LEMON BALM

OTHER NAME(S):

Balm, Bálsamo de Limón, Cure-All, Dropsy Plant, Honey Plant, Melisa, Melissa, Melissa officinalis, Melissae Folium, Mélisse, Mélisse Citronnelle, Mélisse Officinale, Melissenblatt, Monarde, Sweet Balm, Sweet Mary, Toronjil.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Lemon balm is a perennial herb from the mint family. The leaves, which have a mild lemon aroma, are used to make medicine. Lemon balm is used alone or as part of various multi-herb combination products.

Lemon balm is used for digestive problems, including upset stomach, bloating, intestinal gas (flatulence), vomiting, and colic; for pain, including menstrual cramps, headache and toothache; and for mental disorders, including hysteria and melancholia.

Many people believe lemon balm has calming effects so they take it for anxiety, sleep problems, and restlessness. Lemon balm is also used for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an autoimmune disease involving the thyroid (Graves' disease), swollen airways, rapid heartbeat due to nervousness, high blood pressure, sores, tumors, and insect bites.

Lemon balm is inhaled as aromatherapy for Alzheimer's disease.

Some people apply lemon balm to their skin to treat cold sores (herpes labialis).

In foods and beverages, the extract and oil of lemon balm are used for flavoring.

How does it work?

Lemon balm contains chemicals that seem to have a sedative, calming effect. It might also reduce the growth of some viruses.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Anxiety. Some research shows that taking a specific lemon balm product (Cyracos by Naturex SA) reduces symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Also, early research shows that taking a product containing lemon balm plus 12 other ingredients (Klosterfrau Melissengeist by Klosterfrau) reduces anxiety symptoms such as nervousness or edginess.
  • Colic in breast-fed infants. Some research shows that giving a specific multi-ingredient product containing fennel, lemon balm, and German chamomile (ColiMil by Milte Italia SPA) to breast-fed infants with colic twice daily for a week reduces crying time. Other research shows that giving a specific multi-ingredient product containing lemon balm, German chamomile, and Lactobacillus acidophilus (ColiMil Plus by Milte Italia SPA) to infants with colic twice daily for 4 weeks reduces crying by about the same amount of time per day as giving infants the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. Other research shows that giving infants a tea preparation containing German chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel, and lemon balm (Calma-Bebi by Bonomelli) up to three times per day increases the number of infants for whom colic resolves.
  • Dementia. Some research shows that taking lemon balm by mouth daily for 4 months reduces agitation and improves symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Also, early research shows that applying a lotion containing lemon balm oils to the face and hands of people with dementia reduces agitation. However, other early research found no benefit.
  • Upset stomach (dyspepsia). A specific product containing lemon balm, peppermint leaf, German chamomile, caraway, licorice, clown's mustard plant, celandine, angelica, and milk thistle (Iberogast by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) seems to improve acid reflux (GERD), stomach pain, cramping, nausea, and vomiting. Also, a similar product containing peppermint leaf, clown's mustard plant, German chamomile flower, caraway, licorice root, and lemon balm (STW 5-II by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) seems to improve stomach and intestinal symptoms in people with upset stomach.
  • Herpes simplex virus infections. Applying a lip balm containing an extract of lemon balm (LomaHerpan by Infectopharm) to the infected area seems to shorten healing time and reduce symptoms of recurring herpes infections if applied at the early stages of infection.
  • Insomnia. Taking lemon balm (Cyracos by Naturex SA) twice daily for 15 days improves sleep in people with sleep disorders. Also, taking lemon balm in combination with other ingredients seems to help improve sleep quality in people with sleeping disorders.
  • Stress. Early research shows that taking a single dose of lemon balm increases calmness and alertness in adults during a stress test. Other early research shows that adding lemon balm to a food or drink reduces anxiety and improves memory and alertness during mental testing. Also, lemon balm appears to reduce anxious behavior in children during dental exams. Taking lemon balm along with valerian at a low dose appears to reduce anxiety during stress tests. But taking the combination at a higher dose appears to worsen stress-induced anxiety.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Mental performance. Early research suggests that taking one 1,600 mg dose of lemon balm improves mental performance.
  • Colitis. Early research suggests that taking a combination of dandelion, St. John’s wort, lemon balm, calendula, and fennel for 15 days reduces pain and improves bowel function in people with colitis.
  • Depression. Early research suggests that taking lemon balm with fertilized egg powder does not improve depression symptoms compared to taking fertilized egg powder alone.
  • Restlessness (dyssomnia). Early evidence suggests that 1-2 tablets once or twice daily of a specific combination product providing 80 mg of lemon balm leaf extract and 160 mg of valerian root extract (Euvegal forte, Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) might decrease symptoms in children under age 12 whose restlessness is so extreme that it needs medical attention.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early evidence suggests that adding 30 drops of a product containing lemon balm, spearmint and coriander three times daily after meals for 8 weeks to standard treatment reduces stomach pain and discomfort in people with IBS.
  • Mental illnesses that cause physical pain (somatization disorder). A product containing valerian, passionflower, and lemon balm seems to improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in people with mental illnesses that cause physical pain.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Stomach and intestinal discomfort with bloating and gas.
  • Spasms.
  • A thyroid condition called Graves' disease.
  • Promoting menstrual flow.
  • Female discomforts.
  • Cramps.
  • Headache.
  • Toothache.
  • Sores.
  • Tumors.
  • Insect bites.
  • Nervous stomach.
  • Hysteria.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of lemon balm for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Lemon balm is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts. It's POSSIBLY SAFE in adults when taken by mouth or applied to the skin in medicinal amounts, short-term. It's been used safely in research for up to 4 months. Not enough is known about the safety of lemon balm when used long-term.

When taken by mouth, lemon balm can cause some side effects including increased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, and wheezing.

When applied to the skin, lemon balm may cause skin irritation and increased cold sore symptoms.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of lemon balm during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Infants and children. Lemon balm is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken appropriately by mouth for about one month.

Diabetes. Lemon balm might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use lemon balm.

Surgery: Lemon balm might cause too much drowsiness if combined with medications used during and after surgery. Stop using lemon balm at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Thyroid disease: Don't use lemon balm. There is a concern that lemon balm may change thyroid function, reduce thyroid hormone levels, and interfere with thyroid hormone-replacement therapy.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with LEMON BALM

    Lemon balm might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking lemon balm along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.<br/><br/> Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • For anxiety: 300 mg of a standardized lemon balm extract (Cyracos by Naturex SA) taken twice daily for 15 days has been used. Also 0.23 mL/kg body weight of a combination product containing 13 ingredients including lemon balm (Klosterfrau Melissengeist, Klosterfrau) taken three times daily for 8 weeks has been used.
  • For dementia: 60 drops per day of a standardized lemon balm extract has been used for 4 months.
  • For upset stomach (dyspepsia): A specific combination product containing lemon balm, peppermint leaf, German chamomile, caraway, licorice, clown's mustard plant, celandine, angelica, and milk thistle (Iberogast by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) has been used in a dose of 1 mL three times daily for 4 weeks. Also, a similar herbal preparation containing lemon balm, clown's mustard, German chamomile flower, peppermint leaves, caraway, and licorice root (STW 5-II by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) has been used in a dose of 1 mL three times daily for up to 8 weeks.
  • For insomnia (inability to sleep): 300 mg of a standardized lemon balm extract (Cyracos by Naturex SA) has been used twice daily for 15 days. Also, a specific combination product containing 80 mg of lemon balm leaf extract and 160 mg of valerian root extract (Euvegal forte, Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) has been taken 2-3 times daily for up to 30 days. Also tablets containing 170 mg of valerian root, 50 mg of hops, 50 mg of lemon balm, and 50 mg of motherwort have been used.
  • For stress: Many different doses have been studied in scientific research. A single dose of 600 mg of lemon balm extract during a stress test has been used. Also, a single dose of 300 mg of lemon balm extract (Bluenesse by Vital Solutions) has been added to food or drink and used during a mental test. Also three tablets of a specific product containing 80 mg of lemon balm extract and 120 mg of valerian root extract per tablet (Songha Night by Pharmaton Natural Health Products) have been taken before a stress test.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • For cold sores (herpes simplex virus): Cream containing 1% lemon balm extract (LomaHerpan by Infectopharm) has been applied 2-4 times daily. It is usually applied at the first sign of symptoms to a few days after the cold sores have healed.
INHALED AS AROMATHERAPY:
  • For dementia: A lotion containing 10% lemon balm has been massaged into the hands and upper arms for 1-2 minutes twice daily for 4 weeks.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH:
  • For colic: In breast-fed infants, a specific multi-ingredient product containing 164 mg of fennel, 97 mg of lemon balm, and 178 mg of German chamomile (ColiMil by Milte Italia SPA) has been used twice daily for one week. Another specific multi-ingredient product containing 65 mg of lemon balm, 9 mg of German chamomile, and 1 billion heat-killed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ColiMil Plus by Milte Italia SPA) has been used twice daily for 4 weeks. Also 150 mL of an herbal tea containing German chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel, and lemon balm (Calma-Bebi by Bonomelli) has been taken three times daily for 7 days.
  • For dyssomnia (poor sleep quality): 1-2 tablets of a specific combination product containing 80 mg of lemon balm leaf extract and 160 mg of valerian root extract (Euvegal forte, Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) has been taken once or twice daily in children under 12 years-old.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abuhamdah, S., Huang, L., Elliott, M. S., Howes, M. J., Ballard, C., Holmes, C., Burns, A., Perry, E. K., Francis, P. T., Lees, G., and Chazot, P. L. Pharmacological profile of an essential oil derived from Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60(3):377-384. View abstract.
  • Allahverdiyev, A., Duran, N., Ozguven, M., and Koltas, S. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(7-8):657-661. View abstract.
  • Araujo, C., Sousa, M. J., Ferreira, M. F., and Leao, C. Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts. J Food Prot. 2003;66(4):625-632. View abstract.
  • Awad, R., Levac, D., Cybulska, P., Merali, Z., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can.J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(9):933-942. View abstract.
  • Awad, R., Muhammad, A., Durst, T., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(8):1075-1081. View abstract.
  • Babpour, E., Angaji, S. A., and Angaji, S. M. Antimicrobial effects of four medicinal plants on dental plaque. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2009;3(3):132-137.
  • Borho, B. Biologische Therapie von funktionellen Magenerkrankungen. 1991;6:501-509.
  • Buchner KH, Hellings H, Huber M, and et al. [Double blind study as evidence of the therapeutic effect of Melissengeist on psycho-vegetative syndromes]. Medizinische Klinik 1974;69(23):1032-1036.
  • Budzynska, A., Wieckowska-Szakiel, M., Sadowska, B., Kalemba, D., and Rozalska, B. Antibiofilm activity of selected plant essential oils and their major components. Pol.J.Microbiol. 2011;60(1):35-41. View abstract.
  • Cases J. Leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 2010;4(3):211-218.
  • Cerny AS and Schmid K. Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers; a double-blind placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Fitoterapia 1999;70(3):221-228.
  • Cohen RA, Kucera LS, and Herrmann EC. Antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract (29600). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1964;117:431-434.
  • de Sousa, A. C., Alviano, D. S., Blank, A. F., Alves, P. B., Alviano, C. S., and Gattass, C. R. Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2004;56(5):677-681. View abstract.
  • Dimitrova, Z., Dimov, B., Manolova, N., Pancheva, S., Ilieva, D., and Shishkov, S. Antiherpes effect of Melissa officinalis L. extracts. Acta Microbiol Bulg. 1993;29:65-72. View abstract.
  • Dkbas, N., Bagc, E., Kotan, R., Cakmakc, R., Ozer, H., Mete, E., and Erdogan, G. Comparative antibacterial activities and chemical composition of some plants' oils against Salmonella enteritidis. Research on Crops 2010;11(1):118-124.
  • Dressing H, Kohler S, and Muller WE. Improvement in sleep quality with a high dose valerian-melissa preparation . Psychopharmakotherapie 1996;3:123-130.
  • Dressing H. Valerian combination therapy vs. benzodiazepine: same efficacy in the treatment of sleeping disorders? Therapiewoche 1992;42(12):726-736.
  • Drozd, J. and Anuszewska, E. The effect of the Melissa officinalis extract on immune response in mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2003;60(6):467-470. View abstract.
  • Englberger, W., Hadding, U., Etschenberg, E., Graf, E., Leyck, S., Winkelmann, J., and Parnham, M. J. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti- inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988;10(6):729-737. View abstract.
  • Gaby, A. R. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex. Altern.Med Rev. 2006;11(2):93-101. View abstract.
  • Gazola, R., Machado, D., Ruggiero, C., Singi, G., and Macedo, Alexandre M. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats. Pharmacol.Res 2004;50(5):477-480. View abstract.
  • Guginski, G., Luiz, A. P., Silva, M. D., Massaro, M., Martins, D. F., Chaves, J., Mattos, R. W., Silveira, D., Ferreira, V. M., Calixto, J. B., and Santos, A. R. Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2009;93(1):10-16. View abstract.
  • Gyllenhaal, C., Merritt, S. L., Peterson, S. D., Block, K. I., and Gochenour, T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(3):229-251. View abstract.
  • Hanganu, D., Vlase, L., Filip, L., Sand, C., Mirel, S., and Indrei, L. L. The study of some polyphenolic compounds from Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae). Rev.Med.Chir Soc.Med.Nat.Iasi 2008;112(2):525-529. View abstract.
  • Herberg, KW. Nebenwirkungen pflanzlicher Beruhigungsmittel/ Leistung und Befinden nach Einnahme einer Baldrian-Hopfen-Kombination. Z.Allg Med 1996;72:234-240.
  • Herrmann, E. C., Jr. and Kucera, L. S. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). II. Nontannin polyphenol of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967;124(3):869-874. View abstract.
  • Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1999;65(6):576-578. View abstract.
  • Holtmann, G., Madisch, A., and Juergen, H. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999;May:A65.
  • Hussain, A. I., Farooq Anwar, Nigam, P. S., Sarker, S. D., Moore, J. E., Rao, J. R., and Mazumdar, A. Antibacterial activity of some Lamiaceae essential oils using resazurin as an indicator of cell growth. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2012;44(4):1199-1206.
  • Ibarra, A., Feuillere, N., Roller, M., Lesburgere, E., and Beracochea, D. Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(6):397-403. View abstract.
  • Ivanova, D., Gerova, D., Chervenkov, T., and Yankova, T. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):145-150. View abstract.
  • Karimi, I., Hayatgheybi, H., Razmjo, M., Yousefi, M., Dadyan, A., and Hadipour, M. Anti-hyperlipidaemic effects of an essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2010;4(1):17-22.
  • Keskn, D., Oskay, D., and Oskay, M. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant spices marketed in the West Anatolia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2010;12(6):916-920.
  • Kim, M. Y., Park, B. Y., Lee, H. S., Park, E. K., Hahm, J. C., Lee, J., Hong, Y., Choi, S., Park, D., Lee, H., and Yoon, M. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits adipose tissue growth in obese mice. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2010;34(5):820-830. View abstract.
  • Kizaibek, M., Kopp, B., Prinz, S., Popescu, R., and Upur, H. Antiproliferative activity of individual herbs of Abnormal Savda Munziq on HL-60 cells. Science & Technology Review 2009;19:94-98.
  • Kucera, L. S. and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). I. Tannin of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967;124(3):865-869. View abstract.
  • Kucera, L. S., Cohen, R. A., and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral activities of extracts of the lemon balm plant. Ann N.Y.Acad Sci 7-30-1965;130(1):474-482. View abstract.
  • Lagoni, N. Wirksamkeitsprüfung eines pflanzlichen Tagessedativums in einer multizentrischen Studie. 1998;39(3):166-169.
  • Lara, M. S., Gutierrez, J. I., Timon, M., and Andres, A. I. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP. Meat.Sci. 2011;88(3):481-488. View abstract.
  • Larrondo, J. V., Agut, M., and Calvo-Torras, M. A. Antimicrobial activity of essences from labiates. Microbios 1995;82(332):171-172. View abstract.
  • Meftahizade, H., Sargsyan, E., and Moradkhani, H. Investigation of antioxidant capacity of Melissa officinalis L. essential oils. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010;4(14):1391-1395.
  • Mencherini, T., Picerno, P., Russo, P., Meloni, M., and Aquino, R. Composition of the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and evaluation of skin irritation in a reconstituted human epidermis model. J.Nat.Prod. 2009;72(8):1512-1515. View abstract.
  • Meolie, A. L., Rosen, C., Kristo, D., Kohrman, M., Gooneratne, N., Aguillard, R. N., Fayle, R., Troell, R., Townsend, D., Claman, D., Hoban, T., and Mahowald, M. Oral nonprescription treatment for insomnia: an evaluation of products with limited evidence. J Clin.Sleep Med 4-15-2005;1(2):173-187. View abstract.
  • Mikus, J., Harkenthal, M., Steverding, D., and Reichling, J. In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei. Planta Med 2000;66(4):366-368. View abstract.
  • Mimica-Dukic, N., Bozin, B., Sokovic, M., and Simin, N. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-5-2004;52(9):2485-2489. View abstract.
  • Mrlianova, M., Tekel'ova, D., Felklova, M., Reinohl, V., and Toth, J. The influence of the harvest cut height on the quality of the herbal drugs Melissae folium and Melissae herba. Planta Med 2002;68(2):178-180. View abstract.
  • Niculae, M., Spînu, M., Stefan, R., Sandru, C. D., Mircean, V., Brudasca, G. F., Bolfa, P., and Uricariu, R. In vitro efficacy of gentamicin and Mellisa officinalis essential oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis externa. Scientific Works - University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest Series C, Veterinary Medicine 2010;56(3/4):280-284.
  • Ntalli, N. G., Ferrari, F., Giannakou, I., and Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, U. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-14-2010;58(13):7856-7863. View abstract.
  • Orth-Wagner, S, Ressin, WJ, and Friedrich, I. Phytosedativum gegen Schlafstörungen / Klinische Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit eines Phytosedativums mit Auszügen aus Baldrianwurzel, Hopfenzapfen und Melissenblättern. 1995;16(147):156.
  • PARDO-ALDAVE, K. DIAZ-PIZAN M. E. VILLEGAS L. F. BERNABE E. Child behaviour modulation during first dental visit after administration of lemon balm, Poster Sessions. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2009;19(1):66-170.
  • Patora, J., Majda, T., Gora, J., and Klimek, B. Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2003;60(5):395-400. View abstract.
  • Perry, E. and Howes, M. J. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging? CNS.Neurosci.Ther 2011;17(6):683-698. View abstract.
  • Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P. J., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51(5):527-534. View abstract.
  • Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. J Altern Complement Med 1998;4(4):419-428. View abstract.
  • Raines, T., Jones, P., Moe, N., Duncan, R., McCall, S., and Ceremuga, T. E. Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of luteolin, a lemon balm flavonoid in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. AANA.J. 2009;77(1):33-36. View abstract.
  • Rojas, J., Solís, H., and Palacios, O. In vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of essential oils of ten medicinal plants. / Evaluación in vitro de la actividad anti Trypanosoma cruzi de aceites esenciales de diez plantas medicinales.1. Anales de la Facultad de Medecina 2010;71(3):161-165.
  • Schmidt, U, Krieger, W, Frerick, H, and Schenk, N. Psychosomatische und psychische Störungen / Baldrian und Melisse statt synthetischer Psychopharmaka. 1992;14:15-19.
  • Soh, N. L. and Walter, G. Complementary medicine for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Curr.Opin.Psychiatry 2008;21(4):350-355. View abstract.
  • Stanojevic, D., Èomic´, L., Stefanovic´, O., and Sukdolak, S. S. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2010;8(1):109-115.
  • Taguchi, Y., Takizawa, T., Ishibashi, H., Sagawa, T., Arai, R., Inoue, S., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation. Nihon Ishinkin.Gakkai Zasshi 2010;51(1):13-21. View abstract.
  • Tittel G, Wagner H, and Bos R. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from Melissa]. Planta Medica 1982;46:91-98.
  • Triantaphyllou, K., Blekas, G., and Boskou, D. Antioxidative properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52(4):313-317. View abstract.
  • Vogt M, Tausch I, Wölbling RH, and et al. [Melissa extract in herpes simplex: a double-blind placebo-controlled study]. Der Allgemeinarzt 1991;13:832-841.
  • Wake, G., Court, J., Pickering, A., Lewis, R., Wilkins, R., and Perry, E. CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;69(2):105-114. View abstract.
  • Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E and Schminda, R. A randomized double blind study of sedative effects of phytotherapeutic containing valerian, hops, balm and motherwort versus placebo. Herb Polon 1997;2:154-159.
  • Wolbling RH and Leonhardt K. Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:25-31.
  • Wolbling RH and Milbradt R. [Clinical manifestations and treatment of Herpes simplex infections]. Therapiewoche 1984;34:1193-1200.
  • Wong, A. H., Smith, M., and Boon, H. S. Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. Arch Gen.Psychiatry 1998;55(11):1033-1044. View abstract.
  • Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol.Pharm Bull 1998;21(8):829-833. View abstract.
  • Yoon, M. and Kim, M. Y. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. Pharm.Biol. 2011;49(6):614-619. View abstract.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:863-6. View abstract.
  • Albrecht M, Berger W, Laux P, Schmidt U, et al. Psychopharmaka und Verkehrssicherheit. Der Einfluß von Euvegal&reg; - Dragees forte auf die Fahrtüchtigkeit und Kombinationswirkungen mit Alkohol Z Allg Med 1995;71:1215-25.
  • Alijaniha F, et al. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;164:378-384. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.007. Epub 2015 Feb 11. View abstract.
  • Auf'mkolk M, Ingbar JC, Amir SM, et al. Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes. Endocrinology. 1984 Aug;115:527-34. View abstract.
  • Ballard CG, O'Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK. Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa. J Clin Psychiatry 2002 Jul;63:553-8. View abstract.
  • Barth A, Hovhannisyan A, Jamalyan K, Narimanyan M. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2015;22(13):1195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.10.001. View abstract.
  • Bisler H, Pfeifer R, Kluken N, Pauschinger P. [Effects of horse-chestnut seed on transcapillary filtration in chronic venous insufficiency]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1986;111:1321-9. View abstract.
  • Büchner KH, Hellings H, Huber M, et al. [Double blind study as evidence of the therapeutic effect of Melissengeist on psycho-vegetative syndromes (author's transl)]. Med Klin. 1974 Jun 7;69:1032-6. View abstract.
  • Burns A, Byrne J, Ballard C, Holmes C. Sensory stimulation in dementia. BMJ 2002;325:1312-3.. View abstract.
  • Burns A, Perry E, Holmes C, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of Melissa officinalis oil and donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;31:158-64. View abstract.
  • Cases J. Leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 2010;4(3):211-218.
  • Cerny A, Shmid K. Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers (a double blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study). Fitoterapia 1999;70:221-8.
  • Chakurski I, Matev M, Koichev A, et al. [Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare]. Vutr Boles. 1981;20:51-4. View abstract.
  • Chung MJ, Cho SY, Bhuiyan MJ, et al. Anti-diabetic effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis) essential oil on glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in type 2 diabetic mice. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104:180-188. View abstract.
  • Dall'Acqua S, Perissutti B, Grabnar I, Farra R, Comar M, Agostinis C, et al. Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effect of lipophilic Echinacea extract formulated in softgel capsules. C, et al. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.09.021. View abstract.
  • Dressing H, Kohler S, and Muller WE. Improvement in sleep quality with a high dose valerian-melissa preparation . Psychopharmakotherapie 1996;3:123-130.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Herberg, KW. Nebenwirkungen pflanzlicher Beruhigungsmittel/ Leistung und Befinden nach Einnahme einer Baldrian-Hopfen-Kombination. Z.Allg Med 1996;72:234-240.
  • Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
  • Kennedy DO, Little W, Haskell CF, et al. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress. Phytother Res. 2006 Feb;20:96-102. View abstract.
  • Kennedy DO, Little W, Scholey AB. Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm). Psychosom Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;66:607-13. View abstract.
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Tildesley NT, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;72:953-64. View abstract.
  • Kennedy DO, Wake G, Savelev S, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Oct;28:1871-81. View abstract.
  • Koytchev R, Alken RG, Dundarov S. Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis. Phytomedicine 1999;6:225-30. View abstract.
  • Lee J, Chae K, Ha J, et al. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115:263-70. View abstract.
  • Lindahl O, Lindwall L. Double blind study of a valerian preparation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Apr;32:1065-6. View abstract.
  • Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52. View abstract.
  • Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511-7. View abstract.
  • Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87. View abstract.
  • Melzer J, Schrader E, Brattström A, et al. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23:1303-8. View abstract.
  • Muller SF, Klement S. A combination of valerian and lemon balm is effective in the treatment of restlessness and dyssomnia in children. Phytomedicine 2006;13:383-7. View abstract.
  • PARDO-ALDAVE K, DIAZ-PIZAN ME, VILLEGAS LF, et al. Child behaviour modulation during first dental visit after administration of lemon balm, Poster Sessions. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2009;19(1):66-170.
  • Santini F, Vitti P, Ceccarini G, et al. In vitro assay of thyroid disruptors affecting TSH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003 Oct;26:950-5. View abstract.
  • Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytother Res 2005;19:335-40. View abstract.
  • Schmidt, U, Krieger, W, Frerick, H, and Schenk, N. Psychosomatische und psychische Störungen / Baldrian und Melisse statt synthetischer Psychopharmaka. 1992;14:15-19.
  • Scholey A, et al. Anti-stress effects of lemon balm-containing foods. Nutrients. 3014;6(11):4805-4821. doi: 10.3390/nu6114805. View abstract.
  • Solberg E. The effects of powdered fertilized eggs on depression. J Med Food. 2011 Jul-Aug;14:870-5. View abstract.
  • Soulimani R, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, et al. Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the mouse. Planta Med. 1991 Apr;57:105-9. View abstract.
  • Sourgens H, Winterhoff H, Gumbinger HG, et al. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts. TSH- and prolactin-suppressing properties of Lithospermum officinale and other plants. Planta Med. 1982 Jun;45:78-86. View abstract.
  • St-Onge MP, Jones PJ. Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 2002;132:329-32.. View abstract.
  • Thompson A, Meah D, Ahmed N, et al. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:338. View abstract.
  • Vejdani R, Shalmani HR, Mir-Fattahi M, et al. The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51:1501-7. View abstract.
  • Vogt M, Tausch I, Wölbling RH, and et al. [Melissa extract in herpes simplex: a double-blind placebo-controlled study]. Der Allgemeinarzt 1991;13:832-841.
  • Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, et al. Efficacy of herbal tea preparation in infantile colic. J Pediatr 1993;122(4):650-652. View abstract.
  • Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E and Schminda, R. A randomized double blind study of sedative effects of phytotherapeutic containing valerian, hops, balm and motherwort versus placebo. Herb Polon 1997;2:154-159.
  • Wolbling RH, Leonhardt K. Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:25-31.

More Resources for LEMON BALM

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.