CHOLINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Bitartre de Choline, Chlorure de Choline, Choline Bitartrate, Choline Chloride, Choline Citrate, Citrate de Choline, Colina, Facteur Lipotropique, Hydroxyde de Triméthylammonium (bêta-hydroxyéthyl), Intrachol, L-Choline, Lipotropic Factor, Methylated Phosphatidylethanolamine, Trimethylethanolamine, Triméthyléthanolamine, (beta-hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium hydroxide.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs.

Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, Huntington's chorea, Tourette's disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.

Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports.

Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas.

Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma.

How does it work?

Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Build up of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis). People who receive nutrition through the vein can develop choline deficiency. Low blood levels of choline can cause fat to accumulate in the liver. Giving choline intravenously (by IV) helps treat this condition.

Possibly Effective for

  • Asthma. Taking choline by mouth seems to lessen symptoms and the number of days that asthma is a problem for some people. It also seems to reduce the need to use bronchodilators.
  • Birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects). Early research suggests that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube birth defect.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Alzheimer disease. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to reduce symptoms of Alzheimer disease.
  • Athletic performance. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to improve athletic performance or lessen tiredness during exercise.
  • Heart disease. Consuming a diet high in choline does not seem to prevent hardening of the arteries, stroke, or death.
  • Brain damage that affects muscle movement (cerebellar ataxia). Most research shows that taking choline does not improve this condition.

Likely InEffective for

  • Decline in memory and thinking skills that occurs normally with age. Taking choline by mouth does not improve memory in older people with memory loss.
  • Schizophrenia. Taking choline by mouth does not reduce symptoms of schizophrenia.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Hay fever. Early research shows that taking choline by mouth does not reduce allergy symptoms as well as a prescription nasal spray.
  • Bipolar disorder. Early research shows that taking choline by mouth might reduce some mood symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who are also taking lithium.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the main airways of the lung (bronchitis). Early research shows that inhaling choline solution might reduce symptoms of bronchitis caused by dust.
  • Cancer. Some research shows that consuming a diet high in choline might lower the risk of cancer.
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Taking a single dose of choline before exercising does not seem to improve memory or thinking skills after exercising. Including choline in nutritional fluid that is injected in the vein does not seem to improve thinking skills.
  • The most common type of seizure disorder in adults (complex partial seizures). There are reports that taking high doses of choline might be helpful for some people with a type of seizure called complex partial seizures.
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Giving choline by mouth does not seem to improve memory or thinking skills in children aged 2.5 to 5 years with this condition.
  • Infant and child development. Some early research suggests that children of mothers who get more choline during pregnancy have improved memory at the age of 7 years. It's not clear if children of mothers who get more choline during pregnancy have improved intelligence. Results from other studies are conflicting. Some early research shows that premature infants given choline and other supplements by mouth until 2 years of age do not have better cognitive function.
  • Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Low dietary intake of choline is linked with increased liver scarring in some people with this condition. But taking choline does not seem to reduce the amount of fat in the liver of people with this condition.
  • Pain after surgery. Taking choline the night before and just before surgery does not seem to decrease pain after surgery.
  • Inability of the intestines to digest food and absorb nutrients (intestinal failure). People with intestinal failure often have low levels of choline. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to increase blood levels of choline in infants with this condition. But it might help increase choline levels in older children.
  • Depression.
  • High cholesterol.
  • An inherited brain disorder that affects movements, emotions, and thinking (Huntington disease).
  • Liver scarring (cirrhosis).
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the liver (hepatitis).
  • Tourette syndrome.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate choline for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts.

Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for adults. Doses over the Daily Upper Intake Levels (see dosage section below) are more likely to cause side effects such as sweating, a fishy body odor, gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea, and vomiting.

There is some concern that increasing dietary choline intake might increase the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum. One study found that women eating a diet that contains a lot of choline have an increased the risk of colon cancer. However, more research is still needed to determine the effects of diet on colon cancer.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children due to the increased risk of side effects.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Choline is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth and used appropriately. Doses up to 3 grams daily for pregnant and breast-feeding women up to 18 years of age, and 3.5 grams daily for women 19 years and older are not likely to cause unwanted side effects. There isn’t enough information available about the safety of choline used in higher doses in pregnant or lactating women. It’s best to stick to recommended doses.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for CHOLINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For asthma: 500-1000 mg three times daily.
An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day. For children 1-3 years the AI is 200 mg per day; 4-8 years, 250 mg per day; 9-13 years, 375 mg per day; for infants less than 6 months, 125 mg per day; infants 7-12 months, 150 mg per day.

Daily Upper Intake Levels (UL, the highest level of intake that is not likely to cause harm) for choline are: 1 gram daily for children 1-8 years, 2 grams for children 9-13 years, 3 grams for children 14-18 years, and 3.5 grams for adults over 18 years of age.

View References

REFERENCES:

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