BIOTIN

OTHER NAME(S):

Biotina, Biotine, Biotine-D, Coenzyme R, D-Biotin, Vitamin B7, Vitamin H, Vitamine B7, Vitamine H, W Factor, Cis-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]-imidazole-4-valeric Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Biotin is a vitamin. It is found in small amounts in many foods such as eggs, milk, or bananas.

Biotin is commonly used for hair loss, brittle nails, nerve damage, and many other conditions.

How does it work?

Biotin is an important component of enzymes in the body that break down certain substances like fats, carbohydrates, and others.

There isn't a good laboratory test for detecting biotin deficiency, so this condition is usually identified by its symptoms, which include thinning of the hair (frequently with loss of hair color) and red scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Nervous system symptoms include depression, exhaustion, hallucinations, and tingling of the arms and legs. There is some evidence that diabetes could result in biotin deficiency.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Biotin deficiency. Taking biotin can help treat low blood levels of biotin. It can also prevent blood levels of biotin from becoming too low. Low blood levels of biotin can cause thinning of the hair and rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Other symptoms include depression, lack of interest, hallucinations, and tingling in the arms and legs. Low biotin levels can occur in people who are pregnant, who have had long-term tube feeding, who are malnourished, who have undergone rapid weight loss, or who have a specific inherited condition. Cigarette smoking might also cause low blood levels of biotin.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Skin rash in infants (seborrheic dermatitis). Taking biotin does not seem to help improve rash in infants.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Hair loss. Taking biotin and zinc by mouth in addition to applying a steroid cream to the skin might help reduce hair loss.
  • Brittle fingernails and toenails. Taking biotin by mouth might increase the thickness of fingernails and toenails in people with brittle nails.
  • Diabetes. Some early research shows that taking biotin along with chromium might lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. However, taking biotin alone doesn't seem to improve blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Diabetic nerve pain. Early research shows that taking biotin by mouth or receiving it as a shot might reduce nerve pain in the legs of people with diabetes.
  • Muscle cramps. People undergoing dialysis tend to have muscle cramps. Early research shows that taking biotin by mouth might reduce muscle cramps in these people.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate biotin for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Biotin is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth and appropriately or when applied to the skin as cosmetic products that contain 0.0001% to 0.6% biotin. Biotin is well tolerated when used at recommended dosages. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when given as a shot.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Biotin is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in recommended amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Children: Biotin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth and appropriately.

An inherited condition in which the body cannot process biotin (biotinidase deficiency): People with this condition might need extra biotin.

Kidney dialysis: People receiving kidney dialysis may need extra biotin. Check with your health care provider.

Smoking: People who smoke might have low biotin levels and may need a biotin supplement.

Laboratory tests: Taking biotin supplements might interfere with the results of many different lab tests that test the blood. Biotin can cause falsely high or falsely low test results. This might lead to missed or incorrect diagnoses. Tell your doctor if you are taking biotin supplements, especially if you are having lab tests done.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for BIOTIN Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • General: There is no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) established for biotin. The adequate intakes (AI) for biotin are 30 mcg for adults over 18 years and pregnant women, and 35 mcg for breast-feeding women.
  • Biotin deficiency: Up to 10 mg daily has been used.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH:
  • General: There is no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) established for biotin. The adequate intakes (AI) for biotin are 7 mcg for infants 0-12 months, 8 mcg for children 1-3 years, 12 mcg for children 4-8 years, 20 mcg for children 9-13 years, and 25 mcg for adolescents 14-18 years.
  • Biotin deficiency: Up to 10 mg daily has been used in infants.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Ammann, A. J. New insight into the causes of immunodeficiency disorders. J Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1984;11(4 Pt 1):653-660. View abstract.
  • Baumgartner, M. R. Molecular mechanism of dominant expression in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2005;28(3):301-309. View abstract.
  • Boas, M. A. The Effect of Desiccation upon the Nutritive Properties of Egg-white. Biochem.J 1927;21(3):712-724. View abstract.
  • Bolander, F. F. Vitamins: not just for enzymes. Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2006;7(10):912-915. View abstract.
  • Bowman, B. B., Selhub, J., and Rosenberg, I. H. Intestinal absorption of biotin in the rat. J Nutr. 1986;116(7):1266-1271. View abstract.
  • Brenner, S. and Horwitz, C. Possible nutrient mediators in psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. II. Nutrient mediators: essential fatty acids; vitamins A, E and D; vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and biotin; vitamin C selenium; zinc; iron. World Rev.Nutr.Diet. 1988;55:165-182. View abstract.
  • Campistol, J. [Convulsions and epileptic syndromes of the newborn infant. Forms of presentation, study and treatment protocols]. Rev.Neurol. 10-1-2000;31(7):624-631. View abstract.
  • Colombo, V. E., Gerber, F., Bronhofer, M., and Floersheim, G. L. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. J Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1990;23(6 Pt 1):1127-1132. View abstract.
  • Dakshinamurti, K. Biotin--a regulator of gene expression. J Nutr.Biochem. 2005;16(7):419-423. View abstract.
  • Daniells, S. and Hardy, G. Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2010;13(6):690-697. View abstract.
  • Dror, Y., Stern, F., Berner, Y. N., Kaufmann, N. A., Berry, E., Maaravi, Y., Altman, H., Cohen, A., Leventhal, A., and Kaluski, D. N. [Micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) supplementation for the elderly, suggested by a special committee nominated by Ministry of Health]. Harefuah 2001;140(11):1062-7, 1117. View abstract.
  • du, Vigneaud, V, Melville, D. B., Folkers, K., Wolf, D. E., Mozingo, D. E., Keresztesy, J. C., and Harris, S. A. The structure of biotin: a study of desthiobiotin. J.Biol.Chem 1942;(146):475-485.
  • du, Vigneaud, V. THE STRUCTURE OF BIOTIN. Science 11-20-1942;96(2499):455-461. View abstract.
  • Fernandez-Mejia, C. Pharmacological effects of biotin. J Nutr.Biochem. 2005;16(7):424-427. View abstract.
  • Furukawa, Y. [Enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion and modification of glucose metabolism by biotin]. Nippon Rinsho 1999;57(10):2261-2269. View abstract.
  • Hymes, J. and Wolf, B. Human biotinidase isn't just for recycling biotin. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):485S-489S. View abstract.
  • Magnuson, N. S. and Perryman, L. E. Metabolic defects in severe combined immunodeficiency in man and animals. Comp Biochem.Physiol B 1986;83(4):701-710. View abstract.
  • McMurray, D. N. Cell-mediated immunity in nutritional deficiency. Prog.Food Nutr.Sci 1984;8(3-4):193-228. View abstract.
  • Michalski, A. J., Berry, G. T., and Segal, S. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: 9-year follow-up of a patient on chronic biotin therapy and a review of the literature. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1989;12(3):312-316. View abstract.
  • Miller, S. J. Nutritional deficiency and the skin. J Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1989;21(1):1-30. View abstract.
  • Mock, D. M. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice and perhaps humans: a review of biotin deficiency during human pregnancy and effects of biotin deficiency on gene expression and enzyme activities in mouse dam and fetus. J Nutr.Biochem. 2005;16(7):435-437. View abstract.
  • Mock, D. M. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin.Dermatol. 1991;10(4):296-302. View abstract.
  • Narisawa, K. [Molecular basis of vitamin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism]. Nippon Rinsho 1999;57(10):2301-2306. View abstract.
  • Nyhan, W. L. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch.Dermatol. 1987;123(12):1696-1698a. View abstract.
  • Ozand, P. T., Gascon, G. G., Al Essa, M., Joshi, S., Al Jishi, E., Bakheet, S., Al Watban, J., Al Kawi, M. Z., and Dabbagh, O. Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease: a novel entity. Brain 1998;121 ( Pt 7):1267-1279. View abstract.
  • Pacheco-Alvarez, D., Solorzano-Vargas, R. S., Gravel, R. A., Cervantes-Roldan, R., Velazquez, A., and Leon-Del-Rio, A. Paradoxical regulation of biotin utilization in brain and liver and implications for inherited multiple carboxylase deficiency. J Biol Chem. 12-10-2004;279(50):52312-52318. View abstract.
  • Petrelli, F., Moretti, P., and Paparelli, M. Intracellular distribution of biotin-14COOH in rat liver. Mol.Biol.Rep. 2-15-1979;4(4):247-252. View abstract.
  • Prasad, A. N. and Seshia, S. S. Status epilepticus in pediatric practice: neonate to adolescent. Adv.Neurol. 2006;97:229-243. View abstract.
  • Scheinfeld, N., Dahdah, M. J., and Scher, R. Vitamins and minerals: their role in nail health and disease. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6(8):782-787. View abstract.
  • Sedel, F., Lyon-Caen, O., and Saudubray, J. M. [Treatable hereditary neuro-metabolic diseases]. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2007;163(10):884-896. View abstract.
  • Shriver, B. J., Roman-Shriver, C., and Allred, J. B. Depletion and repletion of biotinyl enzymes in liver of biotin-deficient rats: evidence of a biotin storage system. J Nutr. 1993;123(6):1140-1149. View abstract.
  • Snodgrass, S. R. Vitamin neurotoxicity. Mol.Neurobiol. 1992;6(1):41-73. View abstract.
  • Spector, R. and Johanson, C. E. Vitamin transport and homeostasis in mammalian brain: focus on Vitamins B and E. J Neurochem. 2007;103(2):425-438. View abstract.
  • Sweetman, L. and Nyhan, W. L. Inheritable biotin-treatable disorders and associated phenomena. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 1986;6:317-343. View abstract.
  • Sydenstricker, V. P., Singal, S. A., Briggs, A. P., Devaughn, N. M., and Isbell, H. Observations on the "egg white injury" in man and its cure with biotin concentrate. J Am Med Assn 1942;(8):199-200.
  • Sydenstricker, V. P., Singal, S. A., Briggs, A. P., Devaughn, N. M., and Isbell, H. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON "EGG WHITE INJURY" IN MAN AND ITS CURE WITH A BIOTIN CONCENTRATE. Science 2-13-1942;95(2459):176-177. View abstract.
  • Tsao, C. Y. Current trends in the treatment of infantile spasms. Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat. 2009;5:289-299. View abstract.
  • van der Knaap, M. S., Jakobs, C., and Valk, J. Magnetic resonance imaging in lactic acidosis. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 1996;19(4):535-547. View abstract.
  • Wallace, J. C., Jitrapakdee, S., and Chapman-Smith, A. Pyruvate carboxylase. Int J Biochem.Cell Biol. 1998;30(1):1-5. View abstract.
  • Wilson, C. J., Myer, M., Darlow, B. A., Stanley, T., Thomson, G., Baumgartner, E. R., Kirby, D. M., and Thorburn, D. R. Severe holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency with incomplete biotin responsiveness resulting in antenatal insult in samoan neonates. J Pediatr. 2005;147(1):115-118. View abstract.
  • Wolf, B. Clinical issues and frequent questions about biotinidase deficiency. Mol.Genet.Metab 2010;100(1):6-13. View abstract.
  • Zempleni, J. and Mock, D. M. Advanced analysis of biotin metabolites in body fluids allows a more accurate measurement of biotin bioavailability and metabolism in humans. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):494S-497S. View abstract.
  • Zempleni, J., Green, G. M., Spannagel, A. W., and Mock, D. M. Biliary excretion of biotin and biotin metabolites is quantitatively minor in rats and pigs. J Nutr. 1997;127(8):1496-1500. View abstract.
  • Zempleni, J., Hassan, Y. I., and Wijeratne, S. S. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert.Rev.Endocrinol.Metab 11-1-2008;3(6):715-724. View abstract.
  • Zempleni, J., McCormick, D. B., and Mock, D. M. Identification of biotin sulfone, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone, and tetranorbiotin-l-sulfoxide in human urine. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(2):508-511. View abstract.
  • Zeng, W. Q., Al Yamani, E., Acierno, J. S., Jr., Slaugenhaupt, S., Gillis, T., MacDonald, M. E., Ozand, P. T., and Gusella, J. F. Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease maps to 2q36.3 and is due to mutations in SLC19A3. Am.J Hum.Genet. 2005;77(1):16-26. View abstract.
  • Zlotkin, S. H., Stallings, V. A., and Pencharz, P. B. Total parenteral nutrition in children. Pediatr.Clin.North Am. 1985;32(2):381-400. View abstract.
  • Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008;24:41-51. View abstract.
  • Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:238-43. View abstract.
  • Barbesino G. Misdiagnosis of Graves' disease with apparent severe hyperthyroidism in a patient taking biotin megadoses. Thyroid 2016;26(6):860-3. View abstract.
  • Biscolla RPM, Chiamolera MI, Kanashiro I, Maciel RMB, Vieira JGH. A Single 10?mg Oral Dose of Biotin Interferes with Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid 2017;27(8):1099-1100. View abstract.
  • Bonjour JP. Biotin in human nutrition. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985;447:97-104. View abstract.
  • Brewster MA, Schedewie H. Trimethylaminuria. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1983;13:20-4. View abstract.
  • Bülow Pedersen I, Laurberg P. Biochemical Hyperthyroidism in a Newborn Baby Caused by Assay Interaction from Biotin Intake. Eur Thyroid J 2016;5(3):212-15. View abstract.
  • Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8. View abstract.
  • Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, et al. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985;447:389-92.
  • Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, et al. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:424-6. View abstract.
  • Eakin RE, Snell EE, and Williams RJ. Concentrationand assay of avidin, injury-producing agents in raw egg white. J Biol Chem. 1941;(40):535-43.
  • Ebek, Inc. issues voluntary nationwide recall of Liviro3, a product marketed as a dietary supplement. Ebek Press Release, January 19, 2007. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/oc/po/firmrecalls/ebek01_07.html.
  • Elston MS, Sehgal S, Du Toit S, Yarndley T, Conaglen JV. Factitious Graves' disease due to biotin immunoassay interference-a case and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101(9):3251-5. View abstract.
  • Fiume MZ. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety assessment of biotin. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 4:1-12. View abstract.
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/.
  • Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, et al. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333:145-53. View abstract.
  • Geohas J, Finch M, Juturu V, et al. Improvement in Fasting Blood Glucose with the Combination of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. American Diabetes Association 64th Annual Meeting, June 2004, Orlando, Florida, abstract 191-OR.
  • Green NM. Avidin. 1. The use of (14-C)biotin for kinetic studies and for assay. Biochem. J. 1963;89:585-591. View abstract.
  • Grundy WE, Freed M, Johnson H.C., et al. The effect of phthalylsulfathiazole (sulfathalidine) on the excretion of B-vitamins by normal adults. Arch Biochem. 1947 Nov;15:187-94. View abstract.
  • Henry JG, Sobki S, Afafat N. Interference by biotin therapy on measurement of TSH and FT4 by enzyme immunoassay on Boehringer Mannheim ES 700 analyzer. Ann Clin Biochem 1996;33:162-3. View abstract.
  • Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5. View abstract.
  • Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis 1993;51:303-5. View abstract.
  • Keipert JA. Oral use of biotin in seborrhoeic dermatitis of infancy: a controlled trial. Med J Aust 1976;1:584-5. View abstract.
  • Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511-4. View abstract.
  • Krause KH, Berlit P, Bonjour JP. Vitamin status in patients on chronic anticonvulsant therapy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:375-85. View abstract.
  • Krause KH, Bonjour JP, Berlit P, Kochen W. Biotin status of epileptics. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985;447:297-313. View abstract.
  • Krause KH, Kochen W, Berlit P, Bonjour JP. Excretion of organic acids associated with biotin deficiency in chronic anticonvulsant therapy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1984;54:217-22. View abstract.
  • Kummer S, Hermsen D, Distelmaier F. Biotin treatment mimicking Graves' disease. N Engl J Med 2016;375(7):704-6. View abstract.
  • Kwok JS, Chan IH, Chan MH. Biotin interference on TSH and free thyroid hormone measurement. Pathology. 2012;44(3):278-80. View abstract.
  • Lininger SW. The Natural Pharmacy. 1st ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1998.
  • Minkovsky A, Lee MN, Dowlatshahi M, et al. High-dose biotin treatment for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis may interfere with thyroid assays. AACE Clin Case Rep 2016;2(4):e370-e373. View abstract.
  • Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology 1997;49:1444-7. View abstract.
  • Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin deficiency results from long-term therapy with anticonvulsants (abstract). Gastroenterology 1995;108:A740.
  • Mock DM, Mock NI, Nelson RP, Lombard KA. Disturbances in biotin metabolism in children undergoing long-term anticonvulsant therapy. J Pediatr Gastroentereol Nutr 1998;26:245-50. View abstract.
  • Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295-9. View abstract.
  • Mock NI, Malik MI, Stumbo PJ, et al. Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and decreased urinary excretion of biotin are sensitive early indicators of decreased status in experimental biotin deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:951-8. View abstract.
  • Oguma S, Ando I, Hirose T, et al. Biotin ameliorates muscle cramps of hemodialysis patients: a prospective trial. Tohoku J Exp Med 2012;227(3):217-23. View abstract.
  • Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solórzano-Vargas RS, Del Río AL. Biotin in Metabolism and Its Relationship to Human Disease. Arch Med Res 2002;33(5):439-47. View abstract.
  • Piketty ML, Prie D, Sedel F, et al. High-dose biotin therapy leading to false biochemical endocrine profiles: validation of a simple method to overcome biotin interference. Clin Chem Lab Med 2017;55(6):817-25. View abstract.
  • Rathman SC, Eisenschenk S, McMahon RJ. The abundance and function of biotin-dependent enzymes are reduced in rats chronically administered carbamazepine. J Nutr 2002;132:3405-10. View abstract.
  • Rivera JA, González-Cossío T, Flores M, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation increases the growth of Mexican infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74:657-63. View abstract.
  • Rodriguez-Melendez R, Griffin JB, Zempleni J. Biotin supplementation increases expression of the cytochrome P450 1B1 gene in Jurkat cells, increasing the occurrence of single-stranded DNA breaks. J Nutr. 2004 Sep;134:2222-8. View abstract.
  • Roth K.S. Biotin in clinical medicine--a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Sep;34:1967-74. View abstract.
  • Said HM, Redha R, Nylander W. Biotin transport in the human intestine: inhibition by anticonvulsant drugs. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:127-31. View abstract.
  • Said HM. Biotin: the forgotten vitamin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:179-80. View abstract.
  • Schulpis KH, Georgala S, Papakonstantinou ED, et al. The effect of isotretinoin on biotinidase activity. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 1999 Jan-Apr;12:28-33. View abstract.
  • Sealey WM, Teague AM, Stratton SL, Mock DM. Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:932-5. View abstract.
  • Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  • Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther 2006;8:636-43. View abstract.
  • Spencer RP and Brody KR. Biotin transport by small intestine of rat, hamster, and other species. Am J Physiol. 1964 Mar;206:653-7. View abstract.
  • Sulaiman RA. Biotin treatment causing erroneous immunoassay results: A word of caution for clinicians. Drug Discov Ther 2016;10(6):338-9. View abstract.
  • The FDA Warns that Biotin May Interfere with Lab Tests: FDA Safety Communication. https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/AlertsandNotices/ucm586505.htm. Updated November 28, 2017. Accessed November 28, 2017.
  • Trambas CM, Sikaris KA, Lu ZX. More on Biotin Treatment Mimicking Graves' Disease. N Engl J Med 2016;375(17):1698. View abstract.
  • Vadlapudi AD, Vadlapatla RK, Mitra AK. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery. Curr Drug Targets 2012;13(7):994-1003. View abstract.
  • Waghray A, Milas M, Nyalakonda K, Siperstein AE. Falsely low parathyroid hormone secondary to biotin interference: a case series. Endocr Pract 2013;19(3):451-5. View abstract.
  • Zempleni J, Helm RM, Mock DM. In vivo biotin supplementation at a pharmacologic dose decreases proliferation rates of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine release. J Nutr 2001;131:1479-84. View abstract.
  • Zempleni J, Mock DM. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:504-8. View abstract.
  • Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. J Nutr Biochem. 1999 Mar;10:128-38. View abstract.
  • Zempleni J, Wijeratne SS, Hassan YI. Biotin. Biofactors. 2009 Jan-Feb;35:36-46. View abstract.

More Resources for BIOTIN

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.