Garlic is most commonly used for conditions related to the heart and blood system. These conditions include high blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
In foods and beverages, fresh garlic, garlic powder, and garlic oil are used to add flavor.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): While garlic may have some benefit for preventing the common cold, there is no good evidence to support using it for COVID-19. Follow healthy lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Possibly Effective for
- Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). As people age, their arteries tend to lose their ability to stretch and flex. Garlic seems to reduce this effect. Taking a specific garlic powder supplement (Allicor, INAT-Farma) twice daily for 24 months seems to reduce how much hardening of the arteries progresses. Higher doses of this product seem to provide more benefits in women than men when taken over a four-year period. Research with other products containing garlic, alone or along with other ingredients (Kyolic Reserve, Kyolic, Total Heart Health, Formula 108, Wakunaga), have also shown benefits.
- Diabetes. Garlic seems to modestly reduce pre-meal blood sugar levels in people with or without diabetes. It seems to work best in people with diabetes, especially if it is taken for at least 3 months. It's unclear if garlic reduces post-meal blood sugar levels or HbA1c levels.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). While not all research agrees, the most reliable evidence shows that taking garlic may reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad" cholesterol) in people with high cholesterol levels. Garlic appears to work best if taken daily for more than 8 weeks. But any benefit is probably small. And taking garlic doesn't help increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) or lower levels of other blood fats called triglycerides.
- High blood pressure. Taking garlic by mouth seems to reduce systolic blood pressure (the top number) by about 7-9 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) by about 4-6 mmHg in people with high blood pressure.
- Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Taking garlic powder seems to help to improve liver health in people with NAFLD. People who eat more garlic also seem to be less likely to be diagnosed with NAFLD.
- Prostate cancer. Some research suggests that eating garlic as part of the diet may be associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. But other research suggests that eating garlic does not affect prostate cancer risk in men from Iran. Early clinical research suggests that taking garlic extract supplements might reduce the risk of prostate cancer or reduce symptoms associated with prostatecancer.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Stomach cancer. People who eat more garlic or take garlic supplements don't seem have a lower chance of developing stomach cancer.
- A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Taking garlic by mouth for H. pylori infection used to look promising due to laboratory evidence showing potential activity against H. pylori. However, when garlic cloves, powder, or oil is used in humans, it does not seem to help treat people infected with H. pylori.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Patchy hair loss (alopecia areata). Early evidence suggests that applying a garlic 5% gel along with a topical steroid for 3 months increases hair growth in people with hair loss.
- Chest pain (angina). Early research suggests that administering garlic intravenously (by IV) for 10 days reduces chest pain compared to intravenous nitroglycerin.
- Athletic performance. Early research shows that taking a single dose of garlic before exercise can increase endurance in young athletes.
- Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Early research suggests that taking a liquid garlic extract daily for one month reduces prostate mass and urinary frequency. But the quality of this research is questionable.
- Breast cancer. Some research has found that people who eat more garlic AND onions have a lower risk of breast cancer. But other research has found that people who eat more garlic don't have a lower risk of breast cancer.
- Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Some research has found that eating more garlic is linked with a reduced risk of colon or rectal cancer. But other research does not support this. It's too soon to know if taking garlic supplements can help reduce the risk of colon or rectal cancer.
- Common cold. Early research suggests that garlic might reduce the frequency and number of colds when taken daily for prevention.
- Corns. Early research suggests that applying certain garlic extracts to corns on the feet twice daily might improve corns.
- Cystic fibrosis. Some early research suggests that taking garlic oil macerate does not improve lung function, symptoms, or the need for antibiotics in children with cystic fibrosis.
- Cancer of the esophagus. It is unclear if eating more garlic can reduce the risk for cancer of the esophagus. Some research suggests that it might, but other research disagrees.
- Muscle soreness caused by exercise. Early evidence suggests that taking allicin, a chemical in garlic, daily for 14 days can reduce muscle soreness after exercise in athletes.
- Inherited tendency towards high cholesterol (familial hypercholesterolemia). In children with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, taking garlic powder extract by mouth does not seem to improve cholesterol levels or blood pressure.
- Lead poisoning. Some early research suggests that taking garlic powder might help to reduce levels of lead in the blood. But it doesn't seem to work as well as D-penicillamine.
- Lung cancer. Early research on the use of garlic for preventing lung cancer is unclear. Some research suggests that eating more garlic does not prevent the development of lung cancer. But other population research suggests that consuming raw garlic can reduce the risk of lung cancer.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Some early research suggests that taking raw garlic might increase levels of "good" cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decrease levels of other fats and sugar in the blood in people with this condition.
- Mosquito repellent. Early research suggests that taking one dose of garlic might not repel mosquitos.
- Cancer of white blood cells called plasma cells (multiple myeloma). Some early population research suggests that eating more garlic might prevent multiple myeloma.
- Muscle strength. People who eat more garlic seem to have improved hand strength compared to those who don't eat garlic.
- Obesity. Some research shows that taking garlic alone does not reduce body weight in people with obesity.
- Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). Early research suggests that using a garlic mouthwash three times daily for 4 weeks improves redness in people with mouth sores. People seem to be more satisfied with garlic than the drug nystatin, but it is less effective.
- Thrush. Early research suggests that applying garlic paste to affected areas in the mouth can increase the healing rate in people with thrush.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that taking garlic tablets twice daily for 12 weeks can reduce pain in overweight women with osteoarthritis in the knee.
- Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Early research suggests that taking garlic by mouth does not seem to reduce leg pain when walking due to poor blood flow in the legs.
- A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Early research suggests that taking garlic extract during the third trimester of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of this condition in women who are pregnant for the first time.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some research shows that taking garlic might help to reduce pain and improve function in people with RA. But the effect seems to be small.
- Hardening of skin and connective tissue (scleroderma). Research suggests that taking garlic daily for 7 days does not benefit people with scleroderma.
- Preventing tick bites. Early research suggests that people who consume high amounts of garlic over 8 weeks seem to have fewer tick bites. But it's not clear how garlic compares to commercially available tick repellents.
- Ringworm (Tinea corporis). Applying a gel containing 0.6% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, twice daily for one week seems to be as effective as antifungal cream for treating ringworm. But it's not clear if applying plain garlic on the skin would have the same benefit.
- Jock itch (Tinea cruris). Applying a gel containing 0.6% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, twice daily for one week seems to be as effective as antifungal cream for treating jock itch. But it's not clear if applying plain garlic on the skin would have the same benefit.
- Athlete's foot (Tinea pedis). Applying a gel containing 1% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, seems to be effective for treating athlete's foot. Also, applying a garlic gel with 1% ajoene seems to be about as effective as antifungal cream for treating athlete's foot. But it's not clear if applying plain garlic on the skin would have the same benefit.
- Vaginal yeast infections. Some early research shows that taking garlic twice daily for 14 days does not improve symptoms of this condition.
- Warts. Early evidence suggests that applying a specific fat-soluble garlic extract to warts on the hands twice daily removes warts within 1-2 weeks. Also, a water-soluble garlic extract seems to provide modest improvement, but only after 30-40 days of treatment.
- Wound healing. Early research shows that applying ointment containing raw garlic to a wound after surgery improves healing more than applying ointment without garlic.
- A type of benign (non-cancerous) breast disease (fibrocystic breast disease).
- Swelling (inflammation) of the stomach (gastritis).
- Swelling (inflammation) of the liver (hepatitis).
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Garlic products are POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin. Gels, pastes, and mouthwashes containing garlic have been used for up to 3 months. However, when applied to the skin, garlic might cause skin damage that is similar to a burn.
RAW garlic is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when applied to the skin. Raw garlic might cause severe skin irritation when it is applied to the skin.
When given as a shot: There isn't enough reliable information to know if garlic is safe. It might cause side effects such as a burning sensation in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, body odor, and diarrhea.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Children: Garlic is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by children in doses of up to 300 mg three times daily for up to 8 weeks. There isn't enough reliable information to know if garlic is safe when used in larger doses or for longer than 8 weeks. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to apply raw garlic to the skin. It might cause damage to the skin that is similar to a burn.
Bleeding disorder: Garlic, especially fresh garlic, might increase the risk of bleeding.
Surgery: Garlic might prolong bleeding and interfere with blood pressure. Garlic might also lower blood sugar levels. Stop taking garlic at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Medications used for HIV/AIDS (Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)) interacts with GARLIC
The body breaks down medications used for HIV/AIDS to get rid of them. Garlic can increase how fast the body breaks down some medication for HIV/AIDS. Taking garlic along with some medications used for HIV/AIDS might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for HIV/AIDS.
Some of these medications used for HIV/AIDS include nevirapine (Viramune), delavirdine (Rescriptor), and efavirenz (Sustiva).
Isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) interacts with GARLIC
Garlic might reduce how much isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) the body absorbs. This might decrease how well isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) works. Don't take garlic if you take isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH).
Saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) interacts with GARLIC
The body breaks down saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) to get rid of it. Garlic might increase how quickly the body breaks down saquinavir. Taking garlic along with saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) might decrease the effectiveness of saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase).
Do not take this combination
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs) interacts with GARLIC
Some birth control pills contain estrogen. The body breaks down the estrogen in birth control pills to get rid of it. Garlic might increase the breakdown of estrogen. Taking garlic along with birth control pills might decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. If you take birth control pills along with garlic, use an additional form of birth control such as a condom.
Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with GARLIC
The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Garlic might increase how quickly the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Taking garlic along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might decrease the effectiveness of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Do not take garlic if you are taking cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) substrates) interacts with GARLIC
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Garlic oil might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking garlic oil along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking garlic oil talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (Parafon Forte), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia during surgery such as enflurane (Ethrane), halothane (Fluothane), isoflurane (Forane), and methoxyflurane (Penthrane).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with GARLIC
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Garlic might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking garlic along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking garlic talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by this liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with GARLIC
Garlic might slow blood clotting. Taking garlic along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with GARLIC
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Garlic might increase the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Taking garlic along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be cautious with this combination
- For hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis): A 300 mg garlic powder tablet (Kwai, Lichtwer Pharma), taken as a single dose or three times daily for up to 4 years, has been used. Also, 150 mg of a specific garlic supplement (Allicor, INAT-Farma) twice daily for 24 months has been used. Combination products containing garlic have also been used. A specific aged garlic extract (Kyolic Reserve, Wakunaga) providing 1200 mg twice daily for 12 months has been used. A specific aged garlic extract supplement (Kyolic, Total Heart Health, Formula 108, Wakunga) containing 250 mg of aged garlic extract taken daily for 12 months, has been used. Also, a combination product containing 300 mg of aged garlic extract, taken at a dose of four tablets daily for one year, has been used.
- For diabetes: Garlic powder 600-1500 mg daily has been used for at least 12 weeks. A 300 mg garlic tablet (Allicor, INAT-Farma) taken two to three times daily with medications called metformin or sulfonylurea, for 4 to 24 weeks has been used.
- For high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia): A dose of 1000-7200 mg of a specific aged garlic extract (Kyolic, Wakanuga) has been used daily in divided doses for 4-6 months. A dose of 600-900 mg of a specific garlic powder tablet (Kwai, Lichtwer Pharma) has been taken daily in two or more divided doses for 6-16 weeks. Also, 300 mg of another specific garlic powder product (Garlex, Bosch Pharmaceuticals) taken twice daily for 12 weeks has been used. Also, 1,200 mg of garlic powder plus 3 grams of fish oil daily for 4 weeks, or 500 mg of garlic oil plus 600 mg of fish oil daily for 60 days, has been used.
- For high blood pressure: 300-1500 mg of garlic tablets taken in divided doses daily for 24 weeks has been used. 2400 mg of a specific garlic powder tablet (Kwai, Lichtwer Pharma) taken as a single dose or 600 mg daily for 12 weeks has been used. Capsules containing 960-7200 mg of aged garlic extract, taken daily in up to three divided doses for up to 6 months, have been used. Specific products containing aged garlic extract include Kyolic (Garlic High Potency Everyday Formula 112, Wakunga/Wagner). 500 mg of garlic oil plus 600 mg of fish oil daily for 60 days has been used.
- For build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD): Garlic powder (Amin Pharmaceutical Company) 800 mg twice daily for 12 weeks or an enteric-coated powder 400 mg twice daily for 15 weeks have been used.
Rivlin, R. S. Historical perspective on the use of garlic. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):951S-954S. View abstract.
Roberge, R. J., Leckey, R., Spence, R., and Krenzelok, E. J. Garlic burns of the breast. Am J Emerg.Med 1997;15(5):548. View abstract.
Ross, Z. M., O'Gara, E. A., Hill, D. J., Sleightholme, H. V., and Maslin, D. J. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2001;67(1):475-480. View abstract.
Ruocco, V., Brenner, S., and Lombardi, M. L. A case of diet-related pemphigus. Dermatology 1996;192(4):373-374. View abstract.
Russell, J. E. Chinese complementary therapy for stress causing bilateral chemical burns to the feet. Emerg.Med.J. 2010;27(10):787. View abstract.
Sabitha, P., Adhikari, P. M., Shenoy, S. M., Kamath, A., John, R., Prabhu, M. V., Mohammed, S., Baliga, S., and Padmaja, U. Efficacy of garlic paste in oral candidiasis. Trop.Doct. 2005;35(2):99-100. View abstract.
Saleem, S., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, A. S., Yousuf, S., Ansari, M. A., Khan, M. B., Ishrat, T., and Islam, F. Behavioral and histologic neuroprotection of aqueous garlic extract after reversible focal cerebral ischemia. J Med Food 2006;9(4):537-544. View abstract.
Salem, S., Salahi, M., Mohseni, M., Ahmadi, H., Mehrsai, A., Jahani, Y., and Pourmand, G. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study. Nutr.Cancer 2011;63(1):21-27. View abstract.
Salih, B. A. and Abasiyanik, F. M. Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects? Saudi.Med J 2003;24(8):842-845. View abstract.
Salman, H., Bergman, M., Bessler, H., Punsky, I., and Djaldetti, M. Effect of a garlic derivative (alliin) on peripheral blood cell immune responses. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999;21(9):589-597. View abstract.
Sandhu, D. K., Warraich, M. K., and Singh, S. Sensitivity of yeasts isolated from cases of vaginitis to aqueous extracts of garlic. Mykosen 1980;23(12):691-698. View abstract.
Santos OSDA and Grunwald J. Effect of garlic powder tablets on blood lipids and blood pressure-a six month placebo controlled, double blind study. Br J Clin Res 1993;4:37-44.
Saradeth T, Seidl S, Resch KL, and et al. Does garlic alter the lipid pattern in normal volunteers? Phytomedicine 1994;1:183-185.
Saravanan, G. and Prakash, J. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on lipid peroxidation in experimental myocardial infarction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(1):155-158. View abstract.
Sarrell, E. M., Cohen, H. A., and Kahan, E. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children. Pediatrics 2003;111(5 Pt 1):e574-e579. View abstract.
Schiermeier, Q. German garlic study under scrutiny. Nature 10-14-1999;401(6754):629. View abstract.
Seuri, M., Taivanen, A., Ruoppi, P., and Tukiainen, H. Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic. Clin Exp.Allergy 1993;23(12):1011-1014. View abstract.
Shakeel, M., Trinidade, A., McCluney, N., and Clive, B. Complementary and alternative medicine in epistaxis: a point worth considering during the patient's history. Eur.J.Emerg.Med. 2010;17(1):17-19. View abstract.
Sheela, C. G. and Augusti, K. T. Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30(6):523-526. View abstract.
Shu, X. O., Zheng, W., Potischman, N., Brinton, L. A., Hatch, M. C., Gao, Y. T., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. A population-based case-control study of dietary factors and endometrial cancer in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Am J Epidemiol. 1-15-1993;137(2):155-165. View abstract.
Siegel G. Long-term effect of garlic in preventing arteriosclerosis - results of two controlled clinical trials. Eur Phytojournal 2001;Symposium posters(1):1.
Siegers CP, Steffen B, Robke A, and et al. The effects of garlic preparation against human tumour cell proliferation. Phytomedicine 1999;6(1):7-11.
Singh, B. B., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kubik, E., Mishra, L. C., Shepard, N. P., Singh, V. J., Meier, M., and Madhu, S. G. Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs. Altern.Ther Health Med 2007;13(4):22-28. View abstract.
Sitprija, S., Plengvidhya, C., Kangkaya, V., Bhuvapanich, S., and Tunkayoon, M. Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase II clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 1987;70 Suppl 2:223-227. View abstract.
Sivam, G. P. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infections by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1106S-1108S. View abstract.
Smyth, A. R., Cifelli, P. M., Ortori, C. A., Righetti, K., Lewis, S., Erskine, P., Holland, E. D., Givskov, M., Williams, P., Camara, M., Barrett, D. A., and Knox, A. Garlic as an inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing in cystic fibrosis--a pilot randomized controlled trial. Pediatr.Pulmonol. 2010;45(4):356-362. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Andrianova, I. V., Demidova, O. N., Gorchakova, T., and Orekhov, A. N. Lipid-lowering effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study. J Atheroscler.Thromb. 2008;15(6):334-338. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Nedosugova, L. V., Filatova, L. V., Balabolkin, M. I., Gorchakova, T. V., and Orekhov, A. N. Metabolic effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the results of double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Acta Diabetol. 2008;45(1):1-6. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Allicor efficacy in lowering the risk of ischemic heart disease in primary prophylaxis]. Ter.Arkh. 2005;77(12):9-13. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allicor to lower the risk of myocardial infarction]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2007;85(3):25-28. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Radinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Reduction of cardiovascular risk in primary prophylaxy of coronary heart disease]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2005;83(4):52-55. View abstract.
Sobenin, I. A., Pryanishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, Y. A., Martirosyan, D. M., and Orekhov, A. N. The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:119. View abstract.
Soffar, S. A. and Mokhtar, G. M. Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 1991;21(2):497-502. View abstract.
Soltani PR. Preecampisia [sic] is an important complication of pregnancy which can result in morbidity and mortality in mother, fetus and the neonate. Journal of Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran (J MED COUNC ISLAMIC REPUB IRAN) 2005;23(3):319.
Sovova, M. and Sova, P. [Pharmaceutical significance of Allium sativum L. 4. Antifungal effects]. Ceska.Slov.Farm. 2003;52(2):82-87. View abstract.
Sparnins, V. L., Barany, G., and Wattenberg, L. W. Effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 1988;9(1):131-134. View abstract.
Srivastava KC, Bordia A, and Verma SK. Garlic (Allium sativum) for disease prevention. S Afr J Sci 1995;91:68-77.
St Louis, M. E., Peck, S. H., Bowering, D., Morgan, G. B., Blatherwick, J., Banerjee, S., Kettyls, G. D., Black, W. A., Milling, M. E., Hauschild, A. H., and . Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann Intern Med 1988;108(3):363-368. View abstract.
Stabler, S. N., Tejani, A. M., Huynh, F., and Fowkes, C. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;8:CD007653. View abstract.
Su, Q. S., Tian, Y., Zhang, J. G., and Zhang, H. Effects of allicin supplementation on plasma markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, IL-6 and antioxidant capacity. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2008;103(3):275-283. View abstract.
Subramanian P, Sundaresan S, and Manivasagam T. Influence of garlic extract on temporal characteristics of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in tumor-bearing rats. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2005;43:209-218.
Sundaresan S and Subramanian P. Evaluation of chemopreventive potential of garlic extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2002;40:548-551.
Sunter WH. Warfarin and garlic. Pharm J 1991;246:722.
Swanson, C. A., Mao, B. L., Li, J. Y., Lubin, J. H., Yao, S. X., Wang, J. Z., Cai, S. K., Hou, Y., Luo, Q. S., and Blot, W. J. Dietary determinants of lung-cancer risk: results from a case-control study in Yunnan Province, China. Int J Cancer 4-1-1992;50(6):876-880. View abstract.
Szybejko, J., Zukowski, A., and Herbec, R. [Unusual cause of obturation of the small intestine]. Wiad.Lek. 4-15-1982;35(2):163-164. View abstract.
Takasu, J., Uykimpang, R., Sunga, M. A., Amagase, H., and Niihara, Y. Aged garlic extract is a potential therapy for sickle-cell anemia. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):803S-805S. View abstract.
Takeuchi, S., Matsuzaki, Y., Ikenaga, S., Nishikawa, Y., Kimura, K., Nakano, H., and Sawamura, D. Garlic-induced irritant contact dermatitis mimicking nail psoriasis. J.Dermatol. 2011;38(3):280-282. View abstract.
Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Kunihiro, M., Nagata, S., Kitadai, Y., Manabe, N., Sumii, M., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., and Chayama, K. Effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on colorectal adenomas: a double-blinded study. Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2004;53(3-4):39-45. View abstract.
Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., Kira, K., Amagase, H., and Chayama, K. Aged garlic extract has potential suppressive effect on colorectal adenomas in humans. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):821S-826S. View abstract.
Tanamai, J., Veeramanomai, S., and Indrakosas, N. The efficacy of cholesterol-lowering action and side effects of garlic enteric coated tablets in man. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2004;87(10):1156-1161. View abstract.
Thabrew, M. I., Samarawickrema, N. A., Chandrasena, L. G., and Jayasekera, S. Protection by garlic against adriamycin induced alterations in the oxido-reductive status of mouse red blood cells. Phytother Res 2000;14(3):215-217. View abstract.
Thamburan, S., Klaasen, J., Mabusela, W. T., Cannon, J. F., Folk, W., and Johnson, Q. Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis. Phytother.Res. 2006;20(10):844-850. View abstract.
Tilli, C. M., Stavast-Kooy, A. J., Vuerstaek, J. D., Thissen, M. R., Krekels, G. A., Ramaekers, F. C., and Neumann, H. A. The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis. Arch Dermatol.Res 2003;295(3):117-123. View abstract.
Tong XF and Cheng HS. Mechanism of antioxidation, inhibiting carcinogenesis and modification of LDL of aged garlic extract. Pharmaceutical Care and Research (Yaoxue Fuwu Yu Yanjiu) (CHINA) 2002;2:122-124.
Tsai PB, Harnack LJ, Anderson KE, and et al. Dietary intake of garlic and other Allium vegetables and breast cancer risk in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. 2008;6(1)
Tsai, Y., Cole, L. L., Davis, L. E., Lockwood, S. J., Simmons, V., and Wild, G. C. Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects on influenza B, herpes simplex and coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 1985;(5):460-461. View abstract.
Tu, H. K., Pan, K. F., Zhang, Y., Li, W. Q., Zhang, L., Ma, J. L., Li, J. Y., and You, W. C. Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism and risk of gastric lesions, and its effects on chemoprevention in a Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(4):1089-1097. View abstract.
Tunon, H. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 1-3-2001;285(1):41-42. View abstract.
Turner, B., Molgaard, C., and Marckmann, P. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;92(4):701-706. View abstract.
Tutakne, M. A., Satyanarayanan, G., Bhardwaj, J. R., and Sethi, I. C. Sporotrichosis treated with garlic juice. A case report. Indian J Dermatol. 1983;28(1):41-45. View abstract.
Unnikrishnan, M. C., Soudamini, K. K., and Kuttan, R. Chemoprotection of garlic extract toward cyclophosphamide toxicity in mice. Nutr.Cancer 1990;13(3):201-207. View abstract.
Unsal, A., Eroglu, M., Avci, A., Cimentepe, E., Guven, C., Derya, Balbay M., and Durak, I. Protective role of natural antioxidant supplementation on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2006;40(1):17-22. View abstract.
Vaes, L. P. and Chyka, P. A. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34(12):1478-1482. View abstract.
van der Walt, A., Lopata, A. L., Nieuwenhuizen, N. E., and Jeebhay, M. F. Work-related allergy and asthma in spice mill workers - The impact of processing dried spices on IgE reactivity patterns. Int Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2010;152(3):271-278. View abstract.
van Doorn, M. B., Espirito Santo, S. M., Meijer, P., Kamerling, I. M., Schoemaker, R. C., Dirsch, V., Vollmar, A., Haffner, T., Gebhardt, R., Cohen, A. F., Princen, H. M., and Burggraaf, J. Effect of garlic powder on C-reactive protein and plasma lipids in overweight and smoking subjects. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(6):1324-1329. View abstract.
van Ketel, W. G. and de Haan, P. Occupational eczema from garlic and onion. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4(1):53-54. View abstract.
Ventura P, Girola M, and Lattuada V. [Clinical evaluation and tolerability of a drug with garlic and hawthorn]. Acta Toxicol Ther 1990;11(4):365-372.
Venugopal, P. V. and Venugopal, T. V. Antidermatophytic activity of garlic (Allium sativum) in vitro. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34(4):278-279. View abstract.
Wang, B. H., Zuzel, K. A., Rahman, K., and Billington, D. Protective effects of aged garlic extract against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices. Toxicology 4-3-1998;126(3):213-222. View abstract.
Wang, E. J., Li, Y., Lin, M., Chen, L., Stein, A. P., Reuhl, K. R., and Yang, C. S. Protective effects of garlic and related organosulfur compounds on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 1996;136(1):146-154. View abstract.
Wang, Q., Wang, Y., Ji, Z., Chen, X., Pan, Y., Gao, G., Gu, H., Yang, Y., Choi, B. C., and Yan, Y. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a hospital-based case-control study in Northwest China. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36(5):439-444. View abstract.
Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Moslehi, R., Ma, J., Pan, K., Zhou, T., Liu, W., Brown, L. M., Hu, Y., Pee, D., Gail, M. H., and You, W. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population. J Nutr. 2009;139(1):106-112. View abstract.
Wang, Z. Y., Boice, J. D., Jr., Wei, L. X., Beebe, G. W., Zha, Y. R., Kaplan, M. M., Tao, Z. F., Maxon, H. R., III, Zhang, S. Z., Schneider, A. B., and . Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-21-1990;82(6):478-485. View abstract.
Wargovich, M. J. Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1987;8(3):487-489. View abstract.
Wargovich, M. J., Uda, N., Woods, C., Velasco, M., and McKee, K. Allium vegetables: their role in the prevention of cancer. Biochem Soc.Trans. 1996;24(3):811-814. View abstract.
Williams, M. J., Sutherland, W. H., McCormick, M. P., Yeoman, D. J., and de Jong, S. A. Aged garlic extract improves endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. Phytother.Res. 7-22-2005;19(4):314-319. View abstract.
Wohlrab, J., Wohlrab, D., and Marsch, W. C. Acute effect of a dried ethanol-water extract of garlic on the microhaemovascular system of the skin. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(7):606-612. View abstract.
Wongmekiat, O. and Thamprasert, K. Investigating the protective effects of aged garlic extract on cyclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2005;19(5):555-562. View abstract.
Xiao, D., Pinto, J. T., Soh, J. W., Deguchi, A., Gundersen, G. G., Palazzo, A. F., Yoon, J. T., Shirin, H., and Weinstein, I. B. Induction of apoptosis by the garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is associated with microtubule depolymerization and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 activation. Cancer Res 10-15-2003;63(20):6825-6837. View abstract.
Xie, W. and Du, L. Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2011;13(4):289-301. View abstract.
Yeh YY, Lin RI, Yeh SM, and et al. Garlic reduces plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. In: Ohigashi H, Osawa T, Terao J, and et al. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag;1997.
Yoshikawa, K., Hadame, K., Saitoh, K., and Hijikata, T. Patch tests with common vegetables in hand dermatitis patients. Contact Dermatitis 1979;5(4):274-275. View abstract.
Yuncu, M., Eralp, A., and Celik, A. Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats. Phytother.Res. 2006;20(6):504-510. View abstract.
Zamani, A., Vahidinia, A., and Ghannad, M. S. The effect of garlic consumption on Th1/Th2 cytokines in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated rat spleen lymphocytes. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(4):579-581. View abstract.
Zeybek, A., Cikler, E., Saglam, B., Ercan, F., Cetinel, S., and Sener, G. Aqueous garlic extract inhibits protamine sulfate-induced bladder damage. Urol.Int. 2006;76(2):173-179. View abstract.
Zhang, L., Gail, M. H., Wang, Y. Q., Brown, L. M., Pan, K. F., Ma, J. L., Amagase, H., You, W. C., and Moslehi, R. A randomized factorial study of the effects of long-term garlic and micronutrient supplementation and of 2-wk antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84(4):912-919. View abstract.
Zhang, W. J., Shi, Z. X., Wang, B. B., Cui, Y. J., Guo, J. Z., and Li, B. Allitridum mimics effect of ischemic preconditioning by activation of protein kinase C. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2001;22(2):132-136. View abstract.
Zhang, X. H., Lowe, D., Giles, P., Fell, S., Board, A. R., Baughan, J. A., Connock, M. J., and Maslin, D. J. A randomized trial of the effects of garlic oil upon coronary heart disease risk factors in trained male runners. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2001;12(1):67-74. View abstract.
Zhang, Z. D., Li, Y., and Jiao, Z. K. [Effect of local application of allicinvia gastroscopy on cell proliferation and apoptosis of progressive gastric carcinoma]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2008;28(2):108-110. View abstract.
Zheng, W., Blot, W. J., Shu, X. O., Diamond, E. L., Gao, Y. T., Ji, B. T., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. A population-based case-control study of cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Shanghai. Int J Cancer 10-21-1992;52(4):557-561. View abstract.
Zheng, W., Blot, W. J., Shu, X. O., Gao, Y. T., Ji, B. T., Ziegler, R. G., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Diet and other risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol. 7-15-1992;136(2):178-191. View abstract.
Zhou, Y., Zhuang, W., Hu, W., Liu, G. J., Wu, T. X., and Wu, X. T. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2011;141(1):80-89. View abstract.
Zimmermann, W. and Zimmermann, B. Reduction in elevated blood lipids in hospitalised patients by a standardised garlic preparation. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:20-23. View abstract.
Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G, et al. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:813-24. View abstract.
Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.
Adler A, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445-50. View abstract.
Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445-50. View abstract.
Ahmadi N, Nabavi V, Hajsadeghi F, et al. Aged garlic extract with supplement is associated with increase in brown adipose, decrease in white adipose tissue and predict lack of progression in coronary atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol 2013;168(3):2310-4. View abstract.
Alhashim M, Lombardo J. Effect of topical garlic on wound healing and scarring: A clinical trial. Dermatol Surg. 2020;46(5):618-627. View abstract.
Ali M, Bordia T, Mustafa T. Effect of raw versus boiled aqueous extract of garlic and onion on platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999;60:43-7. View abstract.
Ali M, Thomson M, Afzal M. Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000;62:55-73. View abstract.
Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De La Hoz F. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:734-8. View abstract.
Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1999;1:125-9. View abstract.
Anon. Zinc for the common cold. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1997;39:9-10.
Arora RC, Arora S. Comparative effect of clofibrate, garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis 1981;39:447-52. View abstract.
Ashraf R, Khan RA, Ashraf I, Qureshi AA. Effects of Allium sativum (garlic) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Pak J Pharm Sci 2013;26(5):859-63. View abstract.
Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Suppl 1990;69:3-6. View abstract.
Aydin A, Ersoz G, Tekesin O, et al. Garlic oil and Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:563-4. View abstract.
Bahadoran P, Rokni FK, Fahami F. Investigating the therapeutic effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2010;15(Suppl 1):343-9. View abstract.
Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2. View abstract.
Bloch AS. Pushing the Envelope of Nutrition Support: Complementary Therapies. Nutrition 2000;16:236-9. View abstract.
Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998;58:257-63.. View abstract.
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51(11):1386-97. View abstract.
Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, Belz GG. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation 1997;96:2649-55. View abstract.
Bruynzeel DP. Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:70-7. View abstract.
Burnham BE. Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding. Plast Reconstr Surg 1995;95:213. View abstract.
Calvet X, Carod C, Gene E. Re: Peppers at treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:820-1. View abstract.
Carden SM, Good WV, Carden PA, Good RM. Garlic and the strabismus surgeon. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2002;30:303-4. View abstract.
Cavagnaro PF, Camargo A, Galmarini CR, Simon PW. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum l.) Antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1280-8. View abstract.
Chi M, Koh ET, and Stewart TJ. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J Nutrit 1982;112(2):241-248. View abstract.
Chiavarini M, Minelli L, Fabiani R. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(2):308-17. View abstract.
Choudhary PR, Jani RD, Sharma MS. Effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. J Diet Suppl 2018;15(4):499-506. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1358233. View abstract.
Chutani SK, Bordia A. The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Atherosclerosis 1981;38:417-21. View abstract.
Cox MC, Low J, Lee J, et al. Influence of garlic (Allium sativum) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:4636-40. View abstract.
Cronin E. Dermatitis of the hands in caterers. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:265-9. View abstract.
Dehghani F, Merat A, Panjehshahin MR, Handjani F. Healing effect of garlic extract on warts and corns. Int J Dermatol 2005;44:612-5. View abstract.
Dehghani S, Alipoor E, Salimzadeh A, et al. The effect of a garlic supplement on the pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and on pain severity, in overweight or obese women with knee osteoarthritis. Phytomedicine 2018;48:70-5. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.04.060. View abstract.
Desai G, Schelske-Santos M, Nazario CM, et al. Onion and garlic intake and breast cancer, a case-control study in Puerto Rico. Nutr Cancer. 2020;72(5):791-800. View abstract.
Dhamija P, Malhotra S, Pandhi P. Effect of oral administration of crude aqueous extract of garlic on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin in rabbits. Pharmacology 2006;77:100-4. View abstract.
Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, Vollmar AM. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Atherosclerosis 1998;139:333-9. View abstract.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in The Netherlands. Cancer Res 1994;54:6148-53. View abstract.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement intake, and female breast carcinoma incidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1995;33:163-70. View abstract.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:477-84. View abstract.
Duncan A, Mills J. An unusual case of HIV virologic failure during treatment with boosted atazanavir. AIDS 2013;27:1361-2. View abstract.
Durak I, Yilmaz E, Devrim E, et al. Consumption of aqueous garlic extract leads to significant improvement in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Nutr Res 2003;23:199-204.
Efendy JL, Simmons DL, Campbell GR, Campbell JH. The effect of the aged garlic extract, 'Kyolic', on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1997;132:37-42. View abstract.
Ergul B, Cakal B. Dysphagia caused by garlic induced esophagitis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2012;36(6):e134. View abstract.
Ernst E. Is garlic an effective treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection? Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2484-5. View abstract.
Evans V. Herbs and the brain: friend or foe? The effects of ginkgo and garlic on warfarin use. J Neurosci Nurs 2000;32:229-32. View abstract.
Farnsworth N, Bingel A, Cordell G, et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975;64:535-98. View abstract.
Fernandez-Vozmediano JM, Armario-Hita JC, Manrique-Plaza A. Allergic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42:108-9. View abstract.
Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature. J Nutr 2001;131:1032S-40S.. View abstract.
Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1047-52. View abstract.
Foster BC, Foster MS, Vandenhoek S, et al. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by garlic. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2001;4:176-84. . View abstract.
Gadkari JV, Joshi VD. Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal subjects. J Postgrad.Med 1991;37:128-131. View abstract.
Gallicano K, Foster B, Choudhri S. Effect of short-term administration of garlic supplements on single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;55(2):199-202. View abstract.
Gandomkar H, Mahmoodzadeh H, Tavakoli H, Fazeli M, Rezaei J. Garlic-induced esophageal perforation: A case series. Asian J Surg. 2020;43(6):696-697. View abstract.
Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carlson JJ. The effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis 2001;154:213-20. View abstract.
Gardner CD, Lawson LD, Block E, et al. Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:346-53. View abstract.
Garlic: Effects on cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects. Summary, evidence report/technol assessment: no 20. AHRQ Publ No. 01-E022, 2000;Oct. Agency for Healthcare Res and Quality. Rockville, MD.
Garty BZ. Garlic burns. Pediatrics 1993;91:658-9. View abstract.
Gebhardt R and Beck H. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 1996;31(12):1269-1276. View abstract.
Gebhardt R, Beck H. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 1996;31:1269-76. View abstract.
Ghorai M, Mandal SC, Pal M, et al. A comparative study on hypocholesterolaemic effect of allicin, whole germinated seeds of bengal gram and guggulipid of gum gugglu. Phytother.Res 2000;14:200-2. View abstract.
Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1200-2. View abstract.
Gu Y, Zhang S, Wang J, et al. Relationship between consumption of raw garlic and handgrip strength in a large-scale adult population. Clin Nutr. 2020;39(4):1234-1241. View abstract.
Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276-87.. View abstract.
Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Clinical assessment of potential cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interactions. AAPS Ann Mtg & Expo Indianapolis, IN: 2000; Oct 29 - Nov 2:presentation #3460.
Gwilt PR, Lear CL, Tempero MA, et al. The effect of garlic extract on human metabolism of acetaminophen. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994;3:155-60. View abstract.
Health Canada. Calabash chalk may pose health risk for pregnant and breastfeeding women. October 2007. https://www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2007/13167a-eng.php. Accessed October 23, 2020.
Holzgartner H, Schmidt U, Kuhn U. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs. bezafibrate. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:1473-7. View abstract.
Horie T, Awazu S, Itakura Y, Fuwa T. Alleviation by garlic of antitumor drug-induced damage to the intestine. J Nutr 2001;131:1071S-4S.. View abstract.
Horie T, Matsumoto H, Kasagi M, et al. Protective effect of aged garlic extract on the small intestinal damage of rats induced by methotrexate administration. Planta Med 1999;65:545-8. View abstract.
Hou LQ, Liu YH, Zhang YY. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24(4):575-82. View abstract.
Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT, et al. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1648-51.. View abstract.
Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can J Cardiol 2011;27(4):488-505. View abstract.
Hubbard VG, Goldsmith P. Garlic-fingered chefs. Contact Dermatitis 2005;52:165-6. View abstract.
Hutchins E, Shaikh K, Kinninger A, et al. Aged garlic extract reduces left ventricular myocardial mass in patients with diabetes: A prospective randomized controlled double-blind study. Exp Ther Med. 2020;19(2):1468-1471. View abstract.
Ide N, Lau BH. Aged garlic extract attenuates intracellular oxidative stress. Phytomedicine 1999;6:125-31. View abstract.
Ide N, Lau BH. Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49:908-11. View abstract.
Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, et al. Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Planta Med 1994;60:417-20. View abstract.
Ip C, Lisk DJ. Efficacy of cancer prevention by high-selenium garlic is primarily dependent on the action of selenium. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:2649-52. View abstract.
Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94. View abstract.
Jain AK, Vargas R, Gotzkowsky S, McMahon FG. Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. Am J Med 1993;94:632-5. View abstract.
Jalloh MA, Gregory PJ, Hein D, et al. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Jan;28(1):4-15. View abstract.
Jeyaraj S, Shivaji G, and Jeyaraj SD. Effect of a combined supplementation of fish oil (MEGA-3) with garlic pearls on the serum lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index of hypercholesterolemic subjects. Heart 2000;83(suppl 2):A4.
Josling P. Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Adv Ther 2001;18:189-93. View abstract.
Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.
Karabacak E, Aydin E, Kutlu A, Dogan B. An unusual garlic burn occurring on an unexpected area. BMJ Case Rep 2014. View abstract.
Kenzelmann R, Kade F. Limitation of the deterioration of lipid parameters by a standardized garlic-ginkgo combination product. A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:978-81. View abstract.
Key TJ, Silcocks PB, Davey GK, et al. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 1997;76:678-87. View abstract.
Khoo YS, Aziz Z. Garlic supplementation and serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm.Ther 2009;34:133-45. View abstract.
Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in patients with increased risk of juvenile ischaemic attack. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993;45:333-6. View abstract.
Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effects of garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Clin Investig 1993;71:383-6. View abstract.
Kim H, Keum N, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS, Bao Y. Garlic intake and gastric cancer risk: results from two large prospective US cohort studies. Int J cancer. 2018 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
Kodali RT, Eslick GD. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer? Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(1):1-11. View abstract.
Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:237-49. View abstract.
Koushki M, Amiri-Dashatan N, Pourfarjam Y, Doustimotlagh AH. Effect of garlic intake on inflammatory mediators: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Postgrad Med J. 2020:postgradmedj-2019-137267. View abstract.
Lamm DL, Riggs DR. The potential application of Allium sativum (garlic) for the treatment of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2000;27:157-62. View abstract.
Lau BH. Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131:985S-8S. View abstract.
Lau BS, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R. Effect of an odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids. Nutr Res 1987;7:139-49.
Le Marchand L, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. Epidemiology 1997;8:658-65. View abstract.
Ledezma E, DeSousa L, Jorquera A, et al. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis. Mycoses 1996;39:393-5. View abstract.
Ledezma E, Lopez JC, Marin P, et al. Ajoene in the topical short-term treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis in humans. Randomized comparative study with terbinafine. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:544-7. View abstract.
Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A. Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: A double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:829-32. View abstract.
Lee TY, Lam TH. Contact dermatitis due to topical treatment with garlic in Hong Kong. Contact Dermatitis 1991;24:193-6. View abstract.
Legnani C, Frascaro M, Guazzaloca G, et al. Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:119-22. View abstract.
Li WQ, Zhang JY, Ma JL, et al. Effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment and vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and mortality: follow-up of a randomized intervention trial. BMJ 2019;366:l5016. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l5016. View abstract.
Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., and Ferrando, A. A. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):22. View abstract.
Luley C, Lehmann-Leo W, Moller B, et al. Lack of efficacy of dried garlic in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung 1986;36:766-8. View abstract.
Ma S, Yin J. Anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw garlic. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2012;9(8):773-5. View abstract.
Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconcel M, et al. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy. J Nutr 2006;136(3 Suppl):793S-795S. View abstract.
Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1990;40:1111-6. View abstract.
Mane SK, Jordan PA, Bahna SL. Eosinophilic esophagitis to unsuspected rare food allergen. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013;111(1):64-5. View abstract.
Markowitz JS, Devane CL, Chavin KD, et al. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;74:170-7.. View abstract.
McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94. View abstract.
McHugh CP. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 2001;285:41,42. View abstract.
McMahon FG, Vargas R. Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 1993;13:406-7. View abstract.
Meher S, Duley L. Garlic for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD006065. View abstract.
Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. Maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling's behavior. Pediatrics 1991;88:737-44. View abstract.
Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior. Pediatr Res 1993;34:805-8. View abstract.
Mennella JA, Johnson A, Beauchamp GK. Garlic ingestion by pregnant women alters the odor of amniotic fluid. Chem Senses 1995;20:207-9. View abstract.
Mirzavandi F, Mollahosseini M, Salehi-Abargouei A, Makiabadi E, Mozaffari-Khosravi H. Effects of garlic supplementation on serum inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(5):1153-1161. View abstract.
Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:1691-700. View abstract.
Moosavian SP, Paknahad Z, Habibagahi Z, Maracy M. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers, fatigue, and clinical symptoms in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2020;34(11):2953-2962. View abstract.
Moosavian SP, Paknahad Z, Habibagahi Z. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, evaluating the garlic supplement effects on some serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, and quality of life in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Clin Pract. 2020;74(7):e13498. View abstract.
Morcos NC. Modulation of lipid profile by fish oil and garlic combination. J Natl Med Assoc 1997;89:673-8. View abstract.
Moriguchi T, Saito H, Nishiyama N. Aged garlic extract prolongs longevity and improves spatial memory deficit in senescence-accelerated mouse. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:305-7. View abstract.
Morris J, Burke V, Mori TA, et al. Effects of garlic extract on platelet aggregation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995;22:414-7. View abstract.
Mostafa MG, Mima T, Ohnishi ST, Mori K. S-allylcysteine ameliorates doxorubicin toxicity in the heart and liver in mice. Planta Med 2000;66:148-51. View abstract.
Munday JS, James KA, Fray LM, et al. Daily supplementation with aged garlic extract, but not raw garlic, protects low density lipoprotein against in vitro oxidation. Atherosclerosis 1999;143:399-404. View abstract.
Myneni AA, Chang SC, Niu R, et al. Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(4):624-33. View abstract.
Neil HA, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1996;30:329-34. View abstract.
O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. Activities of Garlic Oil, Garlic Powder, and Their Diallyl Constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000;66:2269-73. View abstract.
Oberle M, Wachs T, Brisson P. Garlic burn to the face. J Spec Oper Med. Winter 2016;16(4):80-81. View abstract.
Orekhov AN, Sobenin IA, Korneev NV, et al. Anti-atherosclerotic therapy based on botanicals. Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 2013;8(1):56-66. View abstract.
Rahmy, T. R. and Hemmaid, K. Z. Prophylactic action of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of hepatic and gastric tissues in rats injected with a snake venom. J Nat Toxins. 2001;10(2):137-165. View abstract.
Rajan, T. V., Hein, M., Porte, P., and Wikel, S. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study. Med Vet.Entomol. 2005;19(1):84-89. View abstract.
Rance, F. and Dutau, G. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1997;8(1):41-44. View abstract.
Ranstam J. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 2001;285(1):41-42.
Rapp, A., Grohmann, G., Oelzner, P., Uehleke, B., and Uhlemann, C. [Does garlic influence rheologic properties and blood flow in progressive systemic sclerosis?]. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2006;13(3):141-146. View abstract.
Razo-Rodriguez, A. C., Chirino, Y. I., Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. J., Martinez-Martinez, C. M., Cruz, C., and Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Garlic powder ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress. J Med Food 2008;11(3):582-586. View abstract.
Reinhart, K. M., Coleman, C. I., Teevan, C., Vachhani, P., and White, C. M. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis. Ann.Pharmacother. 2008;42(12):1766-1771. View abstract.
Reuter HD and Sendl A. Allium sativum and Allium ursinum: chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal applications. In: Wagner H and Farnsworth NR. Economic and Medicinal Research. London: Academic Press Ltd;1994.
Rich, G. E. Garlic an antibiotic? Med J Aust 1-23-1982;1(2):60. View abstract.
Ried, K., Frank, O. R., and Stocks, N. P. Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Maturitas 2010;67(2):144-150. View abstract.
Numagami, Y. and Ohnishi, S. T. S-allylcysteine inhibits free radical production, lipid peroxidation and neuronal damage in rat brain ischemia. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1100S-1105S. View abstract.
Oi, Y., Kawada, T., Shishido, C., Wada, K., Kominato, Y., Nishimura, S., Ariga, T., and Iwai, K. Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. J Nutr. 1999;129(2):336-342. View abstract.
Omurtag, G. Z., Guranlioglu, F. D., Sehirli, O., Arbak, S., Uslu, B., Gedik, N., and Sener, G. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in mice. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2005;57(5):623-630. View abstract.
Orekhov A and Tertov V. In vitro effect of garlic powder extract on lipid content in normal and atherosclerotic human aortic cells. Lipids 1997;32:1055-1060.
Orekhov AN, Pivovarova EM, and Tertov VV. Garlic powder tablets reduce atherogenicity of low density lipoprotein. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Metab Cardiovascular Dis 1996;6:21-31.
Orekhov, A. N., Tertov, V. V., Sobenin, I. A., and Pivovarova, E. M. Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic. Ann Med 1995;27(1):63-65. View abstract.
Pai, S. T. and Platt, M. W. Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 1995;20(1):14-18. View abstract.
Parastoui K, Ravanshad Sh Mostafavi H Setoudeh Maram E. Effects of garlic tablet on blood sugar, plasma lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. J Med plants 2006;5(Supplement):9-16.
Parish, R. A., McIntire, S., and Heimbach, D. M. Garlic burns: a naturopathic remedy gone awry. Pediatr.Emerg.Care 1987;3(4):258-260. View abstract.
Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Maldonado, P. D., Medina-Campos, O. N., Olivares-Corichi, I. M., Granados-Silvestre, M. A., Hernandez-Pando, R., and Ibarra-Rubio, M. E. Garlic ameliorates gentamicin nephrotoxicity: relation to antioxidant enzymes. Free Radic.Biol Med 10-1-2000;29(7):602-611. View abstract.
Peleg, A., Hershcovici, T., Lipa, R., Anbar, R., Redler, M., and Beigel, Y. Effect of garlic on lipid profile and psychopathologic parameters in people with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Isr.Med Assoc J 2003;5(9):637-640. View abstract.
Pena, N., Auro, A., and Sumano, H. A comparative trial of garlic, its extract and ammonium-potassium tartrate as anthelmintics in carp. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;24(2-3):199-203. View abstract.
Pereira, F., Hatia, M., and Cardoso, J. Systemic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46(2):124. View abstract.
Petry, J. J. Garlic and postoperative bleeding. Plast.Reconstr.Surg 1995;96(2):483-484. View abstract.
Phelps, S. and Harris, W. S. Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility. Lipids 1993;28(5):475-477. View abstract.
Pinto, J. T. and Rivlin, R. S. Antiproliferative effects of allium derivatives from garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1058S-1060S. View abstract.
Pinto, J. T., Qiao, C., Xing, J., Rivlin, R. S., Protomastro, M. L., Weissler, M. L., Tao, Y., Thaler, H., and Heston, W. D. Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):398-405. View abstract.
Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Complementary therapies for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review. Atherosclerosis 2005;181(1):1-7. View abstract.
Plengvidhya, C., Sitprija, S., Chinayon, S., Pasatrat, S., and Tankeyoon, M. Effects of spray dried garlic preparation on primary hyperlipoproteinemia. J Med Assoc Thai. 1988;71(5):248-252. View abstract.
Prasad, S., Kalra, N., Srivastava, S., and Shukla, Y. Regulation of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis by diallyl sulfide in DMBA-exposed Swiss mice. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2008;27(1):55-63. View abstract.
Qidwai, W., Qureshi, R., Hasan, S. N., and Azam, S. I. Effect of dietary garlic (Allium Sativum) on the blood pressure in humans--a pilot study. J Pak.Med Assoc 2000;50(6):204-207. View abstract.
Rafaat, M. and Leung, A. K. Garlic burns. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17(6):475-476. View abstract.
Rahmani M, Tabari AK, Niaki MRK, and et al. Effect of dried garlic supplementation on blood lipids in mild and moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Arch Iran Med 1999;2:19-23.
Maleszka R, Lutomski J, Swiatlowska-Gorna B, and Rzepecka B. Study on extending of the activity spectrum of a garlic preparation against candidiasis. 1991;37:85-88.
Mansell P, Reckless PD, and Lloyd L. The effect of dried garlic powder tablets on serum lipids in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Res 1996;8:25-26.
Marsh, C. L., Torrey, R. R., Woolley, J. L., Barker, G. R., and Lau, B. H. Superiority of intravesical immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and Allium sativum in control of murine bladder cancer. J Urol 1987;137(2):359-362. View abstract.
McCrindle BW, Helden E, and Conner WT. Alternative medicine -- a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of garlic in hypercholesterolemic children [white diamond suit] 661. Pediatric Res 1998;43(4 suppl 2):115.
McFadden, J. P., White, I. R., and Rycroft, R. J. Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic. Contact Dermatitis 1992;27(5):333-334. View abstract.
McFadden, J. P., White, J. M., Basketter, D. A., and Kimber, I. Reduced allergy rates in atopic eczema to contact allergens used in both skin products and foods: atopy and the 'hapten-atopy hypothesis'. Contact Dermatitis 2008;58(3):156-158. View abstract.
McNulty, C. A., Wilson, M. P., Havinga, W., Johnston, B., O'Gara, E. A., and Maslin, D. J. A pilot study to determine the effectiveness of garlic oil capsules in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2001;6(3):249-253. View abstract.
Melvin KR. Effects of garlic powder tablets on patients with hyperlipdaemia in Canadian clinical practice. Eur J Clin Res 1996;8:30-32.
Millen, A. E., Subar, A. F., Graubard, B. I., Peters, U., Hayes, R. B., Weissfeld, J. L., Yokochi, L. A., and Ziegler, R. G. Fruit and vegetable intake and prevalence of colorectal adenoma in a cancer screening trial. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(6):1754-1764. View abstract.
Milner, J. A. A historical perspective on garlic and cancer. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1027S-1031S. View abstract.
Mirunalini S, Ramachandran CR, and Nagini S. Chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic oil. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (USA) 2003;10:89-101.
Mitchell, J. C. Contact sensitivity to garlic (Allium). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6(5):356-357. View abstract.
Morioka, N., Sze, L. L., Morton, D. L., and Irie, R. F. A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 1993;37(5):316-322. View abstract.
Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Das, D., Mukherjee, S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol. Phytother.Res. 2006;20(1):21-27. View abstract.
Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Das, D., Mukherjee, S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Phytother.Res. 2006;20(5):408-415. View abstract.
Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):389-394. View abstract.
Mukhrejee, S., Banerjee, S. K., Maulik, M., Dinda, A. K., Talwar, K. K., and Maulik, S. K. Protection against acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity by garlic: Role of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of TNF-alpha expression. BMC.Pharmacol 12-20-2003;3(1):16. View abstract.
Mulrow C, Lawrence V, Ackerman R, et al. Garlic: effects on cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 20 (Contract 290-97-0012 to the San Antonio Evidence-based Practice Center based at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the Veterans Evidence-based Research, Dissemination, and Implementation Center, a Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence). AHRQ Publication No. 01-E023. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2000.
Munawir, A., Sohn, E. T., Kang, C., Lee, S. H., Yoon, T. J., Kim, J. S., and Kim, E. Proteinaceous cytotoxic component of Allium sativum induces apoptosis of INT-407 intestinal cells. J Med Food 2009;12(4):776-781. View abstract.
Nagae, S., Ushijima, M., Hatono, S., Imai, J., Kasuga, S., Matsuura, H., Itakura, Y., and Higashi, Y. Pharmacokinetics of the garlic compound S-allylcysteine. Planta Med 1994;60(3):214-217. View abstract.
Naganawa, R., Iwata, N., Ishikawa, K., Fukuda, H., Fujino, T., and Suzuki, A. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic. Appl Environ.Microbiol 1996;62(11):4238-4242. View abstract.
Nagaraj, N. S., Anilakumar, K. R., and Singh, O. V. Diallyl disulfide causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. J Nutr.Biochem. 5-6-2009; View abstract.
Nahas, R. and Balla, A. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Can.Fam.Physician 2011;57(1):31-36. View abstract.
Nantz, M. P., Rowe, C. A., Muller, C. E., Creasy, R. A., Stanilka, J. M., and Percival, S. S. Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and gammadelta-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention. Clin.Nutr. 2012;31(3):337-344. View abstract.
Nikolic, V., Stankovic, M., Nikolic, Lj, and Cvetkovic, D. Mechanism and kinetics of synthesis of allicin. Pharmazie 2004;59(1):10-14. View abstract.
Nishino, H., Iwashima, A., Itakura, Y., Matsuura, H., and Fuwa, T. Antitumor-promoting activity of garlic extracts. Oncology 1989;46(4):277-280. View abstract.
Nouri M, Pipelzadeh MH, and Badiei A. A comparative study on the effectiveness of garlic with clofibrate in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Journal of Medical Sciences 2008;85-89.
Li, G., Shi, Z., Jia, H., Ju, J., Wang, X., Xia, Z., Qin, L., Ge, C., Xu, Y., Cheng, L., Chen, P., and Yuan, G. A clinical investigation on garlicin injectio for treatment of unstable angina pectoris and its actions on plasma endothelin and blood sugar levels. J Tradit.Chin Med 2000;20(4):243-246. View abstract.
Li, H., Li, H. Q., Wang, Y., Xu, H. X., Fan, W. T., Wang, M. L., Sun, P. H., and Xie, X. Y. An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2004;117(8):1155-1160. View abstract.
Li, M., Ciu, J. R., Ye, Y., Min, J. M., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Gares, M., Cros, J., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Antitumor activity of Z-ajoene, a natural compound purified from garlic: antimitotic and microtubule-interaction properties. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(4):573-579. View abstract.
Li, M., Min, J. M., Cui, J. R., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Valette, A., Davrinche, C., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Z-ajoene induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells: involvement of Bcl-2 cleavage. Nutr.Cancer 2002;42(2):241-247. View abstract.
Lian Z, Jun-Ling M, and Wei-Dong L. A randomized multi-intervention trial to inhibit gastric cancer in Shandong (progress report). Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology 1998;25(5):338-340.
Lin, M. C., Wang, E. J., Lee, C., Chin, K. T., Liu, D., Chiu, J. F., and Kung, H. F. Garlic inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression in human liver and intestinal cell lines and in rat intestine. J Nutr. 2002;132(6):1165-1168. View abstract.
Lissiman, E., Bhasale, A. L., and Cohen, M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(3):CD006206. View abstract.
Lissiman, E., Bhasale, A. L., and Cohen, M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;3:CD006206. View abstract.
Liu, C. T., Su, H. M., Lii, C. K., and Sheen, L. Y. Effect of supplementation with garlic oil on activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes from rats. Planta Med 2009;75(3):205-210. View abstract.
Liu, L. and Yeh, Y. Y. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Lipids 2000;35(2):197-203. View abstract.
Lohse, N., Kraghede, P. G., and Molbak, K. [Botulism an a 38-year-old man after ingestion of garlic in chilli oil]. Ugeskr.Laeger 7-21-2003;165(30):2962-2963. View abstract.
Lutomski J. Klinische Untersuchungen zur therapeutischen Wirksamkeit von Ilha Rogoff Knobauchpillen mit Rutin. Z Phytother 1984;5:938-942.
Ma, J. L., Zhang, L., Brown, L. M., Li, J. Y., Shen, L., Pan, K. F., Liu, W. D., Hu, Y., Han, Z. X., Crystal-Mansour, S., Pee, D., Blot, W. J., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., You, W. C., and Gail, M. H. Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-21-2012;104(6):488-492. View abstract.
Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res 1990;40(II):1111-1116.
Mahady, G. B. and Pendland, S. Garlic and Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(1):309. View abstract.
Makheja, A. N. and Bailey, J. M. Antiplatelet constituents of garlic and onion. Agents Actions 1990;29(3-4):360-363. View abstract.
Maldonado, P. D., Barrera, D., Medina-Campos, O. N., Hernandez-Pando, R., Ibarra-Rubio, M. E., and Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Life Sci. 10-3-2003;73(20):2543-2556. View abstract.
Hu, X., Cao, B. N., Hu, G., He, J., Yang, D. Q., and Wan, Y. S. Attenuation of cell migration and induction of cell death by aged garlic extract in rat sarcoma cells. Int J Mol.Med 2002;9(6):641-643. View abstract.
Hughes BG and Lawson LD. Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium ampeloprasum L. (Elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L. (Onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytother Res 1991;5:154-158.
Hughes BG, Murray BK, North JA, and et al. Antiviral constituents from Allium sativum. Planta Med 1989;55:114.
Hughes, T. M., Varma, S., and Stone, N. M. Occupational contact dermatitis from a garlic and herb mixture. Contact Dermatitis 2002;47(1):48. View abstract.
Hurley, M. N., Forrester, D. L., and Smyth, A. R. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(10):CD008037. View abstract.
Hussain, S. P., Jannu, L. N., and Rao, A. R. Chemopreventive action of garlic on methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix of mice. Cancer Lett. 1990;49(2):175-180. View abstract.
Huynh F, Fowkes C, and Tejani A. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Hypertension Group [Group Record] 2009;
Hviid, K. and Alsbjorn, B. ["Burns" caused by local application of garlic]. Ugeskr.Laeger 12-11-2000;162(50):6853-6854. View abstract.
Ide N, Nelson AB, and Lau BHS. Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit Cu2+ -induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Planta Med 1997;63:263-264.
Ide, N. and Lau, B. H. S-allylcysteine attenuates oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 1999;25(5):619-624. View abstract.
Ince DI, Sonmez GT, and Ince ML. Effects garlic on aerobic performance. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 2000;30(6):557-561.
Ishikawa, H., Saeki, T., Otani, T., Suzuki, T., Shimozuma, K., Nishino, H., Fukuda, S., and Morimoto, K. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):816S-820S. View abstract.
Jabbari, A., Argani, H., Ghorbanihaghjo, A., and Mahdavi, R. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients. Lipids Health Dis. 5-19-2005;4(1):11. View abstract.
Jain, R. C. Anti tubercular activity of garlic oil. Indian J Pathol.Microbiol. 1998;41(1):131. View abstract.
Jain, R. C. Effect of garlic on serum lipids, coagulability and fibrinolytic activity of blood. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30(9):1380-1381. View abstract.
Jepson RG, Kleijnen J, and Leng GC. Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library 2001;2
Jonkers, D., van den, Broek E., van, Dooren, I, Thijs, C., Dorant, E., Hageman, G., and Stobberingh, E. Antibacterial effect of garlic and omeprazole on Helicobacter pylori. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 1999;43(6):837-839. View abstract.
Jung F, Jung EM, Mrowietz C, and et al. [The effects of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation. A cross-over test with healthy test persons]. Med Welt 1991;42:28-30.
Jung, E. M., Jung, F., Mrowietz, C., Kiesewetter, H., Pindur, G., and Wenzel, E. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study in apparently healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41(6):626-630. View abstract.
Jung, F., Jung, E. M., Mrowietz, C., Kiesewetter, H., and Wenzel, E. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study in apparently healthy subjects. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:30-35. View abstract.
Kabasakal, L., Sehirli, O., Cetinel, S., Cikler, E., Gedik, N., and Sener, G. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Med Food 2005;8(3):319-326. View abstract.
Kandziora J. Antihypertensive Wirksamkeit und Vertraglichkeit eines Knoblauch-preparates. Arztliche Forschung 1988;1:1-8.
Kandziora J. Blutdruck and lipidsenkende Wirkung eines Knoblauch-praparates in kombination mit einem Diuretikum. Arztliche Forschung 1988;3:3-8.
Kandziora J. The blood pressure lowering and lipid lowering effect of a garlic preparation in combination with a diuretic. Arzliche Forschung 1988;3:1-8.
Kannar D. Clinical evaluation of Australian based garlic and its combination with inulin in mild and moderate hyperlipidaemia [dissertation] . Clayton Australia: Monash University 1998;p i-vi(6):67-114.
Kannar, D., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Savige, G. S., and Wahlqvist, M. L. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20(3):225-231. View abstract.
Kaplan, B., Schewach-Millet, M., and Yorav, S. Factitial dermatitis induced by application of garlic. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29(1):75-76. View abstract.
Kasuga, S., Uda, N., Kyo, E., Ushijima, M., Morihara, N., and Itakura, Y. Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with other garlic preparations. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1080S-1084S. View abstract.
Keiss, H. P., Dirsch, V. M., Hartung, T., Haffner, T., Trueman, L., Auger, J., Kahane, R., and Vollmar, A. M. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. J Nutr. 2003;133(7):2171-2175. View abstract.
Kendler, B. S. Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa): a review of their relationship to cardiovascular disease. Prev.Med 1987;16(5):670-685. View abstract.
Khodavandi, A., Alizadeh, F., Harmal, N. S., Sidik, S. M., Othman, F., Sekawi, Z., and Chong, P. P. Expression analysis of SIR2 and SAPs1-4 gene expression in Candida albicans treated with allicin compared to fluconazole. Trop.Biomed. 2011;28(3):589-598. View abstract.
Khodavandi, A., Alizadeh, F., Harmal, N. S., Sidik, S. M., Othman, F., Sekawi, Z., Jahromi, M. A., Ng, K. P., and Chong, P. P. Comparison between efficacy of allicin and fluconazole against Candida albicans in vitro and in a systemic candidiasis mouse model. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 2011;315(2):87-93. View abstract.
Kianoush, S., Balali-Mood, M., Mousavi, S. R., Moradi, V., Sadeghi, M., Dadpour, B., Rajabi, O., and Shakeri, M. T. Comparison of therapeutic effects of garlic and d-Penicillamine in patients with chronic occupational lead poisoning. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2012;110(5):476-481. View abstract.
Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Mrowietz C, and et al. Effects of garlic on blood fluidity and fibrinolytic activity: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Br J of Clin Prac 1990;69:24-29.
Kiesewetter, H., Jung, F., Pindur, G., Jung, E. M., Mrowietz, C., and Wenzel, E. Effect of garlic on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation, and other risk factors. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1991;29(4):151-155. View abstract.
Kim, J. Y. and Kwon, O. Garlic intake and cancer risk: an analysis using the Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):257-264. View abstract.
Knowles, L. M. and Milner, J. A. Possible mechanism by which allyl sulfides suppress neoplastic cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1061S-1066S. View abstract.
Knox, J. and Gaster, B. Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. J Altern.Complement Med 2007;13(1):83-95. View abstract.
Kockar, C., Ozturk, M., and Bavbek, N. Helicobacter pylori eradication with beta carotene, ascorbic acid and allicin. Acta Medica.(Hradec.Kralove) 2001;44(3):97-100. View abstract.
Kojuri, J., Vosoughi, A. R., and Akrami, M. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:5. View abstract.
Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, and et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:237-249.
Koscielny, J., Schmitt, R., Radtke, H., Latza, R., and Kiesewetter, H. Garlic study vindicated by official investigation. Nature 4-6-2000;404(6778):542. View abstract.
Kosuge, Y., Koen, Y., Ishige, K., Minami, K., Urasawa, H., Saito, H., and Ito, Y. S-allyl-L-cysteine selectively protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta-protein- and tunicamycin-induced neuronal death. Neuroscience 2003;122(4):885-895. View abstract.
Ku DD, Abdel-Razek TT, Dai J, and et al. Mechanisms of garlic induced pulmonary vasorelaxation: role of allicin. Circulation 1997;96(8S):6-I.
Kumar, M. and Berwal, J. S. Sensitivity of food pathogens to garlic (Allium sativum). J Appl.Microbiol. 1998;84(2):213-215. View abstract.
Kundakovic, T., Milenkovic, M., Zlatkovic, S., Nikolic, V., Nikolic, G., and Binic, I. Treatment of venous ulcers with the herbal-based ointment Herbadermal(R): a prospective non-randomized pilot study. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2012;19(1):26-30. View abstract.
Kweon, S., Park, K. A., and Choi, H. Chemopreventive effect of garlic powder diet in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Life Sci. 9-26-2003;73(19):2515-2526. View abstract.
Lachmann, G., Lorenz, D., Radeck, W., and Steiper, M. [The pharmacokinetics of the S35 labeled labeled garlic constituents alliin, allicin and vinyldithiine]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44(6):734-743. View abstract.
Lachter, J., Babich, J. P., Brookman, J. C., and Factor, A. Y. Garlic: a way out of work. Mil.Med 2003;168(6):499-500. View abstract.
Laing, M. E., Barry, J., Buckley, A. M., and Murphy, G. M. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to food and latex in a chef. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55(3):193-194. View abstract.
Larijani, V. N., Ahmadi, N., Zeb, I., Khan, F., Flores, F., and Budoff, M. Beneficial effects of aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 on vascular elasticity and endothelial function: the FAITH randomized clinical trial. Nutrition 2013;29(1):71-75. View abstract.
Lash, J. P., Cardoso, L. R., Mesler, P. M., Walczak, D. A., and Pollak, R. The effect of garlic on hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant patients. Transplant.Proc. 1998;30(1):189-191. View abstract.
Latha R, Venkatakrishnan L, Aruna V, and et al. The effect of garlic oil on lipid peroxidation and blood cell counts of arsenic exposed albino mice. Journal of Natural Remedies 2006;6:19-25.
Lau BH, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R, and et al. Effect of odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids. Nutrition Research 1987;7:139-149.
Lau BH, Tadi PP, and Tosk JM. Allium sativum (garlic) and cancer prevention. Nutrit Res 1990;10:937-948.
Lawson, L. D. Effect of garlic on serum lipids. JAMA 11-11-1998;280(18):1568. View abstract.
Lawson, L. D. Garlic for total cholesterol reduction. Ann.Intern.Med 7-3-2001;135(1):65-66. View abstract.
Lee, E. K., Chung, S. W., Kim, J. Y., Kim, J. M., Heo, H. S., Lim, H. A., Kim, M. K., Anton, S., Yokozawa, T., and Chung, H. Y. Allylmethylsulfide Down-Regulates X-Ray Irradiation-Induced Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling in C57/BL6 Mouse Kidney. J Med Food 2009;12(3):542-551. View abstract.
Lee, M. H., Kim, Y. M., and Kim, S. G. Efficacy and tolerability of diphenyl-dimethyl-dicarboxylate plus garlic oil in patients with chronic hepatitis. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 2012;50(11):778-786. View abstract.
Leelarungrayub, N., Rattanapanone, V., Chanarat, N., and Gebicki, J. M. Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 2006;22(3):266-274. View abstract.
Lei, Y. P., Chen, H. W., Sheen, L. Y., and Lii, C. K. Diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide suppress oxidized LDL-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule and E-selectin expression through protein kinase A- and B-dependent signaling pathways. J Nutr. 2008;138(6):996-1003. View abstract.
Levi, F., Franceschi, S., Negri, E., and La Vecchia, C. Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer 6-1-1993;71(11):3575-3581. View abstract.
Levi, F., La Vecchia, C., Gulie, C., and Negri, E. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland. Nutr Cancer 1993;19(3):327-335. View abstract.
Gebhardt R, Beck H, and Wagner K. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1213(1):57-62.
Germain, E., Auger, J., Ginies, C., Siess, M. H., and Teyssier, C. In vivo metabolism of diallyl disulphide in the rat: identification of two new metabolites. Xenobiotica 2002;32(12):1127-1138. View abstract.
German, K., Kumar, U., and Blackford, H. N. Garlic and the risk of TURP bleeding. Br J Urol 1995;76(4):518. View abstract.
Ghannoum, M. A. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). J Appl.Bacteriol. 1990;68(2):163-169. View abstract.
Ghannoum, M. A. Studies on the anticandidal mode of action of Allium sativum (garlic). J Gen.Microbiol. 1988;134 ( Pt 11):2917-2924. View abstract.
Ghazanfari, T., Hassan, Z. M., and Khamesipour, A. Enhancement of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity against Leishmania major by garlic (Allium sativum) treatment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-20-2006;103(3):333-337. View abstract.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, and Willett WC. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994;54:2390-2397.
Gravas S, Tzortzis V Rountas C Melekos MD. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and garlic consumption: a lesson to learn. Urol Res. 2010;38(1):61-63.
Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J. C., Motta, R. H., Ferraresi, P. M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Int.J Dent.Hyg. 2007;5(2):109-115. View abstract.
Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J. C., Simoes, R. P., Florio, F. M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms. Int.Dent.J. 2002;52(6):433-437. View abstract.
Guo, N. L., Lu, D. P., Woods, G. L., Reed, E., Zhou, G. Z., Zhang, L. B., and Waldman, R. H. Demonstration of the anti-viral activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1993;106(2):93-96. View abstract.
Guo, Y., Zhang, K., Wang, Q., Li, Z., Yin, Y., Xu, Q., Duan, W., and Li, C. Neuroprotective effects of diallyl trisulfide in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Res. 2-16-2011;1374:110-115. View abstract.
Gupta, N. and Porter, T. D. Garlic and garlic-derived compounds inhibit human squalene monooxygenase. J Nutr 2001;131(6):1662-1667. View abstract.
Hajheydari, Z., Jamshidi, M., Akbari, J., and Mohammadpour, R. Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Indian J Dermatol.Venereol.Leprol. 2007;73(1):29-32. View abstract.
Hansanugrum, A. and Barringer, S. A. Effect of milk on the deodorization of malodorous breath after garlic ingestion. J.Food Sci. 8-1-2010;75(6):C549-C558. View abstract.
Hansson LE, Nyren O, and Bergstrom R. Diet and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1993;55:181-189.
Harenberg, J., Giese, C., and Zimmermann, R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1988;74(3):247-249. View abstract.
Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases. Inflamm.Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8(1):2-10. View abstract.
Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16(26):2935-2947. View abstract.
Hassan, Z. M., Yaraee, R., Zare, N., Ghazanfari, T., Sarraf Nejad, A. H., and Nazori, B. Immunomodulatory affect of R10 fraction of garlic extract on natural killer activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003;3(10-11):1483-1489. View abstract.
Helen, A., Krishnakumar, K., Vijayammal, P. L., and Augusti, K. T. A comparative study of antioxidants S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide and vitamin E on the damages induced by nicotine in rats. Pharmacology 2003;67(3):113-117. View abstract.
Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225. View abstract.
Higashikawa, F., Noda, M., Awaya, T., Ushijima, M., and Sugiyama, M. Reduction of serum lipids by the intake of the extract of garlic fermented with Monascus pilosus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin.Nutr. 2012;31(2):261-266. View abstract.
Hikino, H., Tohkin, M., Kiso, Y., Namiki, T., Nishimura, S., and Takeyama, K. Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs. Planta Med 1986;(3):163-168. View abstract.
Hiltunen, R., Josling, P. D., and James, M. H. Preventing airborne infection with an intranasal cellulose powder formulation (Nasaleze travel). Adv.Ther 2007;24(5):1146-1153. View abstract.
Hirsch, K., Danilenko, M., Giat, J., Miron, T., Rabinkov, A., Wilchek, M., Mirelman, D., Levy, J., and Sharoni, Y. Effect of purified allicin, the major ingredient of freshly crushed garlic, on cancer cell proliferation. Nutr.Cancer 2000;38(2):245-254. View abstract.
Hjorth, N. and Roed-Petersen, J. Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2(1):28-42. View abstract.
Holden C. Fighting parasites with garlic. Science 1997;278(5338):581.
Hsu, C. C., Huang, C. N., Hung, Y. C., and Yin, M. C. Five cysteine-containing compounds have antioxidative activity in Balb/cA mice. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):149-152. View abstract.
Hu, J., Nyren, O., Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., Yuen, J., Adami, H. O., Guo, L., Li, H., Huang, G., Xu, X., and . Risk factors for oesophageal cancer in northeast China. Int J Cancer 4-1-1994;57(1):38-46. View abstract.
Ernst, E. Complementary/alternative medicine for hypertension: a mini-review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2005;155(17-18):386-391. View abstract.
Fani, M. M., Kohanteb, J., and Dayaghi, M. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans. J Indian Soc.Pedod.Prev.Dent. 2007;25(4):164-168. View abstract.
Farrell, A. M. and Staughton, R. C. Garlic burns mimicking herpes zoster. Lancet 4-27-1996;347(9009):1195. View abstract.
Fedder, S. L. Spinal epidural hematoma and garlic ingestion. Neurosurgery 1990;27(4):659. View abstract.
Feldberg, R. S., Chang, S. C., Kotik, A. N., Nadler, M., Neuwirth, Z., Sundstrom, D. C., and Thompson, N. H. In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother 1988;32(12):1763-1768. View abstract.
Filobbos, G., Chapman, T., and Gesakis, K. Iatrogenic burns from garlic. J.Burn Care Res. 2012;33(1):e21. View abstract.
Fleischer S, Bayerl C, and Jung EG. [Occupational allergic hand dermatitis to garlic in a pizza baker]. Aktuelle Dermatol 1996;22:278-279.
Friedman, T., Shalom, A., and Westreich, M. Self-inflicted garlic burns: our experience and literature review. Int.J Dermatol. 2006;45(10):1161-1163. View abstract.
Gaddoni G, Selvi M, Resta F, and et al. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic in a cook. Ann Ital Dermatol Clin Sperimentale 1994;48:120-121.
Gail M, You WC, Chang YS, and et al. Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: Design issues and initial data. Controlled Clin Trials 1998;19:352-369.
Gail, M. H. and You, W. C. A factorial trial including garlic supplements assesses effect in reducing precancerous gastric lesions. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):813S-815S. View abstract.
Galduroz, J. C., Antunes, H. K., and Santos, R. F. Gender- and age-related variations in blood viscosity in normal volunteers: a study of the effects of extract of Allium sativum and Ginkgo biloba. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7-8):447-451. View abstract.
Gallwitz, H., Bonse, S., Martinez-Cruz, A., Schlichting, I., Schumacher, K., and Krauth-Siegel, R. L. Ajoene is an inhibitor and subversive substrate of human glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase: crystallographic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies. J Med Chem. 2-11-1999;42(3):364-372. View abstract.
Gamboa-Leon, M. R., Aranda-Gonzalez, I., Mut-Martin, M., Garcia-Miss, M. R., and Dumonteil, E. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production. Scand.J Immunol. 2007;66(5):508-514. View abstract.
Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, and Gridley G. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Shanghai, China. Role of diet and nutrients. Int J Cancer 1994;58:197-202.
Gao, C. M., Takezaki, T., Ding, J. H., Li, M. S., and Tajima, K. Protective effect of allium vegetables against both esophageal and stomach cancer: a simultaneous case-referent study of a high-epidemic area in Jiangsu Province, China. Jpn.J Cancer Res 1999;90(6):614-621. View abstract.
Garcia-Anoveros, J. and Nagata, K. TRPA1. Handb.Exp.Pharmacol. 2007;(179):347-362. View abstract.
Gardner CD, Chatterjee L, and Carlson J. Effect of garlic supplementation on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic men and women. Circulation 1999;99(8):1123.
Chauhan, N. B. Effect of aged garlic extract on APP processing and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576. J Ethnopharmacol. 12-6-2006;108(3):385-394. View abstract.
Chavan, S. D., Shetty, N. L., and Kanuri, M. Comparative evaluation of garlic extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary Streptococcus mutans count - an in vitro study. Oral Health Prev.Dent. 2010;8(4):369-374. View abstract.
Chu, Q., Lee, D. T., Tsao, S. W., Wang, X., and Wong, Y. C. S-allylcysteine, a water-soluble garlic derivative, suppresses the growth of a human androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22R, under in vivo conditions. BJU.Int. 2007;99(4):925-932. View abstract.
Chu, T. C., Han, P., Han, G., and Potter, D. E. Intraocular pressure lowering by S-allylmercaptocysteine in rabbits. J Ocul.Pharmacol.Ther 1999;15(1):9-17. View abstract.
Cohain, J. S. Long-term symptomatic group B streptococcal vulvovaginitis: eight cases resolved with freshly cut garlic. Eur.J Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 2009;146(1):110-111. View abstract.
Cook-Mozaffari, P. J., Azordegan, F., Day, N. E., Ressicaud, A., Sabai, C., and Aramesh, B. Oesophageal cancer studies in the Caspian Littoral of Iran: results of a case-control study. Br.J Cancer 1979;39(3):293-309. View abstract.
Coppi, A., Cabinian, M., Mirelman, D., and Sinnis, P. Antimalarial activity of allicin, a biologically active compound from garlic cloves. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2006;50(5):1731-1737. View abstract.
Czerny B and Samochowiec J. Klinische Untersuchungen mit einem Knoblauch-Lezithin-Präparat. Arztezeitschr Naturheilverf 1996;37:126-129.
Das, I., Khan, N. S., and Sooranna, S. R. Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr.Med Res Opin. 1995;13(5):257-263. View abstract.
Das, I., Patel, S., and Sooranna, S. R. Effects of aspirin and garlic on cyclooxygenase-induced chemiluminescence in human term placenta. Biochem Soc.Trans. 1997;25(1):99S. View abstract.
Davis LE, Shen J, and Royer RE. In vitro synergism of concentrated allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against cryptococcus neoformans. Planta Med 1994;60:546-549.
Davis, L. E., Shen, J. K., and Cai, Y. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1990;34(4):651-653. View abstract.
Davis, S. R., Perrie, R., and Apitz-Castro, R. The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2003;51(3):593-597. View abstract.
de Rooij, B. M., Boogaard, P. J., Rijksen, D. A., Commandeur, J. N., and Vermeulen, N. P. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine upon garlic consumption by human volunteers. Arch.Toxicol 1996;70(10):635-639. View abstract.
de Santos AO and Jones RA. Effects of garlic powder and garlic oil preparations on blood lipids, blood pressure and well-being. Br J Clin Res 1995;6:91-100.
De Santos O and Grunwald J. Effect of garlic powder tablets on blood lipids and blood pressure: a six month placebo controlled double blind study. Br J Clin Res 1993;4:37-44.
De, B. K., Dutta, D., Pal, S. K., Gangopadhyay, S., Das, Baksi S., and Pani, A. The role of garlic in hepatopulmonary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Can.J.Gastroenterol. 2010;24(3):183-188. View abstract.
Delaha, E. C. and Garagusi, V. F. Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum). Antimicrob.Agents Chemother 1985;27(4):485-486. View abstract.
Demirkaya, E., Avci, A., Kesik, V., Karslioglu, Y., Oztas, E., Kismet, E., Gokcay, E., Durak, I., and Koseoglu, V. Cardioprotective roles of aged garlic extract, grape seed proanthocyanidin, and hazelnut on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87(8):633-640. View abstract.
Deshpande, R. G., Khan, M. B., Bhat, D. A., and Navalkar, R. G. Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob.Chemother. 1993;32(4):623-626. View abstract.
Dhawan, V. and Jain, S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2004;266(1-2):109-115. View abstract.
Dillon, S. A., Burmi, R. S., Lowe, G. M., Billington, D., and Rahman, K. Antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract: an in vitro study incorporating human low density lipoprotein. Life Sci. 2-21-2003;72(14):1583-1594. View abstract.
Dillon, S. A., Lowe, G. M., Billington, D., and Rahman, K. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract reduces plasma and urine concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) in smoking and nonsmoking men and women. J Nutr. 2002;132(2):168-171. View abstract.
Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, and et al. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Atherosclerosis 1998;139:333-339.
Dirsch, V. M., Gerbes, A. L., and Vollmar, A. M. Ajoene, a compound of garlic, induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Mol.Pharmacol 1998;53(3):402-407. View abstract.
Dixit, V. P. and Joshi, S. Effects of chronic administration of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on testicular function. Indian J Exp Biol 1982;20(7):534-536. View abstract.
Dorant, E., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R. A., and Sturmans, F. Consumption of onions and a reduced risk of stomach carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1996;110(1):12-20. View abstract.
Dunstan, J. A., Breckler, L., Hale, J., Lehmann, H., Franklin, P., Lyons, G., Ching, S. Y., Mori, T. A., Barden, A., and Prescott, S. L. Supplementation with vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium has no effect on anti-oxidant status and immune responses in allergic adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp.Allergy 2007;37(2):180-187. View abstract.
Durak I, Yilmaz E Devrim E Perk H Kacmaz. Consumption of aqueous garlic extract leads to significant improvement in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer . Nutr Res 2003;23:199-204.
Durak, I., Kavutcu, M., Aytac, B., Avci, A., Devrim, E., Ozbek, H., and Ozturk, H. S. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol. J Nutr.Biochem. 2004;15(6):373-377. View abstract.
Dwivedi, C., John, L. M., Schmidt, D. S., and Engineer, F. N. Effects of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds from garlic on doxorubicin-induced lipid peroxidation. Anticancer Drugs 1998;9(3):291-294. View abstract.
Dwivedi, C., Rohlfs, S., Jarvis, D., and Engineer, F. N. Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide. Pharm.Res 1992;9(12):1668-1670. View abstract.
Edelstein AJ and Johnstown PA. Dermatitis caused by garlic. Arch Dermatol 1950;61:111.
Egen-Schwind C, Eckard R, Jekat FW, and et al. Pharmacokinetics of vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin. Planta Med 1992;58:8-13.
Eguchi, A., Murakami, A., and Ohigashi, H. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells. Free Radic.Res. 2005;39(12):1367-1375. View abstract.
Ejaz, S., Chekarova, I., Cho, J. W., Lee, S. Y., Ashraf, S., and Lim, C. W. Effect of aged garlic extract on wound healing: a new frontier in wound management. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 2009;32(3):191-203. View abstract.
Ekeowa-Anderson, A. L., Shergill, B., and Goldsmith, P. Allergic contact cheilitis to garlic. Contact Dermatitis 2007;56(3):174-175. View abstract.
El Beshbishy, H. A. Aqueous garlic extract attenuates hepatitis and oxidative stress induced by galactosamine/lipoploysaccharide in rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(10):1372-1379. View abstract.
Eming, S. A., Piontek, J. O., Hunzelmann, N., Rasokat, H., and Scharffetter-Kachanek, K. Severe toxic contact dermatitis caused by garlic. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141(2):391-392. View abstract.
Ernst E. Can allium vegetables prevent cancer? Phytomedicine 1997;4(1):79-83.
Abbruzzese, M. R., Delaha, E. C., and Garagusi, V. F. Absence of antimycobacterial synergism between garlic extract and antituberculosis drugs. Diagn.Microbiol.Infect.Dis. 1987;8(2):79-85. View abstract.
Adachi, A. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test]. Arerugi 2010;59(5):545-551. View abstract.
Adetumbi, M., Javor, G. T., and Lau, B. H. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30(3):499-501. View abstract.
Ahmad, M. S., Pischetsrieder, M., and Ahmed, N. Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-30-2007;561(1-3):32-38. View abstract.
Ahmadi, N., Tsimikas, S., Hajsadeghi, F., Saeed, A., Nabavi, V., Bevinal, M. A., Kadakia, J., Flores, F., Ebrahimi, R., and Budoff, M. J. Relation of oxidative biomarkers, vascular dysfunction, and progression of coronary artery calcium. Am.J.Cardiol. 2-15-2010;105(4):459-466. View abstract.
Alder, R., Lookinland, S., Berry, J. A., and Williams, M. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. J Am Acad.Nurse Pract. 2003;15(3):120-129. View abstract.
Ali, M. and Thomson, M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53(3):211-212. View abstract.
Ali, M. Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53(6):397-400. View abstract.
Ambati, S., Yang, J. Y., Rayalam, S., Park, H. J., Della-Fera, M. A., and Baile, C. A. Ajoene exerts potent effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(4):513-518. View abstract.
Andrianova, I. V., Fomchenkov, I. V., and Orekhov, A. N. [Hypotensive effect of long-acting garlic tablets allicor (a double-blind placebo-controlled trial)]. Ter.Arkh. 2002;74(3):76-78. View abstract.
Andrianova, I. V., Ionova, V. G., Demina, E. G., Shabalina, A. A., Karabasova, IaA, Liutova, L. I., Povorinskaia, T. E., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allikor for the normalization of fibrinolysis and hemostasis in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2001;79(11):55-58. View abstract.
Andrianova, I. V., Sobenin, I. A., Sereda, E. V., Borodina, L. I., and Studenikin, M. I. [Effect of long-acting garlic tablets "allicor" on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children]. Ter.Arkh. 2003;75(3):53-56. View abstract.
Anim-Nyame, N., Sooranna, S. R., Johnson, M. R., Gamble, J., and Steer, P. J. Garlic supplementation increases peripheral blood flow: a role for interleukin-6? J Nutr.Biochem. 2004;15(1):30-36. View abstract.
anonymous. Garlic in cryptococcal meningitis: a preliminary report of 21 cases. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1980;93(2):123-126. View abstract.
Anthony, J. P., Fyfe, L., and Smith, H. Plant active components - a resource for antiparasitic agents? Trends Parasitol. 2005;21(10):462-468. View abstract.
Apitz-Castro, R., Escalante, J., Vargas, R., and Jain, M. K. Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dypiridamole on human platelets. Thromb.Res 5-1-1986;42(3):303-311. View abstract.
Ashraf, M. Z., Hussain, M. E., and Fahim, M. Endothelium mediated vasorelaxant response of garlic in isolated rat aorta: role of nitric oxide. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):5-9. View abstract.
Ashraf, R., Aamir, K., Shaikh, A. R., and Ahmed, T. Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2005;17(3):60-64. View abstract.
Ashraf, R., Khan, R. A., and Ashraf, I. Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation with standard antidiabetic agent provides better diabetic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Pak.J.Pharm.Sci. 2011;24(4):565-570. View abstract.
Augusti, K. T. and Sheela, C. G. Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 2-15-1996;52(2):115-120. View abstract.
Avci, A., Atli, T., Erguder, I. B., Varli, M., Devrim, E., Aras, S., and Durak, I. Effects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects. Gerontology 2008;54(3):173-176. View abstract.
Ayala-Zavala, J. F., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. A., and Toro-Sanchez, L. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils. J Food Sci 2009;74(7):R84-R91. View abstract.
Bagga, S., Thomas, B. S., and Bhat, M. Garlic burn as self-inflicted mucosal injury--a case report and review of the literature. Quintessence.Int. 2008;39(6):491-494. View abstract.
Bakhshi, M., Taheri, J. B., Shabestari, S. B., Tanik, A., and Pahlevan, R. Comparison of therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of garlic and nystatin mouthwash in denture stomatitis. Gerodontology. 2012;29(2):e680-e684. View abstract.
Bakri, I. M. and Douglas, C. W. Inhibitory effect of garlic extract on oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50(7):645-651. View abstract.
Balasenthil, S., Ramachandran, C. R., and Nagini, S. Prevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by garlic. Fitoterapia 2001;72(5):524-531. View abstract.
Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic. J Oral Pathol.Med 2002;31(3):142-146. View abstract.
Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S. Retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA expression during chemoprevention of hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by garlic. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(2):215-218. View abstract.
Baluchnejadmojarad, T. and Roghani, M. Endothelium-dependent and -independent effect of aqueous extract of garlic on vascular reactivity on diabetic rats. Fitoterapia 2003;74(7-8):630-637. View abstract.
Baluchnejadmojarad, T., Roghani, M., Homayounfar, H., and Hosseini, M. Beneficial effect of aqueous garlic extract on the vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(1):139-144. View abstract.
Banerjee, S. K., Dinda, A. K., Manchanda, S. C., and Maulik, S. K. Chronic garlic administration protects rat heart against oxidative stress induced by ischemic reperfusion injury. BMC.Pharmacol. 8-16-2002;2:16. View abstract.
Barrie SA, Wright JV, and Pizzorno JE. Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and blood pressure in humans. J Orthomolec Med 1987;2(1):15-21.
Baruchin, A. M., Sagi, A., Yoffe, B., and Ronen, M. Garlic burns. Burns 2001;27(7):781-782. View abstract.
Belman, S. Onion and garlic oils inhibit tumor promotion. Carcinogenesis 1983;4(8):1063-1065. View abstract.
Berspalov, V. G., Shcherbakov, A. M., Kalinovskii, V. P., Novik, V. I., Chepik, O. F., Aleksandrov, V. A., Sobenin, I. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Study of the antioxidant drug "Karinat" in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis]. Vopr.Onkol. 2004;50(1):81-85. View abstract.
Bespalov, V. G., Barash, N. I., Ivanova, O. A., Krzhivitskii, P. I., Semiglazov, V. F., Aleksandrov, V. A., Sobenin, N. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Study of an antioxidant dietary supplement "Karinat" in patients with benign breast disease]. Vopr.Onkol. 2004;50(4):467-472. View abstract.
Bhushan, S., Sharma, S. P., Singh, S. P., Agrawal, S., Indrayan, A., and Seth, P. Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1979;23(3):211-214. View abstract.
Bhuvaneswari, V., Abraham, S. K., and Nagini, S. Combinatorial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of tomato and garlic through modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Nutrition 2005;21(6):726-731. View abstract.
Bimmermann A, Weingart K, and Schwartzkopff W. Allium sativum: Studie zur Wirksamkeit bei Hyperlipoproteinamie. Therapiewoche 1988;38:3885-3890.
Bleumink, E., Doeglas, H. M., Klokke, A. H., and Nater, J. P. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic. Br.J Dermatol. 1972;87(1):6-9. View abstract.
Bordel-Gomez, M. T. and Miranda-Romero, A. Sensitivity to diallyl disulfide in a Spanish population. Contact Dermatitis 2008;59(2):125-126. View abstract.
Bordia A. [Garlic and coronary heart disease. Results of a 3-year treatment with garlic extract on the reinfarction and mortality rate]. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung 1989;129(28 suppl 15):16-17.
Bordia A. Knoblauch und koronare Herzkrankheit: Wirkungen einer dreijahrigen Behandlung min Knoblauchextrakt auf die Reinfarkt und Mortalitatsrate. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1989;129(suppl 15):1-25.
Bordia, A. Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(10):2100-2103. View abstract.
Bordia, A. K., Joshi, H. K., Sanadhya, Y. K., and Bhu, N. Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 1977;28(2):155-159. View abstract.
Bordia, A., Bansal, H. C., Arora, S. K., and Singh, S. V. Effect of the essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis 1975;21(1):15-19. View abstract.
Bordia, A., Verma, S. K., and Srivastava, K. C. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in humans: a study in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55(3):201-205. View abstract.
Bordia, T., Mohammed, N., Thomson, M., and Ali, M. An evaluation of garlic and onion as antithrombotic agents. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;54(3):183-186. View abstract.
Bottone, F. G., Jr., Baek, S. J., Nixon, J. B., and Eling, T. E. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) induces the antitumorigenic NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1) by a p53-dependent mechanism in human colorectal HCT 116 cells. J Nutr. 2002;132(4):773-778. View abstract.
Bradley R, Endres J, Hockenberry D, and et al. Investigation of garlic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines [poster presentation]. International Scientific Conference on Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Research, Boston, MA, 2002.
Brosche, T. and Platt, D. [Garlic as phytogenic antilipemic agent. Recent studies with a standardized dry garlic powder substance]. Fortschr.Med 12-20-1990;108(36):703-706. View abstract.
Brosche, T., Platt, D., and Dorner, H. The effect of a garlic preparation on the composition of plasma lipoproteins and erythrocyte membranes in geriatric subjects. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:12-19. View abstract.
Budoff, M. J., Takasu, J., Flores, F. R., Niihara, Y., Lu, B., Lau, B. H., Rosen, R. T., and Amagase, H. Inhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary study. Prev.Med 2004;39(5):985-991. View abstract.
Buhshan S, Sharma SP, Singh SP, and et al. Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1979;23:211-214.
Buiatti, E., Palli, D., Decarli, A., Amadori, D., Avellini, C., Bianchi, S., Biserni, R., Cipriani, F., Cocco, P., Giacosa, A., and . A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 10-15-1989;44(4):611-616. View abstract.
Byrne, D. J., Neil, H. A., Vallance, D. T., and Winder, A. F. A pilot study of garlic consumption shows no significant effect on markers of oxidation or sub-fraction composition of low-density lipoprotein including lipoprotein(a) after allowance for non-compliance and the placebo effect. Clin Chim.Acta 1999;285(1-2):21-33. View abstract.
Campbell, J. H., Efendy, J. L., Smith, N. J., and Campbell, G. R. Molecular basis by which garlic suppresses atherosclerosis. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1006S-1009S. View abstract.
Campos, R., Amato, Neto, V, Castanho, R. E., Moreira, A. A., and Pinto, P. L. [Treatment of ascaridiasis with garlic (Allium sativum)]. Rev Hosp.Clin Fac.Med Sao Paulo 1990;45(5):213-215. View abstract.
Canduela, V., Mongil, I., Carrascosa, M., Docio, S., and Cagigas, P. Garlic: always good for the health? Br J Dermatol. 1995;132(1):161-162. View abstract.
Caporaso, N., Smith, S. M., and Eng, R. H. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum). Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1983;23(5):700-702. View abstract.
Capraz, M., Dilek, M., and Akpolat, T. Garlic, hypertension and patient education. Int.J Cardiol. 9-14-2007;121(1):130-131. View abstract.
Challier, B., Perarnau, J. M., and Viel, J. F. Garlic, onion and cereal fibre as protective factors for breast cancer: a French case-control study. Eur.J Epidemiol. 1998;14(8):737-747. View abstract.
Chauhan, N. B. and Sandoval, J. Amelioration of early cognitive deficits by aged garlic extract in Alzheimer's transgenic mice. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(7):629-640. View abstract.
Panjeshahin A, Mollahosseini M, Panbehkar-Jouybari M, Kaviani M, Mirzavandi F, Hosseinzadeh M. Effects of garlic supplementation on liver enzymes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2020. View abstract.
Pedraza-Chaverri J, Tapia E, Medina-Campos ON, et al. Garlic prevents hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Life Sci 1998;62:71-7. View abstract.
Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Welden N, et al. The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:234-8. View abstract.
Qureshi A, Abuirmeileh N, Din Z, and et al. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids 1983;18:343-348. View abstract.
Qureshi AA, Crenshaw TD, and Abuirmeileh N. Influence of minor plant constituents on porcine hepatic lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis 1987;64:109-115. View abstract.
Qureshi AA, Din ZZ, Abuirmeileh N, et al. Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic: impact on serum lipids. J Nutr 1983;113:1746-55. View abstract.
Rahman K, Billington D. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humans. J Nutr 2000;130:2662-5. View abstract.
Reinhart KM, Talati R, White CM, Coleman CI. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr.Res.Rev. 2009;22:39-48. View abstract.
Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, et al. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2008;8:13. View abstract.
Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2013;67(1):64-70. View abstract.
Ried K, Toben C, Fakler P. Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis. Nutr Rev 2013;71:282-99. View abstract.
Ried K. Garlic lowers blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, regulates serum cholesterol, and stimulates immunity: An updated meta-analysis and review. J Nutr. 2016;146(2):389S-396S. View abstract.
Rohner A, Ried K, Sobenin IA, Bucher HC, Nordmann AJ. A systematic review and metaanalysis on the effects of garlic preparations on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28(3):414-23. View abstract.
Rose KD, Croissant PD, Parliament CF, Levin MB. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with associated platelet dysfunction from excessive garlic ingestion: a case report. Neurosurg 1990;26:880-2. View abstract.
Rotzsch W, Richter V, Rassoul F, Walper A. [Postprandial lipemia under treatment with Allium sativum. Controlled double-blind study of subjects with reduced HDL2-cholesterol]. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:1223-7. View abstract.
Roussos AP, Hirsch AR. Alliaceous migraines. Headache 2014;54(2):378-82. View abstract.
Sahebkar A, Serban C, Ursoniu S, Banach M. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutrition. 2016;32(1):33-40. View abstract.
Sangouni AA, Mohammad Hosseini Azar MR, Alizadeh M. Effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes and lipid profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2020;124(4):450-456. View abstract.
Sasaki J, Kita T, Ishita K, et al. Antibacterial activity of garlic powder against Escherichia coli O-157. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1999;45:785-90. View abstract.
Satitvipawee P, Rawdaree P, Indrabhakti S, et al. No effect of garlic extract supplement on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Med Assoc Thai 2003;86:750-7. View abstract.
Sato T, Miyata G. The Nutraceutical Benefit, Part IV: Garlic. Nutrition 2000;16:787-8. View abstract.
Senapati SK, Dey S, Dwivedi SK, Swarup D. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on tissue lead level in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:229-32.. View abstract.
Shaikh SA, Tischer S, Choi EK, Fontana RJ. Good for the lung but bad for the liver? Garlic-induced hepatotoxicity following liver transplantation. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017;42(5):646-648. View abstract.
Sheela CG, Kumud K, Augusti KT. Anti-diabetic effects of onion and garlic sulfoxide amino acids in rats. Planta Med 1995;61:356-7.. View abstract.
Siegel G, Klubendorf D. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum: Statistics re-evaluated. Atherosclerosis 2000;150:437-8. View abstract.
Sigounas G, Hooker J, Anagnostou A, Steiner M. S-allylmercaptocysteine inhibits cell proliferation and reduces the viability of erythroleukemia, breast, and prostate cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer 1997;27:186-91. View abstract.
Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1994;28:39-45. View abstract.
Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens 1994;12:463-8. View abstract.
Simons LA, Balasubramaniam S, von Konigsmark M, et al. On the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 1995;113:219-25. View abstract.
Soleimani D, Paknahad Z, Rouhani MH. Therapeutic effects of garlic on hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020;13:2389-2397. View abstract.
Staba EJ, Lash L, Staba JE. A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition. J Nutr 2001;131:1118S-9S.. View abstract.
Steiner M, Khan AH, Holbert D, Lin RI. A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:866-70. View abstract.
Steiner M, Li W. Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions. J Nutr 2001;131:980S-4S. View abstract.
Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;31:904-8. View abstract.
Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1-15. View abstract.
Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:420-9. View abstract.
Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Garlic as an Insect Repellant. JAMA 2000;284:831. View abstract.
Sumioka I, Matsura T, Yamada K. Therapeutic effect of S-allylmercaptocysteine on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;433:177-85.. View abstract.
Sunter WH. Warfarin and garlic. Pharm J 1991;246:722.
Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein(a). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:321-6. View abstract.
Suzuki H, Rhim JH. Effect of samgyetang feeding on plasma lipids, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and stress-induced gastric ulcers in mice. Nutr Res 2000;20:575-84.
Suzuki Y, Saito J, Misa K, Fukuhara N, Fukuhara A, Munakata M. A case of black garlic-induced pneumonia as an adverse reaction. Allergol Int. 2016;65(3):353-5. View abstract.
Takezaki T, Gao CM, Ding JH, et al. Comparative study of lifestyles of residents in high and low risk areas for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China; with special reference to allium vegetables. J Epidemiol 1999;9:297-305. View abstract.
Treudler R, Reuter A, Engin AM, Simon JC. A case of anaphylaxis after garlic ingestion: Is alliinase the only culprit allergen? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25(5):374-5. View abstract.
Vorberg G, Schneider B. Therapy with garlic: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Br J Clin Pract Symp Suppl 1990;69:7-11. View abstract.
Wang BH, Zuzel KA, Rahman K, Billington D. Treatment with aged garlic extract protects against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices. Toxicology 1999;132:215-25. View abstract.
Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:599-605. View abstract.
Watson CJ, Grando D, Fairley CK, et al. The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial. BJOG 2014;121(4):498-506. View abstract.
Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, et al. In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med 1992;58:417-23. View abstract.
Witte JS, Longnecker MP, Bird CL, et al. Relation of vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption to colorectal adenomatous polyps. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:1015-25. View abstract.
Wlosinska M, Nilsson AC, Hlebowicz J, et al. The effect of aged garlic extract on the atherosclerotic process - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):132. View abstract.
Woodbury A, Sniecinski R. Garlic-induced surgical bleeding: How much is too much? A Case Rep. 2016;7(12):266-269. View abstract.
Xiong XJ, Wang PQ, Li SJ, Li XK, Zhang YQ, Wang J. Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine. 2015;22(3):352-61. View abstract.
Xu S, Heller M, Wu PA, Nambudri VE. Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion. Dermatol Online J 2014;20(1):21261. View abstract.
Yagami A, Suzuki K, Sano A, et al. Immediate allergy due to raw garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Dermatol. 2015;42(10):1026-7. View abstract.
Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies. J Nutr 2001;131:989S-93S. View abstract.
You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, et al. Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:162-4. View abstract.
You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.
You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:941-4. View abstract.
Zeng T, Guo FF, Zhang CL, et al. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials for the effects of garlic on serum lipid profiles. J.Sci.Food Agric. 2012;92:1892-1902. View abstract.
Zhang S, Gu Y, Wang L, et al. Association between dietary raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019;181(6):591-602. View abstract.
Zhang S, Liu M, Wang Y, et al. Raw garlic consumption is inversely associated with prehypertension in a large-scale adult population. J Hum Hypertens. 2020;34(1):59-67.View abstract.
Zhang XH, Lowe D, Giles P, et al. Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects. J Nutr 2001;131:1471-8. View abstract.
Zhang Y, Moriguchi T, Saito H, Nishiyama N. Functional relationship between age-related immunodeficiency and learning deterioration. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10:3869-75. View abstract.
Zhou X, Qian H, Zhang D, Zeng L. Garlic intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(1):e18575. View abstract.
Zhou XF, Ding ZS, Liu NB. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013:14(7):4131-4. View abstract.
Ziaei S, Hantoshzadeh S, Rezasoltani P, Lamyian M. The effect of garlic tablet on plasma lipids and platelet aggregation in nulliparous pregnants at high risk of preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;99:201-6.. View abstract.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.