Beet Greens, Beet Juice, Beetroot, Beetroot Juice, Beta vulgaris, Betarraga, Beets, Betterave, Betterave à Sucre, Betterave Jaune, Betterave Rouge, Betteraves, Fodder Beet, Garden Beet, Green Beet, Mangel, Mangold, Red Beet, Remolacha, Scandinavian Beet, Sugarbeet, Yellow Beet.
Overview InformationBeet is a plant. The root is used in natural medicines. Beet root and leaves are also eaten as a vegetable.
Beets are commonly used in the treatment of liver diseases and fatty liver. They are also used help lower levels of triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood, lower blood pressure, improve athletic performance, and reduce muscle soreness. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.
How does it work?Beets contain chemicals that might reduce swelling and cholesterol. Also, beet can increase levels of a chemical called nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide can affect blood vessels, possibly reducing blood pressure and making it easier to exercise.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Athletic performance. Drinking beetroot juice might help some people move faster or with less effort. However, it is not clear how much or how often beetroot juice is needed. It is possible that beet might work better for people who exercise for fun than for highly trained athletes.
- Muscle soreness caused by exercise. Drinking beetroot juice a few times a day for about 48 hours after exercise seems to help with sore muscles after sprinting or jumping.
Insufficient Evidence for
- High blood pressure. Drinking beetroot juice might reduce blood pressure in some people. However, it doesn't seem to work in people with high blood pressure.
- Improving athletic performance.
- High levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia).
- Supportive therapy for fatty liver and other liver diseases.
Side Effects & SafetyBeet is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken in the amounts typically found in foods. Beet is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts.
Beets sometimes make urine or stools pink or red. Also, beets might cause low calcium levels and kidney damage. This hasn't been shown in people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's not known whether it's safe to use beet in larger medicinal amounts during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Stick to food amounts.
Kidney disease: Eating too many beets might make kidney disease worse.
We currently have no information for BEET Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For athletic performance: Beetroot juice 70-140 mL daily has been used, often taken a few hours before exercise. Baked beetroot 200 grams taken 75 minutes before exercise has also been used. Beetroot concentrate 50 mg twice daily for about 6 days has been used.
- For muscle soreness caused by exercise: Beetroot juice (Love Beets Beetroot Juice) 125 or 250 mL per serving has been used for a total of 7-8 servings over approximately 2 days following exercise.
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- Thorsdottir, I., Andersson, H., and Einarsson, S. Sugar beet fiber in formula diet reduces postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin and serum hydroxyproline. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1998;52(2):155-156. View abstract.
- Watts, A. R., Lennard, M. S., Mason, S. L., Tucker, G. T., and Woods, H. F. Beeturia and the biological fate of beetroot pigments. Pharmacogenetics 1993;3(6):302-311. View abstract.
- Arnold JT, Oliver SJ, Lewis-Jones TM, et al. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2015;40:590-5. View abstract.
- Ashor AW, Jajja A, Sutyarjoko A, et al. Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on microvascular blood flow in older overweight and obese subjects: a pilot randomised controlled study. J Hum Hypertens 2015;29:511-3. View abstract.
- Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Kabir A, Azizi F, Ghasemi A. The nitrate-independent blood pressure-lowering effect of beetroot juice: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(6):830-838. View abstract.
- Betteridge S, Bescós R, Martorell M, et al. No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120(4):391-8. View abstract.
- Bondonno CP, Liu AH, Croft KD, et al. Absence of an effect of high nitrate intake from beetroot juice on blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;102:368-75. View abstract.
- Boorsma RK, Whitfield J, Spriet LL. Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance of elite 1500-m runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46:2326-34. View abstract.
- Breese BC, McNarry MA, Marwood S, et al. Beetroot juice supplementation speeds O2 uptake kinetics and improves exercise tolerance during severe-intensity exercise initiated from an elevated metabolic rate. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2013;305:R1441-50. View abstract.
- Buck CL, Henry T, Guelfi K, Dawson B, McNaughton LR, Wallman K. Effects of sodium phosphate and beetroot juice supplementation on repeated-sprint ability in females. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Oct;115(10):2205-13. View abstract.
- Cermak NM, Res P, Stinkens R, et al. No improvement in endurance performance after a single dose of beetroot juice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2012;22:470-8. View abstract.
- Clifford T, Allerton DM, Brown MA, et al. Minimal muscle damage after a marathon and no influence of beetroot juice on inflammation and recovery. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017;42:263-270. View abstract.
- Clifford T, Berntzen B, Davison GW, et al. Effects of beetroot juice on recovery of muscle function and performance between bouts of repeated sprint exercise. Nutrients 2016;8. pii: E506. View abstract.
- Clifford T, Constantinou CM, Keane KM, West DJ, Howatson G, Stevenson EJ. The plasma bioavailability of nitrate and betanin from Beta vulgaris rubra in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1245-1254. View abstract.
- Dillen K, Demont M, Tillie P, Rodriguez Cerezo E. Bred for Europe but grown in America: the case of GM sugar beet. N Biotechnol 2013;30:131-5. View abstract.
- Flueck JL, Bogdanova A, Mettler S, Perret C. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016;41:421-9. View abstract.
- Hobbs DA, George TW, Lovegrove JA. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study. J Hum Hypertens. 2014;28(12):726-30. View abstract.
- Hobbs DA, Goulding MG, Nguyen A, et al. Acute ingestion of beetroot bread increases endothelium-independent vasodilation and lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy men: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2013;143(9):1399-405. View abstract.
- Hoon MW, Johnson NA, Chapman PG, Burke LM. The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23:522-32. View abstract.
- Hoon MW, Jones AM, Johnson NA, et al. The effect of variable doses of inorganic nitrate-rich beetroot juice on simulated 2,000-m rowing performance in trained athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2014;9:615-20. View abstract.
- Jajja A, Sutyarjoko A, Lara J, et al. Beetroot supplementation lowers daily systolic blood pressure in older, overweight subjects. Nutr Res. 2014;34(10):868-75. View abstract.
- MacLeod KE, Nugent SF, Barr SI, et al. Acute beetroot juice supplementation does not improve cycling performance in normoxia or moderate hypoxia. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2015;25:359-66. View abstract.
- Montenegro CF, Kwong DA, Minow ZA, Davis BA, Lozada CF, Casazza GA. Betalain-rich concentrate supplementation improves exercise performance and recovery in competitive triathletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(2):166-172. View abstract.
- Muggeridge DJ, Howe CC, Spendiff O, et al. A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46:143-50. View abstract.
- Muggeridge DJ, Howe CC, Spendiff O, et al. The effects of a single dose of concentrated beetroot juice on performance in trained flatwater kayakers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23:498-506. View abstract.
- Murphy M, Eliot K, Heuertz RM, Weiss E. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:548-52. View abstract.
- Ninfali P, Angelino D. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra. Fitoterapia 2013;89:188-99. View abstract.
- Siervo M, Lara J, Ogbonmwan I, Mathers JC. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr 2013;143:818-26. View abstract.
- Wong RH, Garg ML, Wood LG, Howe PR. Antihypertensive potential of combined extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Nutrients. 2014;6(11):4881-94. View abstract.
- Wylie LJ, Bailey SJ, Kelly J, et al. Influence of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 2016;116:415-25. View abstract.
- Wylie LJ, Kelly J, Bailey SJ, et al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;115(3):325-36. View abstract.
- Zand J, Lanza F, Garg HK, Bryan NS. All-natural nitrite and nitrate containing dietary supplement promotes nitric oxide production and reduces triglycerides in humans. Nutr Res 2011;31(4):262-9. View abstract.
- Briskin, B. S. and Demidov, D. A. [Enterosorption with pectin-containing medication in the treatment of peritonitis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2005;(4):14-19. View abstract.
- Cossack, Z. T. and Musaiger, A. O. Effect on lipid metabolism of beet fibre in desert nomads with low habitual fibre intake. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1991;45(2):105-110. View abstract.
- Frank, T., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., Bitsch, I., Quaas, D., Strass, G., Bitsch, R., and Netzel, M. Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans. Pharmacol Res 2005;52(4):290-297. View abstract.
- Granado, F., Olmedilla, B., Blanco, I., and Rojas-Hidalgo, E. Major fruit and vegetable contributors to the main serum carotenoids in the Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50(4):246-250. View abstract.
- Hagander, B., Asp, N. G., Efendic, S., Nilsson-Ehle, P., Lungquist, I., and Schersten, B. Reduced glycemic response to beet-fibre meal in non-insulin-dependent diabetics and its relation to plasma levels of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones. Diabetes Res. 1986;3(2):91-96. View abstract.
- Hagander, B., Asp, N. G., Ekman, R., Nilsson-Ehle, P., and Schersten, B. Dietary fibre enrichment, blood pressure, lipoprotein profile and gut hormones in NIDDM patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989;43(1):35-44. View abstract.
- Hamberg, O., Rumessen, J. J., and Gudmand-Hoyer, E. Blood glucose response to pea fiber: comparisons with sugar beet fiber and wheat bran. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1989;50(2):324-328. View abstract.
- Hara, H., Haga, S., Kasai, T., and Kiriyama, S. Fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber by cecal bacteria lower plasma cholesterol concentration in rats. J Nutr 1998;128(4):688-693. View abstract.
- Lampe, J. W., Slavin, J. L., Baglien, K. S., Thompson, W. O., Duane, W. C., and Zavoral, J. H. Serum lipid and fecal bile acid changes with cereal, vegetable, and sugar-beet fiber feeding. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1991;53(5):1235-1241. View abstract.
- Langkilde, A. M., Andersson, H., and Bosaeus, I. Sugar-beet fibre increases cholesterol and reduces bile acid excretion from the small bowel. Br.J.Nutr. 1993;70(3):757-766. View abstract.
- Mitchell, S. C. Food idiosyncrasies: beetroot and asparagus. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29(4 Pt 2):539-543. View abstract.
- Schwab, U., Louheranta, A., Torronen, A., and Uusitupa, M. Impact of sugar beet pectin and polydextrose on fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids in middle-aged subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
- Stevens, J., Ahn, K., Juhaeri, Houston, D., Steffan, L., and Couper, D. Dietary fiber intake and glycemic index and incidence of diabetes in African-American and white adults: the ARIC study. Diabetes Care 2002;25(10):1715-1721. View abstract.
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