Bai Shao, Chi Shao, Chinese Peony, Common Peony, Coral Peony, Cortex Moutan, European Peony, Jiu Chao Bai Shao, Moutan, Mu Dan Pi, Paeonia, Paeonia alba, Paeonia albiflora, Paeonia anomala, Paeonia arborea, Paeonia arietina, Paeonia beresowskii, Paeonia caucasica, Paeonia corallina, Paeonia coriacea, Paeonia daurica, Paeonia japonica, Paeonia kavachensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Paeonia mascula, Paeonia microcarpa, Paeonia moutan, Paeonia obovata, Paeonia officinalis, Paeonia paradoxa, Paeonia suffruticosa, Paeonia triternata, Paeonia veitchii, Paeonia willmottiae, Paeonia woodwardii, Paeoniae Flos, Paeoniae Radix, Peonía, Peony Flower, Peony Root, Piney, Pivoine, Pivoine Arbustive, Pivoine Blanche, Pivoine Commune, Pivoine de Chine, Pivoine des Jardins, Pivoine en Arbre, Pivoine Moutan, Pivoine Officinale, Pivoine Rouge, Racine de Pivoine, Radix Paeoniae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Peony, Red Peony, Shakuyaku, Shao Yao, Tree Peony, Ud Saleeb, Udsalam, Udsalap, White Peony.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationPeony is a plant. The root and, less commonly, the flower and seed are used to make medicine. Peony is sometimes called red peony and white peony. This refers to the color of the processed root, not the color of the flowers.
Peony is used for menstrual cramps, a hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS), autoimmune disorders, healing cracked skin, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
How does it work?Peony might block chemicals produced by the body that can cause muscle cramps. It may also prevent blood clotting and act as an antioxidant.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- Aging skin. Peony contains a chemical called paeoniflorin. Early research shows that applying a specific cosmetic product containing 0.5% paeoniflorin for 8 weeks might reduce facial wrinkles.
- Kidney damage in people with diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Early research shows that taking peony by mouth together with the medication losartan for 6 months does not improve kidney function in Chinese adults with kidney damage due to type 2 diabetes.
- High levels of a hormone called prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia). Some people who take antipsychotic medications can develop hyperprolactinemia. The effect of peony in these people is not clear. Although early research shows that taking a combination of peony and licorice daily for 4 weeks can reduce prolactin levels, not all research agrees.
- Arthritis in children (juvenile idiopathic arthritis). Some evidence shows that taking peony with the drug methotrexate for 9 weeks or more might improve symptoms in children with JIA better than taking methotrexate alone. However, most of this research is flawed. More evidence is needed to determine the benefit of peony for RA.
- Muscle cramps. Early research shows that taking a specific combination of peony and licorice (shakuyaku-kanzo-to) might ease muscle cramps in people with liver cirrhosis and in people undergoing hemodialysis.
- A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Early research shows that taking a product containing peony and 5 other ingredients for 3 months might make the menstrual cycle more regular, improve quality of life, and decrease body weight. The effect of taking peony alone for the treatment of PCOS is unknown.
- Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis). Early research shows that taking peony for 12 weeks does not appear to improve the size or severity of skin lesions caused by psoriasis. Some people might have an improvement in skin problems caused by psoriasis, but it is unclear who might benefit the most.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some evidence in adults with RA shows that taking peony with the drug leflunomide or with the drug methotrexate might improve some blood markers of RA better than taking leflunomide or methotrexate taken alone. However, most of this research is flawed. More evidence is needed to determine the benefit of peony for RA.
- An autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears and saliva are damaged (Sjogren syndrome). Early research suggests that taking peony for 24 weeks does not improve dry eye and mouth symptoms in people with Sjogren syndrome.
- Breathing problems.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Heart trouble.
- Migraine headache.
- Nerve problems.
- Stomach upset.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Peony is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by mouth. Peony has been used safely for up to 12 months in children and adults. It can cause stomach upset. It can cause rash when it comes in contact with the skin of sensitive people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Peony is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. Some developing research suggests that peony can cause uterine contractions. However, other research suggests a combination of peony and angelica might be safe. Until more is known, don't use peony if you are pregnant. Also avoid peony if you are breast-feeding. Not enough is known about the safety of using peony while breast-feeding.
Children: Peony is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in children for up to 12 months.
Bleeding disorders: Because peony might slow blood clotting, there is a concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders. Don't use it if you have a bleeding disorder.
Surgery: Peony might slow blood clotting, so there is a concern that it could increase the chance of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using peony at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with PEONY
Peony might slow blood clotting. Taking peony along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) interacts with PEONY
Peony root might decrease the amount of phenytoin in the body. Taking peony root along with phenytoin (Dilantin) might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) and increase the risk of seizures.
The appropriate dose of peony depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for peony. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Yuan, H. N., Wang, C. Y., Sze, C. W., Tong, Y., Tan, Q. R., Feng, X. J., Liu, R. M., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, Y. B., and Zhang, Z. J. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;28(3):264-370. View abstract.
- Zhang W, Dai SM. Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas in rheumatoid arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol 2012;14(1):27-31. View abstract.
- Zhou Y, Jin L, Kong F, et al. Clinical and immunological consequences of total glucosides of paeony treatment in Sjögren's syndrome: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016 Oct;39:314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.08.006. View abstract.
- Zhu Q, Qi X, Wu Y, Wang K. Clinical study of total glucosides of paeony for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Nov;48(11):1873-1880. doi: 10.1007/s11255-016-1345-5. View abstract.
- Qi XG. [Protective mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Paeonia lactiflora for experimental liver damage]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1991;11:102-4, 69. View abstract.
- Sakamoto S, Kudo H, Suzuki S, et al. Pharmacotherapeutic effects of toki-shakuyaku-san on leukorrhagia in young women. Am J Chin Med 1996;24:165-8. View abstract.
- Tsuda T, Sugaya A, Ohguchi H, et al. Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model. Exp Neurol 1997;146:518-25. View abstract.
- Wang H, Wei W, Wang NP, et al. Effects of total glucosides of peony on immunological hepatic fibrosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:2124-9. . View abstract.
- Wang W, Tian DD, Zheng B, et al. Peony-glycyrrhiza decoction, an herbal preparation, inhibits clozapine metabolism via cytochrome P450s, but not flavin-containing monooxygenase in in vitro models. Drug Metab Dispos 2015;43(7):1147-53. View abstract.
- Wang Y, Ma R. [Effect of an extract of Paeonia lactiflora on the blood coagulative and fibrinolytic enzymes]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1990;10:101-2, 70. . View abstract.
- Wu G, Wu N, Li T, et al. Total glucosides of peony ameliorates Sjogren's syndrome by affecting Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Exp Ther Med 2016;11(3):1135-41. View abstract.
- Xie HJ, Yasar U, Sandberg M, Rane A. Paeoniae Radix, a traditional Chinese medicine, and CYP2C9 activity. J Clin Pharm Ther 2002;27:229-30. . View abstract.
- Yamada, K., Kanba, S., Yagi, G., and Asai, M. Effectiveness of herbal medicine (shakuyaku-kanzo-to) for neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;17(3):234-235. View abstract.
- Yang DG. [Comparison of pre- and post-treatmental hepatohistology with heavy dosage of Paeonia rubra on chronic active hepatitis caused liver fibrosis]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994;14:207-9, 195. . View abstract.
- Yang HO, Ko WK, Kim JY, Ro HS. Paeoniflorin: an antihyperlipidemic agent from Paeonia lactiflora. Fitoterapia 2004;75:45-9.. View abstract.
- Yu C, Fan X, Li Z, Liu X, Wang G. Efficacy and safety of total glucosides of paeony combined with acitretin in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Dermatol. 2017 Apr 1;27(2):150-154. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2016.2946. View abstract.
- Koo YK, Kim JM, Koo JY, et al. Platelet anti-aggregatory and blood anti-coagulant effects of compounds isolated from Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia suffruticosa. Pharmazie 2010;65(8):624-8. View abstract.
- Kumada T, et al. Effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (Tsumura TJ-68) on muscle cramps accompanying cirrhosis in a placebo-controlled double-blind parallel study. J Clin Ther Med 1999;15:499-523.
- Liang Xiao, Wang YZ, Jing Liu, et al. Effects of paeoniflorin on the cerebral infarction, behavioral and cognitive impairments at the chronic stage of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Life Sci 2005;78:413-20 . View abstract.
- Liapina LA, Ammosova IaM, Novikov VS, et al. [The nature of an anticoagulant isolated from peonies in the central zone of Russia]. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol 1997;2:235-7. . View abstract.
- Liu C, Wang J, Yang J. [Study on activating blood and eliminating stasis of total paeony glycoside(TPG)]. Zhong Yao Cai 2000;23:557-60. . View abstract.
- Liu J. [Effect of Paeonia obovata 801 on metabolism of thromboxane B2 and arachidonic acid and on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary heart disease and cerebral thrombosis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 1983;63:477-81. View abstract.
- Maeda T, Shinozuka K, Baba K, et al. Effect of shakuyaku-kanzoh-toh, a prescription composed of shakuyaku (Paeoniae Radix) and kanzoh (Glycyrrhizae Radix) on guinea pig ileum. J Pharmacobiodyn 1983;6:153-60. . View abstract.
- Man SC, Li XB, Wang HH, et al. Peony-glycyrrhiza decoction for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia in women with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016;36(6):572-9. View abstract.
- Ngan LT, Moon JK, Shibamoto T, Ahn YJ. Growth-inhibiting, bactericidal, and urease inhibitory effects of Paeonia lactiflora root constituents and related compounds on antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60(36):9062-73. View abstract.
- Ohta H, Ni JW, Matsumoto K, et al. Peony and its major constituent, paeoniflorin, improve radial maze performance impaired by scopolamine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993;45:719-23. . View abstract.
- Okubo T, Nagai F, Seto T, et al. The inhibition of phenylhydroquinone-induced oxidative DNA cleavage by constituents of Moutan Cortex and Paeoniae Radix. Biol Pharm Bull 2000;23:199-203.. View abstract.
- Ou TT, Wu CH, Hsu JD, et al. Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibits bladder cancer growth involving phosphorylation of Chk2 in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135(1):162-72. View abstract.
- Papandreou V, Magiatis P, Chinou I, et al. Volatiles with antimicrobial activity from the roots of Greek Paeonia taxa. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:101-4.. View abstract.
- Prieto JM, Recio MC, Giner RM, et al. Influence of traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicinal plants on leukocyte and platelet functions. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:1275-82. View abstract.
- Wong, A. L. and Chan, T. Y. Interaction between warfarin and the herbal product quilinggao. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(6):836-838. View abstract.
- Zong, P. P., Yan, T. Y., and Gong, M. M. [Clinical and experimental studies of effects of huayu decoction on scavenging free radicals]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1993;13(10):591-3, 579. View abstract.
- Anon. Monograph. Peony (Paeonia spp). Alt Med Rev 2001;6:495-9. View abstract.
- Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340. View abstract.
- Bruynzeel DP. Contact Dermatitis Due to Paeonia (Peony). Contact Dermatitis 1989; 20:152-3.. View abstract.
- Cai Y, Yuan Q, Xu K, et al. Assessment of the therapeutic effect of total glycosides of peony for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:8292486. View abstract.
- Chen LC, Chou MH, Lin MF, Yang LL. Effects of Paeoniae Radix, a traditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26:271-8.
- Feng Z, Xu J, He G, et al. The efficacy and safety of the combination of total glucosides of peony and leflunomide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:9852793. View abstract.
- Feng ZT, Xu J, He GC, Cai SJ, Li J, Mei ZG. A systemic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and safety of total glucosides of peony combined with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;37(1):35-42. doi: 10.1007/s10067-017-3770-y. View abstract.
- Guo TL, Zhou XW. [Clinical observations on the treatment of the gestational hypertension syndrome with Angelica and Paeonia powder]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1986;6:714-6, 707.
- Harada M, Suzuki M, Ozaki Y. Effect of Japanese Angelica root and peony root on uterine contraction in the rabbit in situ. J Pharmacobiodyn 1984;7:304-11. View abstract.
- He X, Xing D, Ding Y, et al. Effects of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion on pharmacokinetic fate of paeoniflorin after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;94:339-44. . View abstract.
- Hinoshita F, Ogura Y, Suzuki Y, et al. Effect of orally administered shao-yao-gan-cao-tang (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) on muscle cramps in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:445-53. . View abstract.
- Hyodo T, Taira T, Kumakura M, et al. The immediate effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, for muscular cramps during maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 2002;90:240. View abstract.
- Kamei T, Kumano H, Iwata K, et al. The effect of a traditional Chinese prescription for a case of lung carcinoma. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:557-9. View abstract.
- Au, T. K., Lam, T. L., Ng, T. B., Fong, W. P., and Wan, D. C. A comparison of HIV-1 integrase inhibition by aqueous and methanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Life Sci 2-23-2001;68(14):1687-1694. View abstract.
- Betts, T. and Betts, H. John Hall and his epileptic patients--epilepsy management in early 17th century England. Seizure. 1998;7(5):411-414. View abstract.
- Bian, X., Xu, Y., Zhu, L., Gao, P., Liu, X., Liu, S., Qian, M., Gai, M., Yang, J., and Wu, Y. Prevention of maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1998;111(7):585-587. View abstract.
- Deng, Y. Y., Chen, Y. P., Wang, L., Hu, Z., Jin, Y., Shen, L., Zhu, R., and Zhong, Y. [Clinical study on treatment of mid-advanced crescentic nephritis by qingre huoxue recipe]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2004;24(12):1084-1086. View abstract.
- Du, J. H. and Dong, B. D. [Comparative study on clinical efficacy of using methotrexate singly or combined with total glucosides of Paeony in treating rheumatoid arthritis]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(6):540-542. View abstract.
- Fang, J. Y. [Effect of fu-zheng qu-xie on gastric disease infected with Campylobacter pyloridis]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1991;11(3):150-2, 133. View abstract.
- Grebeniuk, V. N., Mannanov, A. M., Korsun, V. F., and Vinogradova, A. I. [Peony tincture in the complex treatment of allergic dermatoses]. Vestn.Dermatol.Venerol. 1987;(10):46-48. View abstract.
- Guo, D., Ye, G., and Guo, H. A new phenolic glycoside from Paeonia lactiflora. Fitoterapia 2006;77(7-8):613-614. View abstract.
- Guo, T. L. and Zhou, X. W. [Clinical observations on the treatment of the gestational hypertension syndrome with Angelica and Paeonia powder]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1986;6(12):714-6, 707. View abstract.
- Hsiang, C. Y., Hsieh, C. L., Wu, S. L., Lai, I. L., and Ho, T. Y. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication. Am J Chin Med 2001;29(3-4):459-467. View abstract.
- Hsiu, S. L., Lin, Y. T., Wen, K. C., Hou, Y. C., and Chao, P. D. A deglucosylated metabolite of paeoniflorin of the root of Paeonia lactiflora and its pharmacokinetics in rats. Planta Med 2003;69(12):1113-1118. View abstract.
- Jia, Y. B. and Tang, T. Q. [Paeonia Lactiflora injection in treating chronic cor pulmonale with pulmonary hypertension]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1991;11(4):199-202, 195. View abstract.
- Kang, D. G., Moon, M. K., Choi, D. H., Lee, J. K., Kwon, T. O., and Lee, H. S. Vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects of the 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) via a nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 11-7-2005;524(1-3):111-119. View abstract.
- Kang, J. H., Park, Y. H., Choi, S. W., Yang, E. K., and Lee, W. J. Resveratrol derivatives potently induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Exp.Mol.Med 12-31-2003;35(6):467-474. View abstract.
- Kim, H. J., Chang, E. J., Bae, S. J., Shim, S. M., Park, H. D., Rhee, C. H., Park, J. H., and Choi, S. W. Cytotoxic and antimutagenic stilbenes from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora. Arch Pharm Res 2002;25(3):293-299. View abstract.
- Lee, S. J., Lee, H. M., Ji, S. T., Lee, S. R., Mar, W., and Gho, Y. S. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose blocks endothelial cell growth and tube formation through inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor. Cancer Lett. 5-10-2004;208(1):89-94. View abstract.
- Lee, S. J., Lee, I. S., and Mar, W. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose in murine macrophage cells. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(10):832-839. View abstract.
- Lee, S. M., Li, M. L., Tse, Y. C., Leung, S. C., Lee, M. M., Tsui, S. K., Fung, K. P., Lee, C. Y., and Waye, M. M. Paeoniae Radix, a Chinese herbal extract, inhibit hepatoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis in a p53 independent pathway. Life Sci 9-27-2002;71(19):2267-2277. View abstract.
- Lee, S., Lim, J. M., Jin, M. H., Park, H. K., Lee, E. J., Kang, S., Kim, Y. S., and Cho, W. G. Partially purified paeoniflorin exerts protective effects on UV-induced DNA damage and reduces facial wrinkles in human skin. J Cosmet.Sci 2006;57(1):57-64. View abstract.
- Leem, K., Kim, H., Boo, Y., Lee, H. S., Kim, J. S., Yoo, Y. C., Ahn, H. J., Park, H. J., Seo, J. C., Kim, H. K., Jin, S. Y., Park, H. K., Chung, J. H., and Cho, J. J. Effects of Paeonia lactiflora root extracts on the secretions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -3 in human nasal fibroblasts. Phytother.Res 2004;18(3):241-243. View abstract.
- Lev, E. [Some evidence for the use of doctrine of signatures in the land of Israel and its environs during the Middle Ages]. Harefuah 2002;141(7):651-5, 664. View abstract.
- Liang, R., Chen, M. R., and Xu, X. [Effect of dandi tablet on blood lipids and sex hormones in women of postmenopausal stage]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2003;23(8):593-595. View abstract.
- Ma, X. F. [Experimental and clinical studies on the treatment of pulmonary heart disease and pulmonary hypertension with Paeonia lactiflora]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1988;8(11):660-2, 645. View abstract.
- Oh, G. S., Pae, H. O., Choi, B. M., Jeong, S., Oh, H., Oh, C. S., Rho, Y. D., Kim, D. H., Shin, M. K., and Chung, H. T. Inhibitory effects of the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa on interleukin-8 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 secretions in U937 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(1):85-89. View abstract.
- Oh, G. S., Pae, H. O., Choi, B. M., Lee, H. S., Kim, I. K., Yun, Y. G., Kim, J. D., and Chung, H. T. Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose inhibits phorbol myristate acetate-induced interleukin-8 [correction of intereukin-8] gene expression in human monocytic U937 cells through its inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4(3):377-386. View abstract.
- Oh, G. S., Pae, H. O., Oh, H., Hong, S. G., Kim, I. K., Chai, K. Y., Yun, Y. G., Kwon, T. O., and Chung, H. T. In vitro anti-proliferative effect of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, SK-HEP-1 cells. Cancer Lett 12-10-2001;174(1):17-24. View abstract.
- Sakamoto, S., Yoshino, H., Shirahata, Y., Shimodairo, K., and Okamoto, R. Pharmacotherapeutic effects of kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (keishi-bukuryo-gan) on human uterine myomas. Am J Chin Med 1992;20(3-4):313-317. View abstract.
- Shen, A. Y., Wang, T. S., Huang, M. H., Liao, C. H., Chen, S. J., and Lin, C. C. Antioxidant and antiplatelet effects of dang-gui-shao-yao-san on human blood cells. Am J Chin Med 2005;33(5):747-758. View abstract.
- Sun, W. S., Imai, A., Tagami, K., Sugiyama, M., Furui, T., and Tamaya, T. In vitro stimulation of granulosa cells by a combination of different active ingredients of unkei-to. Am.J Chin Med 2004;32(4):569-578. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased PEONY?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)