KHAT

OTHER NAME(S):

Abessinischer Tea, Abyssinian Tea, Arabian-Tea, Catha edulis, Celastrus edulis, Chaat, Chat, Gat, Ghat, Hagigat, Kafta, Kat, Kathine, Kus es Salahin, Miraa, Qaad, Qat, Qut, Radaee, Somali Tea, Tchaad, Thé Abyssin, Thé Arabe, Thé Somalien, Tohai, Tohat, Tschat, Tschut.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Khat is a plant. The leaf and stem are used as a recreational drug and as medicine.

As a recreational drug, the leaves and stem are chewed by people in East Africa and the Arabian countries to elevate mood (as a euphoriant).

As a medicine, khat leaf is used for diabetes, muscle strength, depression, fatigue, obesity, stomach ulcers, headache, and male infertility. It is also used to lower the need for food and sleep, decrease sexual desires, improve the ability to study, and increase aggression.

The World Health Organization (WHO) lists khat as a drug that creates "dependence" in people, meaning it produces a continuing desire to keep using it. It is banned in countries like the US and Canada. However, it is legal in some European countries. Khat is used by many immigrants to these countries from East Africa and Yemen.

How does it work?

Khat contains stimulants similar to amphetamines.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Muscle strength. Early research shows that taking khat does not improve the strength of a person's grip.
  • Decreasing sexual desire.
  • Depression.
  • Elevating mood.
  • Fatigue.
  • Headache.
  • Increasing aggression.
  • Male infertility.
  • Obesity.
  • Reducing the need for food and sleep.
  • Stomach ulcers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of khat for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Khat is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for most people when taken by mouth. Although it isn't associated with physical addiction, it can cause psychological dependence.

Khat can cause many side effects including mood changes, increased alertness, excessive talkativeness, hyperactivity, excitement, aggressiveness, anxiety, elevated blood pressure, manic behavior, paranoia, and psychoses. Trouble sleeping (insomnia), loss of energy (malaise), and lack of concentration usually follow.

Other effects include rapid heart rate, heart palpitations, increased blood pressure, faster breathing rates, increased body temperature, sweating, eye changes, mouth ulcers, inflammation of the esophagus and stomach, gum disease, jaw problems (TMJ), and constipation.

Regular use in young people is linked to high blood pressure.

Severe side effects include migraine, bleeding in the brain, heart attack, lung problems, liver damage, changes in sex drive, and inability to get an erection (impotence).

Chewing khat leaves has led to infections that can cause problems such as pain below the ribs, changes in white blood cells, and an enlarged liver.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take khat by mouth if you are pregnant. Khat may lower birth weight. It is also POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take khat by mouth if you are breast-feeding. Some of the active chemicals it contains can pass into breast-milk.

Diabetes: Using khat seems to lower appetite, causing people to skip meals. When eating becomes less routine, people with diabetes may stop following their recommended diet. This could lead to higher blood sugar levels.

High blood pressure: Khat might increase blood pressure. This might be especially unsafe in people who already have high blood pressure. Avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for KHAT Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of khat depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for khat. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Al Hadrani, A. M. Khat induced hemorrhoidal disease in Yemen. Saudi.Med.J. 2000;21(5):475-477. View abstract.
  • Al Motarreb, A. L. and Broadley, K. J. Coronary and aortic vasoconstriction by cathinone, the active constituent of khat. Auton.Autacoid.Pharmacol 2003;23(5-6):319-326. View abstract.
  • Al Motarreb, A., Briancon, S., Al Jaber, N., Al Adhi, B., Al Jailani, F., Salek, M. S., and Broadley, K. J. Khat chewing is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59(5):574-581. View abstract.
  • Brenneisen, R., Fisch, H. U., Koelbing, U., Geisshusler, S., and Kalix, P. Amphetamine-like effects in humans of the khat alkaloid cathinone. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1990;30(6):825-828. View abstract.
  • Giannini, A. J. and Nakoneczie, A. M. Treatment of Khat Addiction with Bromocriptine Mesylate: A Case Report and Review of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Like Effects. Am J Ther 1995;2(7):487-489. View abstract.
  • Giannini, A. J., Miller, N. S., and Turner, C. E. Treatment of khat addiction. J.Subst.Abuse Treat. 1992;9(4):379-382. View abstract.
  • Granek, M., Shalev, A., and Weingarten, A. M. Khat-induced hypnagogic hallucinations. Acta Psychiatr.Scand. 1988;78(4):458-461. View abstract.
  • Griffiths, P., Gossop, M., Wickenden, S., Dunworth, J., Harris, K., and Lloyd, C. A transcultural pattern of drug use: qat (khat) in the UK. Br.J.Psychiatry 1997;170:281-284. View abstract.
  • Guantai, A. N. and Maitai, C. K. Metabolism of cathinone to d-norpseudoephedrine in humans. J Pharm Sci 1983;72(10):1217-1218. View abstract.
  • Hassan, N. A., Gunaid, A. A., Abdo-Rabbo, A. A., Abdel-Kader, Z. Y., al Mansoob, M. A., Awad, A. Y., and Murray-Lyon, I. M. The effect of Qat chewing on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy volunteers. Trop.Doct. 2000;30(2):107-108. View abstract.
  • Hassan, N. A., Gunaid, A. A., El Khally, F. M., Al Noami, M. Y., and Murray-Lyon, I. M. Khat chewing and arterial blood pressure. A randomized controlled clinical trial of alpha-1 and selective beta-1 adrenoceptor blockade. Saudi.Med J 2005;26(4):537-541. View abstract.
  • Hassan, N. A., Gunaid, A. A., El Khally, F. M., and Murray-Lyon, I. M. The effect of chewing Khat leaves on human mood. Saudi.Med.J. 2002;23(7):850-853. View abstract.
  • Jager, A. D. and Sireling, L. Natural history of Khat psychosis. Aust.N.Z.J.Psychiatry 1994;28(2):331-332. View abstract.
  • Kalix, P. Cathinone, a natural amphetamine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1992;70(2):77-86. View abstract.
  • Khattab, N. Y. and Amer, G. Undetected neuropsychophysiological sequelae of khat chewing in standard aviation medical examination. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 1995;66(8):739-744. View abstract.
  • Nasher, A. A., Qirbi, A. A., Ghafoor, M. A., Catterall, A., Thompson, A., Ramsay, J. W., and Murray-Lyon, I. M. Khat chewing and bladder neck dysfunction. A randomized controlled trial of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade. Br.J.Urol. 1995;75(5):597-598. View abstract.
  • Nencini, P., Ahmed, A. M., Amiconi, G., and Elmi, A. S. Tolerance develops to sympathetic effects of khat in humans. Pharmacology 1984;28(3):150-154. View abstract.
  • Salib, E. and Ahmed, A. G. The khat-chewing elderly. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 1998;13(7):493-494. View abstract.
  • Toennes, S. W., Harder, S., Schramm, M., Niess, C., and Kauert, G. F. Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2003;56(1):125-130. View abstract.
  • Widler, P., Mathys, K., Brenneisen, R., Kalix, P., and Fisch, H. U. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of khat: a controlled study. Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 1994;55(5):556-562. View abstract.
  • Yousef, G., Huq, Z., and Lambert, T. Khat chewing as a cause of psychosis. Br.J.Hosp.Med. 10-4-1995;54(7):322-326. View abstract.
  • Al-Akhali MS, Al-Moraissi EA. Khat chewing habit produces a significant adverse effect on periodontal, oral health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontal Res. 2017;52(6):937-945. View abstract.
  • Al-Maweri SA, AlAkhali M. Oral hygiene and periodontal health status among khat chewers. A case-control study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(5):e629-e634. View abstract.
  • Alhaddad OM, Elsabaawy MM, Rewisha EA, et al. Khat-induced liver injuries: A report of two cases. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2016;17(1):45-8. View abstract.
  • Alsalahi A, Alshawsh MA, Mohamed R, et al. Conflicting reports on the role of the glycemic effect of Catha edulis (Khat): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;186:30-43. View abstract.
  • Attef, O. A., Ali, A. A., and Ali, H. M. Effect of Khat chewing on the bioavailability of ampicillin and amoxycillin. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 1997;39(4):523-525. View abstract.
  • Baharith H, Zarrin A. Khat - a new precipitating factor for reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10(1):351. View abstract.
  • Bede P, El-Kininy N, O'Hara F, Menon P, Finegan E, Healy D. 'Khatatonia' - cathinone-induced hypertensive encephalopathy. Neth J Med. 2017;75(10):448-450. View abstract.
  • Cats A, Scholten P, Meuwissen SGM, et al. Acute Fasciola hepatica infection attributed to chewing khat. Gut 2000;47:584-5. View abstract.
  • Chapman MH, Kajihara M, Borges G, et al. Severe, acute liver injury and khat leaves. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(17):1642-4. View abstract.
  • Coton T, Simon F, Oliver M, Kraemer P. Hepatotoxicity of khat chewing. Liver Int. 2011;31(3):434. View abstract.
  • de Bree LC, Bodelier AG, Verburg GP. Fasciola hepatica as a cause of jaundice after chewing khat: a case report. Neth J Med. 2013;71(9):478-9. View abstract.
  • Forbes MP, Raj AS, Martin J, Lampe G, Powell EE. Khat-associated hepatitis. Med J Aust. 2013;199(7):498-9. View abstract.
  • Issa FH, Al-Habori M, Chance ML. Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) Use on the Bioavailability, Plasma Levels and Antimalarial Activity of Chloroquine. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2016;16(2):e182-8. View abstract.
  • Kalakonda B, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Shamiri HM, Ijaz A, Gamal S, Dhaifullah E. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(10):e1264-e1270. View abstract.
  • Kassim S, Croucher R, al'Absi M. Khat dependence syndrome: a cross sectional preliminary evaluation amongst UK-resident Yemeni khat chewers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146(3):835-41. View abstract.
  • Manzar MD, Salahuddin M, Sony P, et al. Sleep disturbances and memory impairment among pregnant women consuming khat: An under-recognized problem. Ann Thorac Med. 2017;12(4):247-251. View abstract.
  • Martínez-Balzano C, Kohlitz PJ, Chaudhary P, Hegazy H. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in a young healthy adult transmitted by khat chewing. J Infect. 2013;66(2):184-6. View abstract.
  • McLean AS, Kot MB. Cardiac collapse associated with the ingestion of khat. Intern Med J. 2011;41(7):579-81. View abstract.
  • Peevers CG, Moorghen M, Collins PL, Gordon FH, McCune CA. Liver disease and cirrhosis because of Khat chewing in UK Somali men: a case series. Liver Int. 2010;30(8):1242-3. View abstract.
  • Randall T. Khat abuse fuels Somali conflict, drains economy. JAMA 1993;269:12-13.
  • Roelandt P, George C, d'Heygere F, et al. Acute liver failure secondary to khat (Catha edulis)-induced necrotic hepatitis requiring liver transplantation: case report. Transplant Proc. 2011;43(9):3493-5. View abstract.
  • Sallam MA, Sheikh KA, Baxendale R, Azam MN, Hossain AM, El-Setouhy M. The physiological and ergogenic effects of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) extract. Subst Use Misuse. 2018;53(1):94-100. View abstract.
  • Tuladhar AM, Boogaarts HD, de Leeuw FE, van Dijk E. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome after chewing khat leaves. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;36(2):158-9. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased KHAT?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

More Resources for KHAT

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.