MASTIC

OTHER NAME(S):

Arbre à Mastic, Arbre au Mastic, Lentisco, Lentisk, Mastich, Mastika, Mastix, Mata Charneca, Pistacia lentiscus, Pistachier Lentisque.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Mastic is a tree. People use the sap (resin) from the trunk to make medicine.

Mastic is used for stomach and intestinal ulcers, breathing problems, muscle aches, and bacterial and fungal infections. It is also used to improve blood circulation.

Some people apply mastic directly to the skin for cuts and as an insect repellent. In dentistry, mastic resin is used as a material for fillings. Chewing the resin releases substances that freshen the breath and tighten the gums.

In manufacturing, mastic resin is used in the food and drink industries and in the production of chewing gum.

How does it work?

Mastic might help reduce stomach acid and may protect the lining of the stomach and intestine. Mastic also contains a fragrant oil which could freshen the breath. In a test tube, mastic seems to fight bacteria and fungi.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking mastic gum by mouth for 3 weeks seems to improve symptoms of indigestion, including stomach pain, upper abdominal pain, and heartburn.
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers. Taking mastic powder by mouth for 2 weeks seems to reduce symptoms and improve healing in people with intestinal ulcers. Also, early research suggests that taking mastic powder by mouth for 4 weeks improves these outcomes in people with stomach ulcers.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Crohn’s disease. Early research suggests that taking mastic by mouth for 4 weeks improves symptoms and reduces test markers for swelling in people with Crohn’s disease.
  • Stomach infection caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Early research suggests that taking mastic gum for 2 weeks helps eliminate H. pylori infections in some, but not all, people 5 weeks after finishing treatment. However, taking mastic gum seems to be less effective at eliminating H. pylori infections compared to taking a combination of the drugs pantoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin.
  • Gum disease (periodontitis). Early research suggests that brushing with mastic essential oil-containing toothpaste using a sonic toothbrush for 12 weeks reduces plaque buildup, as well as swelling, redness, and bleeding of the gums, in people with gum disease better than using a sonic toothbrush alone.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Repelling insects.
  • Improving blood circulation.
  • Cuts, when applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of mastic for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Mastic is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken appropriately by mouth.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking mastic if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Allergy to Schinus terebinthifolious and other Pistacia species: People who are allergic to these plants might also be allergic to mastic tree.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for MASTIC Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of mastic depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for mastic. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdelwahed, A., Bouhlel, I., Skandrani, I., Valenti, K., Kadri, M., Guiraud, P., Steiman, R., Mariotte, A. M., Ghedira, K., Laporte, F., Dijoux-Franca, M. G., and Chekir-Ghedira, L. Study of antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of gallic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose from Pistacia lentiscus. Confirmation by microarray expression profiling. Chem Biol Interact. 1-5-2007;165(1):1-13. View abstract.
  • Aksoy, A., Duran, N., and Koksal, F. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci. Arch Oral Biol 12-15-2005; View abstract.
  • Aksoy, A., Duran, N., Toroglu, S., and Koksal, F. Short-term effect of mastic gum on salivary concentrations of cariogenic bacteria in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2007;77(1):124-128. View abstract.
  • Al Habbal, M. J., Al Habbal, Z., and Huwez, F. U. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clin Exp Pharmacol.Physiol 1984;11(5):541-544. View abstract.
  • Ali-Shtayeh, M. S. and Abu Ghdeib, S. I. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses 1999;42(11-12):665-672. View abstract.
  • Balan, K. V., Prince, J., Han, Z., Dimas, K., Cladaras, M., Wyche, J. H., Sitaras, N. M., and Pantazis, P. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells treated in vitro with constituents of a product derived from Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(4):263-272. View abstract.
  • Barra, A., Coroneo, V., Dessi, S., Cabras, P., and Angioni, A. Characterization of the volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from different origins and its antifungal and antioxidant activity. J Agric.Food Chem 8-22-2007;55(17):7093-7098. View abstract.
  • Berboucha, M., Ayouni, K., Atmani, D., Atmani, D., and Benboubetra, M. Kinetic study on the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by extracts from two selected Algerian plants traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. J Med Food 2010;13(4):896-904. View abstract.
  • Bhouri, W., Derbel, S., Skandrani, I., Boubaker, J., Bouhlel, I., Sghaier, M. B., Kilani, S., Mariotte, A. M., Dijoux-Franca, M. G., Ghedira, K., and Chekir-Ghedira, L. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits. Toxicol.In Vitro 2010;24(2):509-515. View abstract.
  • Charef, M., Yousfi, M., Saldi, M., and Stocker, P. Determination of the Fatty Acid Composition of Acorn (Quercus), Pistacia lentiscus Seeds Growing in Algeria. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (JAOCS) 2008;85(10):921-924.
  • Choli-Papadopoulou, T., Kottakis, F., Papadopoulos, G., and Pendas, S. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil activating protein as target for new drugs against H. pylori inflammation. World J Gastroenterol. 6-7-2011;17(21):2585-2591. View abstract.
  • Dabos, K. J., Sfika, E., Vlatta, L. J., and Giannikopoulos, G. The effect of mastic gum on Helicobacter pylori: a randomized pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(3-4):296-299. View abstract.
  • Dabos, K. J., Sfika, E., Vlatta, L. J., Frantzi, D., Amygdalos, G. I., and Giannikopoulos, G. Is Chios mastic gum effective in the treatment of functional dyspepsia? A prospective randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):205-209. View abstract.
  • Dimas, K., Hatziantoniou, S., Wyche, J. H., and Pantazis, P. A mastic gum extract induces suppression of growth of human colorectal tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. In Vivo 2009;23(1):63-68. View abstract.
  • Djerrou, Z., Maameri, Z., Hamdi-Pacha, Y., Serakta, M., Riachi, F., Djaalab, H., and Boukeloua, A. Effect of virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus on experimental burn wound's healing in rabbits. Afr.J Tradit.Complement Altern.Med 2010;7(3):258-263. View abstract.
  • Doi, K., Wei, M., Kitano, M., Uematsu, N., Inoue, M., and Wanibuchi, H. Enhancement of preneoplastic lesion yield by Chios Mastic Gum in a rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 1-1-2009;234(1):135-142. View abstract.
  • Freedman, P. Mastic: a Mediterranean luxury product. Mediterranean Historical Review 2011;26(1):99-113.
  • Gioxari, A., Kaliora, A. C., Papalois, A., Agrogiannis, G., Triantafillidis, J. K., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Pistacia lentiscus Resin Regulates Intestinal Damage and Inflammation in Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis. J Med Food 5-25-2011; View abstract.
  • He, M. L., Chen, W. W., Zhang, P. J., Jiang, A. L., Fan, W., Yuan, H. Q., Liu, W. W., and Zhang, J. Y. Gum mastic increases maspin expression in prostate cancer cells. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2007;28(4):567-572. View abstract.
  • He, M. L., Li, A., Xu, C. S., Wang, S. L., Zhang, M. J., Gu, H., Yang, Y. Q., and Tao, H. H. Mechanisms of antiprostate cancer by gum mastic: NF-kappaB signal as target. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2007;28(3):446-452. View abstract.
  • He, M. L., Yuan, H. Q., Jiang, A. L., Gong, A. Y., Chen, W. W., Zhang, P. J., Young, C. Y., and Zhang, J. Y. Gum mastic inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer 6-15-2006;106(12):2547-2555. View abstract.
  • Huang, X. Y., Wang, H. C., Yuan, Z., Li, A., He, M. L., Ai, K. X., Zheng, Q., and Qin, H. L. Gemcitabine combined with gum mastic causes potent growth inhibition and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2010;31(6):741-745. View abstract.
  • Huwez, F. U. and Al Habbal, M. J. Mastic in treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Gastroenterol.Jpn. 1986;21(3):273-274. View abstract.
  • Huwez, F. U., Thirlwell, D., Cockayne, A., and Ala'Aldeen, D. A. Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori. N.Engl.J Med 12-24-1998;339(26):1946. View abstract.
  • Kaliora, A. C., Stathopoulou, M. G., Triantafillidis, J. K., Dedoussis, G. V., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Alterations in the function of circulating mononuclear cells derived from patients with Crohn's disease treated with mastic. World J Gastroenterol. 12-7-2007;13(45):6031-6036. View abstract.
  • Kaliora, A. C., Stathopoulou, M. G., Triantafillidis, J. K., Dedoussis, G. V., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Chios mastic treatment of patients with active Crohn's disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2-7-2007;13(5):748-753. View abstract.
  • Kang, J. S., Wanibuchi, H., Salim, E. I., Kinoshita, A., and Fukushima, S. Evaluation of the toxicity of mastic gum with 13 weeks dietary administration to F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(3):494-501. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. J. and Neophytou, C. Natural anti-inflammatory compounds for the management and adjuvant therapy of inflammatory bowel disease and its drug delivery system. Arch.Pharm Res 2009;32(7):997-1004. View abstract.
  • Kottakis, F., Befani, C., Asiminas, A., Kontou, M., Koliakos, G., and Choli-Papadopoulou, T. The C-terminal region of HPNAP activates neutrophils and promotes their adhesion to endothelial cells. Helicobacter. 2009;14(3):177-179. View abstract.
  • Kottakis, F., Kouzi-Koliakou, K., Pendas, S., Kountouras, J., and Choli-Papadopoulou, T. Effects of mastic gum Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia on innate cellular immune effectors. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2009;21(2):143-149. View abstract.
  • Kottakis, F., Lamari, F., Matragkou, Ch, Zachariadis, G., Karamanos, N., and Choli-Papadopoulou, T. Arabino-galactan proteins from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia: isolation, characterization and biological function. Amino.Acids 2008;34(3):413-420. View abstract.
  • Koutsoudaki, C., Krsek, M., and Rodger, A. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the gum of Pistacia lentiscus Var. chia. J Agric.Food Chem 10-5-2005;53(20):7681-7685. View abstract.
  • Landau, S., Azaizeh, H., Muklada, H., Glasser, T., Ungar, E. D., Baram, H., Abbas, N., and Markovics, A. Anthelmintic activity of Pistacia lentiscus foliage in two Middle Eastern breeds of goats differing in their propensity to consume tannin-rich browse. Vet.Parasitol. 10-29-2010;173(3-4):280-286. View abstract.
  • Loizou, S., Paraschos, S., Mitakou, S., Chrousos, G. P., Lekakis, I., and Moutsatsou, P. Chios mastic gum extract and isolated phytosterol tirucallol exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells. Exp.Biol Med (Maywood.) 2009;234(5):553-561. View abstract.
  • Longo, L., Platini, F., Scardino, A., Alabiso, O., Vasapollo, G., and Tessitore, L. Autophagy inhibition enhances anthocyanin-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7(8):2476-2485. View abstract.
  • Loutrari, H., Magkouta, S., Pyriochou, A., Koika, V., Kolisis, F. N., Papapetropoulos, A., and Roussos, C. Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia inhibits growth and survival of human K562 leukemia cells and attenuates angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer 2006;55(1):86-93. View abstract.
  • Magiatis, P., Melliou, E., Skaltsounis, A. L., Chinou, I. B., and Mitaku, S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. Planta Med 1999;65(8):749-752. View abstract.
  • Magkouta, S., Stathopoulos, G. T., Psallidas, I., Papapetropoulos, A., Kolisis, F. N., Roussos, C., and Loutrari, H. Protective effects of mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus variation chia against experimental growth of lewis lung carcinoma. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(5):640-648. View abstract.
  • Mahmoudi, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Nabavi, S. F., Hafezi, S., Nabavi, S. M., and Eslami, Sh. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of gum mastic. Eur.Rev.Med Pharmacol.Sci 2010;14(9):765-769. View abstract.
  • Manolaraki, F., Sotiraki, S., Stefanakis, A., Skampardonis, V., Volanis, M., and Hoste, H. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes. Parasitology 2010;137(4):685-696. View abstract.
  • Modugno, F., Ribechini, E., and Colombini, M. P. Chemical study of triterpenoid resinous materials in archaeological findings by means of direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2006;20(11):1787-1800. View abstract.
  • Molina, J. A., Oyarzun, R., Esbri, J. M., and Higueras, P. Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almaden mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth. Environ.Geochem.Health 2006;28(5):487-498. View abstract.
  • Moreno-Jimenez, E., Esteban, E., Carpena-Ruiz, R. O., and Penalosa, J. M. Arsenic- and mercury-induced phytotoxicity in the Mediterranean shrubs Pistacia lentiscus and Tamarix gallica grown in hydroponic culture. Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf 2009;72(6):1781-1789. View abstract.
  • Moulos, P., Papadodima, O., Chatziioannou, A., Loutrari, H., Roussos, C., and Kolisis, F. N. A transcriptomic computational analysis of mastic oil-treated Lewis lung carcinomas reveals molecular mechanisms targeting tumor cell growth and survival. BMC.Med Genomics 2009;2:68. View abstract.
  • Moutselos, K., Maglogiannis, I., and Chatziioannou, A. Delineation and interpretation of gene networks towards their effect in cellular physiology- a reverse engineering approach for the identification of critical molecular players, through the use of ontologies. Conf.Proc.IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010;2010:6709-6712. View abstract.
  • Oezer, O., Kivcak, B., Mutlu, B., Akay, S., and Toemek, S. In vitro release studies on multiple and simple emulsions of a-tocopherol with Pistacia leaves. Scientia Pharmaceutica (Austria) 2007;75:97-109.
  • Paraschos, S., Magiatis, P., Mitakou, S., Petraki, K., Kalliaropoulos, A., Maragkoudakis, P., Mentis, A., Sgouras, D., and Skaltsounis, A. L. In vitro and in vivo activities of Chios mastic gum extracts and constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2007;51(2):551-559. View abstract.
  • Petersen, R. K., Christensen, K. B., Assimopoulou, A. N., Frette, X., Papageorgiou, V. P., Kristiansen, K., and Kouskoumvekaki, I. Pharmacophore-driven identification of PPARgamma agonists from natural sources. J Comput.Aided Mol Des 2011;25(2):107-116. View abstract.
  • Piluzza, G. and Bullitta, S. Correlations between phenolic content and antioxidant properties in twenty-four plant species of traditional ethnoveterinary use in the Mediterranean area. Pharm Biol 2011;49(3):240-247. View abstract.
  • Qiao, J., Li, A., Jin, X., and Wang, J. Mastic Alleviates Allergic Inflammation in Asthmatic Model Mice by Inhibiting Recruitment of Eosinophils. Am J Respir.Cell Mol Biol 9-20-2010; View abstract.
  • Rahimi, R., Shams-Ardekani, M. R., and Abdollahi, M. A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 9-28-2010;16(36):4504-4514. View abstract.
  • Roitman, J. N., Merrill, G. B., and Beck, J. J. Survey of ex situ fruit and leaf volatiles from several Pistacia cultivars grown in California. J Sci Food Agric. 1-11-2011; View abstract.
  • Sakagami, H., Kishino, K., Kobayashi, M., Hashimoto, K., Iida, S., Shimetani, A., Nakamura, Y., Takahashi, K., Ikarashi, T., Fukamachi, H., Satoh, K., Nakashima, H., Shimizu, T., Takeda, K., Watanabe, S., and Nakamura, W. Selective antibacterial and apoptosis-modulating activities of mastic. In Vivo 2009;23(2):215-223. View abstract.
  • Sanz, M. J., Terencio, M. C., and Paya, M. Isolation and hypotensive activity of a polymeric procyanidin fraction from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie 1992;47(6):466-467. View abstract.
  • Sanz, M. J., Terencio, M. C., and Paya, M. Pharmacological actions of a new procyanidin polymer from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie 1993;48(2):152-153. View abstract.
  • Sawidis, T., Yurukova, L., and Askitis, T. Chios mastic, a natural supplement for zinc to enhance male sexuality and prostate function. Pharm Biol 2010;48(1):48-54. View abstract.
  • Sterer, N. Antimicrobial effect of mastic gum methanolic extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Med Food 2006;9(2):290-292. View abstract.
  • Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M. P. Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation. J Dent. 2008;36(7):535-539. View abstract.
  • Takahashi, K., Fukazawa, M., Motohira, H., Ochiai, K., Nishikawa, H., and Miyata, T. A pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity. J Periodontol. 2003;74(4):501-505. View abstract.
  • Triantafyllou, A., Bikineyeva, A., Dikalova, A., Nazarewicz, R., Lerakis, S., and Dikalov, S. Anti-inflammatory activity of Chios mastic gum is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha induced oxidative stress. Nutr J 2011;10:64. View abstract.
  • Triantafyllou, A., Chaviaras, N., Sergentanis, T. N., Protopapa, E., and Tsaknis, J. Chios mastic gum modulates serum biochemical parameters in a human population. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-20-2007;111(1):43-49. View abstract.
  • Watanabe, H., Hagiwara, S., Fukuda, M., Yuichi, I., Tamura, N., Suzuki, M., and Kawasaki, D. Double blind randomized control test for the usefulness of mastic compound dentifrice against periodontitis under using sonic toothbrush 2010. Yakuri to chiryo 2010;38(10):915-925.
  • Weber, T. K., Freitas, Kde C., Amancio, O. M., and de Morais, M. B. Effect of dietary fibre mixture on growth and intestinal iron absorption in rats recovering from iron-deficiency anaemia. Br.J Nutr 2010;104(10):1471-1476. View abstract.
  • Zachariadis, G. A. and Spanou, E. A. Microwave-assisted acid extraction methodology for trace elements determination in mastic gum of Pistacia lentiscus using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Phytochem.Anal. 2011;22(1):31-35. View abstract.
  • Zhou, L., Satoh, K., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, S., Nakamura, W., Maki, J., Hatano, H., Takekawa, F., Shimada, C., and Sakagami, H. Re-evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of mastic using activated macrophages. In Vivo 2009;23(4):583-589. View abstract.
  • Al-Said MS, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M. Evaluation of mastic, a crude drug obtained from Pistacia lentiscus for gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;15:271-8. View abstract.
  • Iauk L, Ragusa S, Rapisarda A, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. extracts: preliminary report. J Chemother 1996;8:207-9. View abstract.
  • Keynan N, Tamir R, Waisel Y, et al. Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia. Allergy 1997;52:323-30. View abstract.

More Resources for MASTIC

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.