Peppermint oil is used for a long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). It is also used for indigestion (dyspepsia), spasms in the bowel, cracked nipples, bed sores (pressure ulcers), and tension headache. It is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
In foods and beverages, peppermint is a common flavoring agent.
In manufacturing, peppermint oil is used as a fragrance in soaps and cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent in pharmaceuticals.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Likely Effective for
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Most research shows that taking peppermint oil by mouth reduces stomach pain, bloating, gas, and bowel movements in people with IBS. Most trials have used specific peppermint oil products (Colpermin by Tillotts Pharma; Mintoil by Cadigroup; IBgard by IM HealthScience, Tempocol).
Possibly Effective for
- Relaxing the colon during a barium enema examination. Using peppermint oil as an ingredient in enemas seems to relax the colon during barium enema examinations. Also, taking peppermint oil by mouth before the start of a barium enema seems to decrease spasms.
- Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment. Research shows that taking peppermint extract by mouth reduces nausea and vomiting after cancer drug treatment. Also, early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil reduces nausea caused by cancer drug treatment.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking a specific product containing peppermint oil and caraway oil (Enteroplant or Menthacarin by Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) by mouth seems to improve symptoms of indigestion. Another product containing peppermint and many other ingredients (Iberogast by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) also seems to improve symptoms of indigestion. Another similar combination product (STW 5-II by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) also seems to help. However, taking peppermint oil alone does not seem to help with indigestion after surgery.
- Side effects caused by a certain procedure (endoscopy) used to view the inside of the body. Some research shows that peppermint oil can reduce spasms and pain in people having this procedure. Peppermint oil sprayed into the intestine by the doctor seems to work best. Oral peppermint taken a few hours before surgery might also work.
- Cracked nipples. Research shows that applying peppermint oil in gel, cream, or water to the skin reduces cracked skin and pain in the nipple area when breastfeeding.
- Bed sores (pressure ulcers). Research shows that applying a gel containing peppermint oil can prevent bed sores in people who must stay in bed for at least 2 weeks due to head trauma.
- Tension headache. Applying peppermint oil to the skin seems to help relieve tension headaches.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Anxiety. Early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil does not reduce anxiety before getting a catheter placed in the body.
- Hot flashes in people treated for breast cancer. Early research shows that a combination spray containing peppermint and other ingredients does not relieve hot flashes in people receiving chemotherapy treatments for breast cancer.
- Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil slightly improves memory and performance on mental tasks, but does not improve attention and speed of completing tasks.
- Spasm in the esophagus. Early research shows that drinking water containing five drops of peppermint oil stops spasms in the esophagus.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Early research shows that taking peppermint oil capsules at the start of menstruation helps to reduce pain, nausea, and vomiting in people with menstrual cramps.
- Insomnia. Early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil on a cotton ball attached to the collar at bedtime might help some people with cancer and mild insomnia sleep better.
- Migraine. Early research shows that putting drops of diluted peppermint oil into the nose might help to reduce migraine pain quickly.
- Acute pain. Early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil reduces pain by a small amount in people getting a catheter placed in the body.
- Nausea and vomiting after surgery. Some early research shows that inhaling peppermint oil might relieve nausea for up to 4 hours after surgery. But not all research agrees. It's possible that any relief with peppermint is due to improved breathing patterns after surgery rather than peppermint oil itself.
- Itching. Early research shows that applying peppermint oil to the skin twice a day for 2 weeks decreases itching in patients with itching related to kidney disease, liver disease, or diabetes. Also, applying a gel containing peppermint oil, menthol, and methyl salicylate decreases itching in people with burn scars. Early research also shows that applying oil containing 0.5% peppermint oil can reduce the severity of pregnancy-related itching.
- Stress. Early research shows that peppermint aromatherapy might reduce stress.
- Bad breath.
- Common cold.
- Excessive growth of bacteria in the small intestines.
- Hives (urticaria).
- Morning sickness.
- Mosquito repellent.
- Muscle pain.
- Nerve pain.
- Stomach pain.
- Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis).
- Symptoms of menopause.
- Tooth plaque.
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Peppermint and peppermint oil are LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin.
When given as an enema (rectally): Peppermint and peppermint oil are LIKELY SAFE when used rectally.
When inhaled: Peppermint oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when inhaled as part of aromatherapy.
When applied into the nose: There isn't enough reliable information to know if peppermint is safe or what the side effects might be.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Children and infants: Peppermint is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts found in foods. Peppermint oil is POSSIBLY SAFE in children 8 years of age and older when taken by mouth in pills with a special (enteric) coating to prevent contact with the stomach.
Diarrhea: Taking peppermint oil could cause anal burning with diarrhea.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with PEPPERMINT
The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Peppermint oil might decrease how quickly the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Taking peppermint oil products along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase the risk of side effects for cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver
Peppermint oil and leaf might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking peppermint oil along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking peppermint oil, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), haloperidol (Haldol), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), theophylline (Theo-Dur, others), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, others), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver
Peppermint oil might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking peppermint oil along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking peppermint oil, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver
Some medications that are changed by the liver include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), and pantoprazole (Protonix); diazepam (Valium); carisoprodol (Soma); nelfinavir (Viracept); and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Peppermint oil might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking peppermint oil along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking peppermint oil, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), ibuprofen (Motrin), meloxicam (Mobic), and piroxicam (Feldene); celecoxib (Celebrex); amitriptyline (Elavil); warfarin (Coumadin); glipizide (Glucotrol); losartan (Cozaar); and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Peppermint oil might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking peppermint oil along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking peppermint oil, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Be cautious with this combination
Antacids interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some peppermint oil products are covered with a special coating. Antacids are used to decrease stomach acid. Low stomach acid can cause the coating of these peppermint oil products to dissolve too quickly. When peppermint oil products dissolve too quickly they can sometimes cause heartburn and nausea. Take antacids at least two hours after coated peppermint oil products.
Some antacids include calcium carbonate (Tums, others), dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate (Rolaids, others), magaldrate (Riopan), magnesium sulfate (Bilagog), aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel), and others.
Medications that decrease stomach acid (H2-Blockers) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some peppermint oil products are covered with a special coating. Some medications that decrease stomach acid might cause the coating of these peppermint oil products to dissolve too quickly. When peppermint oil products dissolve too quickly they can sometimes cause heartburn and nausea. Take medications that decrease stomach acid at least two hours after coated peppermint oil products
Some medications that decrease stomach acid include cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), nizatidine (Axid), and famotidine (Pepcid).
Medications that decrease stomach acid (Proton pump inhibitors) interacts with PEPPERMINT
Some peppermint oil products are covered with a special coating. Some medications that decrease stomach acid might cause the coating of these peppermint oil products to dissolve too quickly. When peppermint oil products dissolve too quickly they can sometimes cause heartburn and nausea. Take medications that decrease stomach acid at least two hours after coated peppermint oil products
Some medications that decrease stomach acid include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), and esomeprazole (Nexium).
Be watchful with this combination
- For a long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS): One to two enteric-coated capsules each providing 0.2 mL or 180-225 mg of peppermint oil three times daily has been used. Most trials have used specific peppermint oil products (Colpermin by Tillotts Pharma; Mintoil by Cadigroup; IBgard by IM HealthScience).
- For indigestion (dyspepsia): A specific product containing 90 mg of peppermint oil and 50 mg of caraway oil (Enteroplant or Menthacarin by Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals), taken two or three times daily for up to 4 weeks has been used. A specific combination product containing peppermint leaf and several other herbs (Iberogast by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH) has been used in a dose of 1 mL three times daily. A similar herbal preparation containing extracts from clown's mustard, German chamomile flower, peppermint leaves, caraway, licorice root, and lemon balm (STW 5-II by Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH), 1 mL taken three times daily for up to 8 weeks, has been used.
- For side effects caused by a certain procedure (endoscopy) used to view the inside of the body: Enteric-coated capsules containing 187 mg of 0.2 mL of peppermint oil have been taken 4 hours before a colonoscopy.
- For cracked nipples: Peppermint oil cream or gel 0.2% has been applied 1-3 times every day for 2 weeks. Also, a solution containing peppermint oil has been applied after every breastfeeding for 2 weeks.
- For side effects caused by a certain procedure (endoscopy) used to view the inside of the body: 20 mL of spray containing 0.4-1.6% peppermint oil applied to the antrum during endoscopy has been used. Also 16-40 mL of solution containing peppermint oil has been applied into the lumen during endoscopy.
- For bed sores (pressure ulcers): A gel containing peppermint oil 0.2% applied three times daily for up to 14 days has been used.
- For tension headaches: 10% peppermint oil in ethanol solution applied across the forehead and temples, repeated after 15 and 30 minutes, has been used.
- For relaxing the colon during a barium enema examination: 8 mL of peppermint oil was added to 100 mL water along with a surface active agent, Tween 80. The insoluble fraction was removed, then 30 mL of the remaining peppermint solution was added to 300 mL of the barium solution. Also, 16 mL of peppermint oil and 0.4 mL of polysorbate was diluted in 2 liters of purified water, then 30 mL of the peppermint solution was added to barium paste suspended in 370 mL of water in an enema bag, and 10 mL of the peppermint solution was added to the enema tubing.
- For a long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS): One or two enteric-coated capsules containing 0.2 mL of peppermint oil per capsule (Colpermin by Tillotts Pharma) has been taken three times daily for 2 weeks by children aged 8 years and older.
Adam, B., Liebregts, T., Best, J., Bechmann, L., Lackner, C., Neumann, J., Koehler, S., and Holtmann, G. A combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil attenuates the post-inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia in a rat model. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2006;41(2):155-160. View abstract.
Agarwal, V., Lal, P., and Pruthi, V. Prevention of Candida albicans biofilm by plant oils. Mycopathologia 2008;165(1):13-19. View abstract.
Alam, M. S., Roy, P. K., Miah, A. R., Mollick, S. H., Khan, M. R., Mahmud, M. C., and Khatun, S. Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant. Mymensingh.Med.J 2013;22(1):27-30. View abstract.
Andersen, K. E. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4(4):195-198. View abstract.
Atta, A. H. and Alkofahi, A. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;60(2):117-124. View abstract.
Barnard, D. R. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1999;36(5):625-629. View abstract.
BEDOUKIAN, P. Z. Occurrence of menthofuran in oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita vulgaris S.). J Am Chem Soc. 1948;70(2):621. View abstract.
Behrends, M., Beiderlinden, M., and Peters, J. Acute lung injury after peppermint oil injection. Anesth.Analg. 2005;101(4):1160-1162. View abstract.
Belanger, J. T. Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology. Altern Med Rev 1998;3(6):448-457. View abstract.
Bluma, R., Amaiden, M. R., Daghero, J., and Etcheverry, M. Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils. J Appl.Microbiol. 2008;105(1):203-214. View abstract.
Burrow, A., Eccles, R., and Jones, A. S. The effects of camphor, eucalyptus and menthol vapour on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation. Acta Otolaryngol. 1983;96(1-2):157-161. View abstract.
Capanni M, Surrenti E, Biagini M, and et al. Efficacy of peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. Gazz Med Ital 2005;164:119-126.
Castillo-Juarez, I., Gonzalez, V., Jaime-Aguilar, H., Martinez, G., Linares, E., Bye, R., and Romero, I. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 3-18-2009;122(2):402-405. View abstract.
Chang, F. Y. and Lu, C. L. The clinical significances of irritable bowel syndrome in Taiwan. J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2011;26 Suppl 3:102-105. View abstract.
Chang, F. Y. and Lu, C. L. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using complementary and alternative medicine. J Chin Med.Assoc. 2009;72(6):294-300. View abstract.
Czalbert, J, Neder, M., and Feher, K. Experiences with Colpermin therapy (Tillots-England) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gyogyszereszet 1990;34(251):253.
Djenane, D., Aider, M., Yanguela, J., Idir, L., Gomez, D., and Roncales, P. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature. Meat.Sci 2012;92(4):667-674. View abstract.
Dorman, H. J., Kosar, M., Baser, K. H., and Hiltunen, R. Phenolic profile and antioxidant evaluation of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) extracts. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4(4):535-542. View abstract.
Duarte, M. C., Figueira, G. M., Sartoratto, A., Rehder, V. L., and Delarmelina, C. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2-28-2005;97(2):305-311. View abstract.
Duband, F., Carnat, A. P., Carnat, A., Petitjean-Freytet, C., Clair, G., and Lamaison, J. L. [Aromatic and polyphenolic composition of infused peppermint, Mentha x piperita L.]. Ann.Pharm Fr. 1992;50(3):146-155. View abstract.
Eccles, R. and Jones, A. S. The effect of menthol on nasal resistance to air flow. J Laryngol Otol 1983;97(8):705-709. View abstract.
Eccles, R., Griffiths, D. H., Newton, C. G., and Tolley, N. S. The effects of D and L isomers of menthol upon nasal sensation of airflow. J Laryngol Otol 1988;102(6):506-508. View abstract.
Fazlara, A., Najafzadeh, H., and Lak, E. The potential application of plant essential oils as natural preservatives against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 9-1-2008;11(17):2054-2061. View abstract.
Fecka, I. and Turek, S. Determination of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in commercial herbal teas from Lamiaceae: peppermint, melissa, and sage. J Agric.Food Chem 12-26-2007;55(26):10908-10917. View abstract.
Ford, A. C., Talley, N. J., Spiegel, B. M., Foxx-Orenstein, A. E., Schiller, L., Quigley, E. M., and Moayyedi, P. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008;337:a2313. View abstract.
Gao, M., Singh, A., Macri, K., Reynolds, C., Singhal, V., Biswal, S., and Spannhake, E. W. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system. Respir.Res 2011;12:92. View abstract.
Gelal, A., Jacob, P., III, Yu, L., and Benowitz, N. L. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66(2):128-135. View abstract.
Geuenich, S., Goffinet, C., Venzke, S., Nolkemper, S., Baumann, I., Plinkert, P., Reichling, J., and Keppler, O. T. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density. Retrovirology. 2008;5:27. View abstract.
Gherman, C., Culea, M., and Cozar, O. Comparative analysis of some active principles of herb plants by GC/MS. Talanta 10-2-2000;53(1):253-262. View abstract.
Goerg, K. J. and Spilker, T. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 2003;17(3):445-451. View abstract.
Green, B. G. Menthol modulates oral sensations of warmth and cold. Physiol Behav 1985;35(3):427-434. View abstract.
Green, B. G. The sensory effects of l-menthol on human skin. Somatosens.Mot.Res 1992;9(3):235-244. View abstract.
Grigoleit, H. G. and Grigoleit, P. Gastrointestinal clinical pharmacology of peppermint oil. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(8):607-611. View abstract.
Grigoleit, H. G. and Grigoleit, P. Pharmacology and preclinical pharmacokinetics of peppermint oil. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(8):612-616. View abstract.
Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., Dengler, R., and Leuwer, M. Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(8):571-579. View abstract.
Hawthorne M, Ferrante J, and et al. The actions of peppermint oil and menthol on calcium channel dependent processes in intestinal, neuronal and cardiac preparations. J Aliment Pharmacol Therap 1988;2:101-118.
Hiki, N. [Peppermint oil reduces gastric motility during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy]. Nihon Rinsho 2010;68(11):2126-2134. View abstract.
Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Hasunuma, T., Nakamura, M., Nomura, S., Yahagi, N., Tajiri, H., and Suzuki, H. A phase I study evaluating tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of L-menthol in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011;90(2):221-228. View abstract.
Hills, J. M. and Aaronson, P. I. The mechanism of action of peppermint oil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. An analysis using patch clamp electrophysiology and isolated tissue pharmacology in rabbit and guinea pig. Gastroenterology 1991;101(1):55-65. View abstract.
Hitz, Lindenmuller, I and Lambrecht, J. T. Oral care. Curr Probl.Dermatol 2011;40:107-115. View abstract.
Ho, C. and Spence, C. Olfactory facilitation of dual-task performance. Neurosci.Lett. 11-25-2005;389(1):35-40. View abstract.
Inamori, M., Akiyama, T., Akimoto, K., Fujita, K., Takahashi, H., Yoneda, M., Abe, Y., Kubota, K., Saito, S., Ueno, N., and Nakajima, A. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system). J Gastroenterol 2007;42(7):539-542. View abstract.
Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath. Nippon Ishinkin.Gakkai Zasshi 2007;48(1):27-36. View abstract.
Jadad, A. R., Moore, R. A., Carroll, D., Jenkinson, C., Reynolds, D. J., Gavaghan, D. J., and McQuay, H. J. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin.Trials 1996;17(1):1-12. View abstract.
Jailwala, J., Imperiale, T. F., and Kroenke, K. Pharmacologic treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 7-18-2000;133(2):136-147. View abstract.
Juni, P., Altman, D. G., and Egger, M. Systematic reviews in health care: Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials. BMJ 7-7-2001;323(7303):42-46. View abstract.
Kaffenberger, R. M. and Doyle, M. J. Determination of menthol and menthol glucuronide in human urine by gas chromatography using an enzyme-sensitive internal standard and flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr. 4-27-1990;527(1):59-66. View abstract.
Kalavala, M., Hughes, T. M., Goodwin, R. G., Anstey, A. V., and Stone, N. M. Allergic contact dermatitis to peppermint foot spray. Contact Dermatitis 2007;57(1):57-58. View abstract.
Katikova, O. I., Kostin, IaV, and Tishkin, V. S. [Hepatoprotective effect of plant preparations]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2002;65(1):41-43. View abstract.
Katikova, O. I., Kostin, IaV, Iagudina, R. I., and Tishkin, V. S. [Effect of plant preparations on lipid peroxidation parameters in acute toxic hepatitis]. Vopr.Med Khim. 2001;47(6):593-598. View abstract.
Khan, M. S., Zahin, M., Hasan, S., Husain, F. M., and Ahmad, I. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2009;49(3):354-360. View abstract.
Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, and et al. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind crossover study. J.Gastroenterol Hepatol 1988;3(3):235-238.
Lech, Y., Olesen, K. M., Hey, H., Rask-Pedersen, E., Vilien, M., and Ostergaard, O. [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. A double- blind study with a placebo]. Ugeskr.Laeger 10-3-1988;150(40):2388-2389. View abstract.
LEMLI, J. A. The occurrence of menthofuran in oil of peppermint. J Pharm Pharmacol 1957;9(2):113-117. View abstract.
Lim, W. C., Seo, J. M., Lee, C. I., Pyo, H. B., and Lee, B. C. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice. Arch.Pharm Res 2005;28(7):770-774. View abstract.
Lindemann, J., Tsakiropoulou, E., Scheithauer, M. O., Konstantinidis, I., and Wiesmiller, K. M. Impact of menthol inhalation on nasal mucosal temperature and nasal patency. Am J Rhinol. 2008;22(4):402-405. View abstract.
Lis-Balchin, M., Steyrl, H., and Krenn, E. The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system. Phytother.Res 2003;17(1):60-65. View abstract.
Logan, A. C. and Beaulne, T. M. The treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth with enteric- coated peppermint oil: A case report. Altern Med Rev 2002;7(5):410-417. View abstract.
Mabrouk, S. S. and El Shayeb, N. M. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(5):344-347. View abstract.
Mahmoud, S. S. and Croteau, R. B. Menthofuran regulates essential oil biosynthesis in peppermint by controlling a downstream monoterpene reductase. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 11-25-2003;100(24):14481-14486. View abstract.
Marciani, L., Foley, S., Hoad, C. L., Campbell, E., Totman, J. J., and Cox, E. Accelerated small bowel transit and contracted transverse colon in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowle syndrome (IBS-D): novel insights from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gastroenterology 2007;132 (suppl 1):A141.
Mascher, H., Kikuta, C., and Schiel, H. Pharmacokinetics of menthol and carvone after administration of an enteric coated formulation containing peppermint oil and caraway oil. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51(6):465-469. View abstract.
McKay, D. L. and Blumberg, J. B. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother.Res 2006;20(8):619-633. View abstract.
Merat, S., Khalili, S., Mostajabi, P., Ghorbani, A., Ansari, R., and Malekzadeh, R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2010;55(5):1385-1390. View abstract.
Micklefield, G., Jung, O., Greving, I., and May, B. Effects of intraduodenal application of peppermint oil (WS(R) 1340) and caraway oil (WS(R) 1520) on gastroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. Phytother.Res 2003;17(2):135-140. View abstract.
Mimica-Dukic, N., Bozin, B., Sokovic, M., Mihajlovic, B., and Matavulj, M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils. Planta Med 2003;69(5):413-419. View abstract.
Moher, D., Cook, D. J., Eastwood, S., Olkin, I., Rennie, D., and Stroup, D. F. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet 11-27-1999;354(9193):1896-1900. View abstract.
Mohsenzadeh, M. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 10-15-2007;10(20):3693-3697. View abstract.
Naito, K., Komori, M., Kondo, Y., Takeuchi, M., and Iwata, S. The effect of L-menthol stimulation of the major palatine nerve on subjective and objective nasal patency. Auris Nasus Larynx 1997;24(2):159-162. View abstract.
Naito, K., Ohoka, E., Kato, R., Kondo, Y., and Iwata, S. The effect of L-menthol stimulation of the major palatine nerve on nasal patency. Auris Nasus Larynx 1991;18(3):221-226. View abstract.
Nishino, T., Tagaito, Y., and Sakurai, Y. Nasal inhalation of l-menthol reduces respiratory discomfort associated with loaded breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156(1):309-313. View abstract.
Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., and Schnitzler, P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med 2006;72(15):1378-1382. View abstract.
Norrish, M. I. and Dwyer, K. L. Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on an objective measure of daytime sleepiness. Int J Psychophysiol. 2005;55(3):291-298. View abstract.
Parys, B. T. Chemical burns resulting from contact with peppermint oil mar: a case report. Burns Incl.Therm.Inj. 1983;9(5):374-375. View abstract.
Pattnaik, S., Rath, C., and Subramanyam, V. R. Characterization of resistance to essential oils in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VR-6). Microbios 1995;81(326):29-31. View abstract.
Rafii, F. and Shahverdi, A. R. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy 2007;53(1):21-25. View abstract.
Rahimi, R. and Abdollahi, M. Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive review. World J Gastroenterol. 2-21-2012;18(7):589-600. View abstract.
Rai, M. K. and Upadhyay, S. Laboratory evaluation of essential oil of Mentha piperita Linn. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Hindustan Antibiot.Bull. 1988;30(3-4):82-84. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M. and Kumar, A. Mentha piperita (Linn.) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(3):229-237. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M. and Kumar, A. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by plant extract Mentha piperita (Linn.). J Radiat.Res (Tokyo) 2003;44(2):101-109. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M. and Samarth, M. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.). Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104(4):329-334. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M. Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn). J Radiat.Res (Tokyo) 2007;48(6):523-528. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Goyal, P. K., and Kumar, A. Modulation of serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita Linn. Phytother.Res 2002;16(6):586-589. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Goyal, P. K., and Kumar, A. Modulatory effect of Mentha piperita (Linn.) on serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39(5):479-482. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Goyal, P. K., and Kumar, A. Protection of swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita (Linn.). Phytother.Res 2004;18(7):546-550. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Panwar, M., and Kumar, A. Modulatory effects of Mentha piperita on lung tumor incidence, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress in benzo[a]pyrene-treated Swiss albino mice. Environ.Mol.Mutagen. 2006;47(3):192-198. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Panwar, M., Kumar, M., and Kumar, A. Protective effects of Mentha piperita Linn on benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in Swiss albino mice. Mutagenesis 2006;21(1):61-66. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Panwar, M., Kumar, M., and Kumar, A. Radioprotective influence of Mentha piperita (Linn) against gamma irradiation in mice: Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Int J Radiat.Biol. 2006;82(5):331-337. View abstract.
Samarth, R. M., Saini, M. R., Maharwal, J., Dhaka, A., and Kumar, A. Mentha piperita (Linn) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40(11):1245-1249. View abstract.
Sandasi, M., Leonard, C. M., and Viljoen, A. M. The in vitro antibiofilm activity of selected culinary herbs and medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2010;50(1):30-35. View abstract.
Satsu, H., Matsuda, T., Toshimitsu, T., Mori, A., Mae, T., Tsukagawa, M., Kitahara, M., and Shimizu, M. Regulation of interleukin-8 secretion in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells by alpha-humulene. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):137-139. View abstract.
Schelz, Z., Molnar, J., and Hohmann, J. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia 2006;77(4):279-285. View abstract.
Schmidt, E., Bail, S., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Atanasova, T., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., and Jirovetz, L. Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4(8):1107-1112. View abstract.
Schuhmacher, A., Reichling, J., and Schnitzler, P. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-510. View abstract.
Sharma, A., Sharma, M. K., and Kumar, M. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;100(4):249-257. View abstract.
Shayegh, S., Rasooli, I., Taghizadeh, M., and Astaneh, S. D. Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque. Nat Prod Res 3-20-2008;22(5):428-439. View abstract.
Spirling, L. I. and Daniels, I. R. Botanical perspectives on health peppermint: more than just an after-dinner mint. J R.Soc.Promot.Health 2001;121(1):62-63. View abstract.
Sroka, Z., Fecka, I., and Cisowski, W. Antiradical and anti-H2O2 properties of polyphenolic compounds from an aqueous peppermint extract. Z Naturforsch.C. 2005;60(11-12):826-832. View abstract.
Suares, N. C. and Ford, A. C. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Discov.Med. 2011;11(60):425-433. View abstract.
Tamir, S., Davidovich, Z., Attal, P., and Eliashar, R. Peppermint oil chemical burn. Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 2005;133(5):801-802. View abstract.
Tampieri, M. P., Galuppi, R., Macchioni, F., Carelle, M. S., Falcioni, L., Cioni, P. L., and Morelli, I. The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components. Mycopathologia 2005;159(3):339-345. View abstract.
Taylor B, Luscombe D, and Duthie H. Inhibitory effect of peppermint oil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Gut 1983;24:A992.
Tran, A., Pratt, M., and DeKoven, J. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm. Dermatitis 2010;21(2):111-115. View abstract.
Trinkley, K. E. and Nahata, M. C. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. J.Clin.Pharm.Ther. 2011;36(3):275-282. View abstract.
Umezu, T. and Morita, M. Evidence for the involvement of dopamine in ambulation promoted by menthol in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;91(2):125-135. View abstract.
Umezu, T. Evidence for dopamine involvement in ambulation promoted by menthone in mice. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2009;91(3):315-320. View abstract.
Umezu, T. Evidence for dopamine involvement in ambulation promoted by pulegone in mice. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2010;94(4):497-502. View abstract.
Umezu, T., Sakata, A., and Ito, H. Ambulation-promoting effect of peppermint oil and identification of its active constituents. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2001;69(3-4):383-390. View abstract.
van Vuuren, S. F., Suliman, S., and Viljoen, A. M. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2009;48(4):440-446. View abstract.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J., Talley, N. J., Bytzer, P., Klein, K. B., Whorwell, P. J., and Zinsmeister, A. R. Design of treatment trials for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut 1999;45 Suppl 2:II69-II77. View abstract.
Vermaat, H., van Meurs, T., Rustemeyer, T., Bruynzeel, D. P., and Kirtschig, G. Vulval allergic contact dermatitis due to peppermint oil in herbal tea. Contact Dermatitis 2008;58(6):364-365. View abstract.
Vidal, F., Vidal, J. C., Gadelha, A. P., Lopes, C. S., Coelho, M. G., and Monteiro-Leal, L. H. Giardia lamblia: the effects of extracts and fractions from Mentha x piperita Lin. (Lamiaceae) on trophozoites. Exp Parasitol. 2007;115(1):25-31. View abstract.
White DA, Thompson SP, Wilson CG, and et al. A pharmacokinetic comparison of two delayed-release peppermint oil preparations, Colpermin and Mintec, for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Pharm 1987;40:151-155.
Wilkins, T., Pepitone, C., Alex, B., and Schade, R. R. Diagnosis and management of IBS in adults. Am Fam.Physician 9-1-2012;86(5):419-426. View abstract.
Yadegarinia, D., Gachkar, L., Rezaei, M. B., Taghizadeh, M., Astaneh, S. A., and Rasooli, I. Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils. Phytochemistry 2006;67(12):1249-1255. View abstract.
Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol.Pharm Bull 1998;21(8):829-833. View abstract.
Yigit, D., Yigit, N., and Ozgen, U. An investigation on the anticandidal activity of some traditional medicinal plants in Turkey. Mycoses 2009;52(2):135-140. View abstract.
102601 Akbari F, Rezaei M, Khatony A. Effect of peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization in cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial. J Pain Res. 2019;12:2933-2939. View abstract.
Ahmadi Y, Rezaei J, Rezaei M, Khatony A. Comparison of the Effect of Inhalation Aromatherapy with 10% and 30% Peppermint Essential Oils on the Severity of Nausea in Abdominal Surgery Patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020;2020:5897465. View abstract.
Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Aydin G, Gokalp O. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2004;23:21-8. View abstract.
Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Kocak A, et al. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats. Urology 2004;64:394-8. View abstract.
Akdogan, M., Gultekin, F., and Yontem, M. Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats. Toxicol Ind Health 2004;20(6-10):119-122. View abstract.
Akhavan Amjadi M, Mojab F, Kamranpour SB. The effect of peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of pruritus in pregnant women. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012 Fall;11(4):1073-7. View abstract.
Alammar N, Wang L, Saberi B, et al. The impact of peppermint oil on the irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of the pooled clinical data. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19(1):21. View abstract.
Anderson LA, Gross JB. Aromatherapy with peppermint, isopropyl alcohol, or placebo is equally effective in relieving postoperative nausea. J Perianesth Nurs 2004;19:29-35. View abstract.
Ardakani MT, Ghassemi S, Mehdizadeh M, et al. Evaluating the effect of Matricaria recutita and Mentha piperita herbal mouthwash on management of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med 2016;29:29-34. View abstract.
Asao T, Kuwano H, IDE M, et al. Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan. Clin Radiol 2003;58:301-5. View abstract.
Asao, T., Mochiki, E., Suzuki, H., Nakamura, J., Hirayama, I., Morinaga, N., Shoji, H., Shitara, Y., and Kuwano, H. An easy method for the intraluminal administration of peppermint oil before colonoscopy and its effectiveness in reducing colonic spasm. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;53(2):172-177. View abstract.
Aziz M, Sharma S, Ghazaleh S, et al. The anti-spasmodic effect of peppermint oil during colonoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2020. View abstract.
Babamohamadi H, Ansari Z, Nobahar M, Mirmohammadkhani M. The effects of peppermint gel on prevention of pressure injury in hospitalized patients with head trauma in neurosurgical ICU: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102223. View abstract.
Barker, S., Grayhem, P., Koon, J., Perkins, J., Whalen, A., and Raudenbush, B. Improved performance on clerical tasks associated with administration of peppermint odor. Percept Mot Skills 2003;97(3 Pt 1):1007-1010. View abstract.
Barnick CG and Cardozo LD. The treatment of abdominal distension and dyspepsia with enteric coated peppermint oil following routine gynaecological intraperitoneal surgery. J Obstet Gynecol 1990;10(5):423-424.
Bayat R, Borici-Mazi R. A case of anaphylaxis to peppermint. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2014;10(1):6. View abstract.
Beesley A, Hardcastle J, Hardcastle PT, Taylor CJ. Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory processes in rat small intestine. Gut 1996;39:214-9. View abstract.
Begas E, Tsioutsiouliti A, Kouvaras E, et al. Effects of peppermint tea consumption on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, Xanthine Oxidase, N-acetyltranferase-2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases-1A1/1A6 in healthy volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol 2017;100:80-9. View abstract.
Brown K, Scott-Hoy B, Jennings LW. Response of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients administered a combined quebracho/conker tree/M. balsamea Willd extract. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2016 August 6; 7(3): 463-468. View abstract.
Brown K, Scott-Hoy B, Jennings. Efficacy of a Quebracho, Conker Tree, and M. balsamea Willd blended extract in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. J Gasterenterol Hepatol Res 2015; 4: 1762-1767.
Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51. View abstract.
Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis 2007;39:530-6. View abstract.
Carling L, Svedberg L, and Hultsen S. Short term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyamine. Opuscula Med 1989;34:55-57.
Cash BD, Epstein MS, Shah SM. A Novel Delivery System of Peppermint Oil Is an Effective Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms. Dig Dis Sci 2016;61(2):560-71. View abstract.
Davies SJ, Harding LM, Baranowski AP. A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil. Clin J Pain 2002;18:200-2. View abstract.
Dew MJ, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Peppermint oil for the irritable bowel syndrome: a multicentre trial. Br J Clin Pract 1984;38:394, 398. View abstract.
Douros A, Bronder E, Andersohn F, et al. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17(1). View abstract.
Dresser GK, Wacher V, Wong S, et al. Evaluation of peppermint oil and ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:247-55. View abstract.
Dyer, J., Ashley, S., and Shaw, C. A study to look at the effects of a hydrolat spray on hot flushes in women being treated for breast cancer. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2008;14(4):273-279. View abstract.
Efe Ertürk N, Tasci S. The effects of peppermint oil on nausea, vomiting and retching in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: An open label quasi-randomized controlled pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2021;56:102587. View abstract.
Elsaie LT, El Mohsen AM, Ibrahim IM, Mohey-Eddin MH, Elsaie ML. Effectiveness of topical peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2016;9:333-8. View abstract.
Enck, P., Junne, F., Klosterhalfen, S., Zipfel, S., and Martens, U. Therapy options in irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;22(12):1402-1411. View abstract.
Evans BK, Levine DF, Mayberry JF, and et al. Multicentre trial of peppermint oil capsules in irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982;17:503.
Gobel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, et al. [Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type]. Nervenarzt 1996;67:672-81. View abstract.
Gobel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters. Cephalalgia 1994;14:228-34;discussion 182. View abstract.
Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome. Phytomedicine 2005;12:601-6. View abstract.
Hamzeh S, Safari-Faramani R, Khatony A. Effects of Aromatherapy with Lavender and Peppermint Essential Oils on the Sleep Quality of Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020;2020:7480204. View abstract.
Han JY, Moosvi Z, Duh E, Park S, Albers GC, Samarasena JB, Karnes W. Oral IBGard Before Colonoscopy: A Single-Center Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2020. View abstract.
Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Yasuda, K., Uedo, N., Kobari, M., Sakai, T., Hiratsuka, T., Ohno, K., Honjo, H., Nomura, S., Yahagi, N., Tajiri, H., and Suzuki, H. Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Dig Endosc 2012;24(2):79-86. View abstract.
Hiki, N., Kurosaka, H., Tatsutomi, Y., Shimoyama, S., Tsuji, E., Kojima, J., Shimizu, N., Ono, H., Hirooka, T., Noguchi, C., Mafune, K., and Kaminishi, M. Peppermint oil reduces gastric spasm during upper endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57(4):475-482. View abstract.
Hines, S., Steels, E., Chang, A., and Gibbons, K. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;4:CD007598. View abstract.
Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
Hunt R, Dienemann J, Norton HJ, Hartley W, Hudgens A, Stern T, Divine G. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial. Anesth Analg 2013;117(3):597-604. View abstract.
Hur MH, Park J, Maddock-Jennings W, Kim DO and Lee MS. Reduction of mouth malodour and volatile sulphur compounds in intensive care patients using an essential oil mouthwash. Phytother Res 2007;21(7):641-643. View abstract.
Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 1999;81:289-95. View abstract.
Ilmberger, J., Heuberger, E., Mahrhofer, C., Dessovic, H., Kowarik, D., and Buchbauer, G. The influence of essential oils on human attention. I: alertness. Chem Senses 2001;26(3):239-245. View abstract.
Imagawa A, Hata H, Nakatsu M, et al. Peppermint oil solution is useful as an antispasmodic drug for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, especially for elderly patients. Dig Dis Sci 2012;57:2379-84. View abstract.
Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C. Antiallergic effect of flavonoid glycosides obtained from Mentha piperita L. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:256-9. View abstract.
Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C. Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24:92-5. View abstract.
Iscan G, Kirimer N, Kurkcuoglu M, et al. Antimicrobial screening of Mentha piperita essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:3943-6. View abstract.
Jafarimanesh H, Akbari M, Hoseinian R, Zarei M, Harorani M. The effect of peppermint (Mentha piperita) extract on the severity of nausea, vomiting and anorexia in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2020;19:1534735420967084. View abstract.
Kligler B, Chaudhary S. Peppermint oil. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(7):1027-30. View abstract.
Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, Barbero GJ. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr 2001;138:125-8. View abstract.
Lacy BE, Pimentel M, Brenner DM, et al. ACG clinical guideline: Management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021;116(1):17-44. View abstract.
Lane, B., Cannella, K., Bowen, C., Copelan, D., Nteff, G., Barnes, K., Poudevigne, M., and Lawson, J. Examination of the effectiveness of peppermint aromatherapy on nausea in women post C-section. J Holist Nurs 2012;30(2):90-104. View abstract.
Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, et al. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1988;3:235-8.
Leicester RJ, Hunt RH. Peppermint oil to reduce colonic spasm during endoscopy. Lancet 1982;2:989. View abstract.
Li J, Lv L, Zhang J, et al. A combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:7654947. View abstract.
Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol 1997;32:765-8. View abstract.
Madisch A, Heydenreich CJ, Wieland V, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination preparation as compared to cisapride. A multicenter, reference-controlled, double-blind equivalence study. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:925-32. View abstract.
Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52. View abstract.
Maghami M, Afazel MR, Azizi-Fini I, Maghami M. The effect of aromatherapy with peppermint essential oil on nausea and vomiting after cardiac surgery: A randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020;40:101199. View abstract.
Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:1323-9. View abstract.
Mannucci C, Navarra M, Calapai F, Squeri R, Gangemi S, Calapai G. Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review. Phytother Res 2017;31(1):27-39. View abstract.
Mapp CP, Hostetler D, Sable JF, et al. Peppermint oil: Evaluating efficacy on nausea in patients receiving chemotherapy in the ambulatory setting. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2020;24(2):160-164. View abstract.
Masoumi SZ, Asl HR, Poorolajal J, Panah MH, Oliaei SR. Evaluation of mint efficacy regarding dysmenorrhea in comparison with mefenamic acid: A double blinded randomized crossover study. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2016;21(4):363-7. View abstract.
May B, Kohler S, Schneider B. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1671-7. View abstract.
May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:1149-53. View abstract.
Melli, M. S., Rashidi, M. R., Nokhoodchi, A., Tagavi, S., Farzadi, L., Sadaghat, K., Tahmasebi, Z., and Sheshvan, M. K. A randomized trial of peppermint gel, lanolin ointment, and placebo gel to prevent nipple crack in primiparous breastfeeding women. Med Sci Monit 2007;13(9):CR406-CR411. View abstract.
Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87. View abstract.
Micklefield GH, Greving I, May B. Effects of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastroduodenal motility. Phytother Res 2000;14:20-3. View abstract.
Mizuno S, Kato K, Ono Y, et al. Oral peppermint oil is a useful antispasmodic for double-contrast barium meal examination. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;21:1297-301. View abstract.
Moghadam BK, Gier R, and Thurlow T. Extensive oral mucosal ulcerations caused by misuse of a commercial mouthwash. Cutis 1999;64:131-134. View abstract.
Morton CA, Garioch J, Todd P, et al. Contact sensitivity to menthol and peppermint in patients with intra-oral symptoms. Contact Dermatitis 1995;32:281-4. View abstract.
Moss, M., Hewitt, S., Moss, L., and Wesnes, K. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Int J Neurosci 2008;118(1):59-77. View abstract.
Mutluay Yayla E, Izgu N, Ozdemir L, Aslan Erdem S, Kartal M. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study. Complement Ther Med 2016;27:58-64. View abstract.
Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water. Int J Toxicol 2001;20:61-73. View abstract.
Nash P, Gould SR, Bernardo DE. Peppermint oil does not relieve the pain of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Clin Pract 1986;40:292-3. View abstract.
Nolen HW 3rd, Friend DR. Menthol-beta-D-glucuronide: a potential prodrug for treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. Pharm Res 1994;11:1707-11. View abstract.
Park, M. K. and Lee, E. S. [The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004;34(2):344-351. View abstract.
Pimentel M, Bonorris GG, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Peppermint oil improves the manometric findings in diffuse esophageal spasm. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001;33:27-31. View abstract.
Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:1131-5. View abstract.
Rafieian-Kopaei M, Hasanpour-Dehkordi A, Lorigooini Z, Deris F, Solati K, Mahdiyeh F. Comparing the effect of intranasal lidocaine 4% with peppermint essential oil drop 1.5% on migraine attacks: A double-blind clinical trial. Int J Prev Med. 2019;10:121. View abstract.
Ramsewak RS, Nair MG, Stommel M, Selanders L. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens. Phytother Res 2003;17:376-9.. View abstract.
Rees WD, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. Br Med J 1979;2:835-6. View abstract.
Rhodes J, Evans BK, and Rees WD. Peppermint oil in enteric coated capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind controlled trial. Hepato-Gastroenterology 1980;27(Suppl):252.
Rich G, Shah A, Koloski N, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of Menthacarin, a proprietary peppermint- and caraway-oil-preparation, on symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017;29(11). View abstract.
Rogers SN, Pahor AL. A form of stomatitis induced by excessive peppermint consumption. Dent Update 1995;22:36-7. View abstract.
Ruepert, L., Quartero, A. O., de Wit, N. J., van der Heijden, G. J., Rubin, G., and Muris, J. W. Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(8):CD003460. View abstract.
Safajou F, Soltani N, Taghizadeh M, Amouzeshi Z, Sandrous M. The effect of combined inhalation aromatherapy with lemon and peppermint on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2020;25(5):401-406. View abstract.
Sagduyu K. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatics 2002;43:508-9. View abstract.
Sayyah, M., Melli, M., Rashidi, M. R., Delazar, A., Madarek, E., Kargar Maher, M. H., Ghasemzadeh, A., Sadaghat, K., and Tahmasebi, Z. Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial. Int Breastfeed J 2007;2:7. View abstract.
Schneider MM and Otten MH. Efficacy of colpermin in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (abstract). Gastroenterology 1990;98(5):A389.
Shanazi M, Farshbaf Khalili A, Kamalifard M, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Masoudin K, Esmaeli F. Comparison of the Effects of Lanolin, Peppermint, and Dexpanthenol Creams on Treatment of Traumatic Nipples in Breastfeeding Mothers. J Caring Sci 2015;4(4):297-307. View abstract.
Shavakhi, A., Ardestani, S. K., Taki, M., Goli, M., and Keshteli, A. H. Premedication with peppermint oil capsules in colonoscopy: a double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial study. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2012;75(3):349-353. View abstract.
Shaw, G., Srivastava, E. D., Sadlier, M., Swann, P., James, J. Y., and Rhodes, J. Stress management for irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled trial. Digestion 1991;50(1):36-42. View abstract.
Singh, A., Daing, A., and Dixit, J. The effect of herbal, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthrinse on de novo plaque formation. Int J Dent Hyg 2013;11(1):48-52. View abstract.
Sites DS, Johnson NT, Miller JA, Torbush PH, Hardin JS, Knowles SS, Nance J, Fox TH, Tart RC. Controlled breathing with or without peppermint aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting symptom relief: a randomized controlled trial. J Perianesth Nurs. 2014 Feb;29(1):12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jopan.2013.09.008. View abstract.
Somerville KW, Richmond CR, Bell GD. Delayed release peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) for the spastic colon syndrome: a pharmacokinetic study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984;18:638-40. View abstract.
Sparks MJ, O'Sullivan P, Herrington AA, Morcos SK. Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema? Br J Radiol 1995;68:841-3. View abstract.
Storr M, Sibaev A, Weiser D, et al. Herbal extracts modulate the amplitude and frequency of slow waves in circular smooth muscle of mouse small intestine. Digestion 2004;70:257-64. View abstract.
Stringer, J. and Donald, G. Aromasticks in cancer care: an innovation not to be sniffed at. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2011;17(2):116-121. View abstract.
Tate S. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea. J Adv Nurs 1997;26:543-9. View abstract.
Unger M, Frank A. Simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2004;18:2273-81. View abstract.
Wacher VJ, Wong S, Wong HT. Peppermint oil enhances cyclosporine oral bioavailability in rats: comparison with D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS) and ketoconazole. J Pharm Sci 2002;91:77-90. View abstract.
Weerts ZZRM, Masclee AAM, Witteman BJM, et al. Efficacy and safety of peppermint oil in a randomized, double-blind trial of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(1):123-136. View abstract.
Weston CF. Anal burning and peppermint oil. Postgrad Med J 1987;63:717. View abstract.
Wu J, Xu R, Zhan R, et al. Effective symptomatic treatment for severe and intractable pruritus associated with severe burn-induced hypertrophic scars: A prospective, multicenter, controlled trial. Burns 2016;42(5):1059-66. View abstract.
Yamamoto, N., Nakai, Y., Sasahira, N., Hirano, K., Tsujino, T., Isayama, H., Komatsu, Y., Tada, M., Yoshida, H., Kawabe, T., Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Kurosaka, H., and Omata, M. Efficacy of peppermint oil as an antispasmodic during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;21(9):1394-1398. View abstract.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.