Occupational allergic rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by bishop's weed (Ammi majus). Allergy 1999;54:635-9. View abstract.
  • Malhotra S, Bailey DG, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;69:14-23. View abstract.
  • Osher HL, Katz KH, Wagner DJ. Khellin in the treatment of angina pectoris. N Engl J Med 1951;244:315-21. View abstract.
  • Ossenkoppele PM, van der Sluis WG, van Vloten WA. [Phototoxic dermatitis following the use of Ammi majus fruit for vitiligo]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1991;135:478-80. View abstract.
  • Shlosberg A, Egyed MN. Examples of poisonous plants in Israel of importance to animals and man. Arch Toxicol Suppl 1983;6:194-6. . View abstract.
  • Tritrungtasna O, Jerasutus S, Suvanprakorn P. Treatment of alopecia areata with khellin and UVA. Int J Dermatol 1993;32:690. View abstract.

More Resources for BISHOP'S WEED

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
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