JUNIPER

OTHER NAME(S):

Aarar, Arar, Abahal, Abhal, Baie de Genévrier, Common Juniper, Enebro, Extract of Juniper, Extrait de Genévrier, Genévrier, Genévrier Commun, Genievre, Genièvre, Ginepro, Habbul, Hapusha, Havuber, Havubair, Havulber, Havusa, Hayusha, Hosh, Huile de Baies de Genévrier, Huile de Genévrier, Juniper Berry, Juniper Berry Oil, Juniper Extract, Juniper Oil, Juniperi Fructus, Juniperus communis, Matsyagandha, Oil of Juniper, Padma Beeja, Palash, Wacholderbeeren, Zimbro.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Juniper is a tree that grows wild in some parts of Europe, North America, and Asia. There are many varieties of juniper, but Juniperus communis is the most common in North America.

Don't confuse juniper berry oil with cade oil, which is distilled from juniper wood (Juniperus oxycedrus).

Some people take juniper by mouth for problems with digestion, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and kidney and bladder stones along with many other conditions. Some people apply juniper directly to the skin for wounds and pain in joints and muscles. But there is limited scientific research to support any of these uses.

In foods, juniper berry is often used as a condiment. The extract, oil, and berry are used as flavoring ingredients in foods and beverages.

In manufacturing, juniper extract and oil are used as fragrances in soaps and cosmetics.

How does it work?

Juniper berries contain chemicals that might decrease swelling. It might also be effective in fighting bacteria and viruses. Juniper might also increase the need to urinate.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of juniper for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Juniper, juniper berry, and juniper extract are LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts normally found in foods.

Juniper is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts short-term, when inhaled appropriately as a vapor, or when applied to the skin in small areas. Using juniper on the skin can cause some side effects including irritation, burning, redness, and swelling.

Taking juniper by mouth long-term or in a high dose is LIKELY UNSAFE as it can cause kidney problems, seizures, and other serious side effects. Applying juniper oil directly to the skin in large areas or applying it to skin that is damaged is also LIKELY UNSAFE.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's UNSAFE to use juniper if you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. Juniper's effects on the uterus might interfere with fertility or cause a miscarriage. It's also best to avoid using juniper if you are breast-feeding. Not enough is known about how juniper might affect a nursing infant.

Diabetes: Juniper berry might lower blood sugar. There is some concern that it might lower blood sugar too much in people with diabetes.

Stomach and intestinal disorders: Juniper berry might irritate the stomach and intestines, making disorders in these organs worse.

High blood pressure, low blood pressure: Juniper berry might affect blood pressure and could make blood pressure control more difficult.

Surgery: Juniper might affect blood sugar levels, making blood sugar control more difficult during and after surgery. Stop using juniper at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with JUNIPER

    Juniper might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking juniper along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br><nb>Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with JUNIPER

    Juniper seems to work like "water pills" by causing the body to lose water. Taking juniper along with other "water pills" might cause the body to lose too much water. Losing too much water can cause you to be dizzy and your blood pressure to go too low.<br><nb>Some "water pills" include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril, Microzide), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of juniper depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for juniper. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Adams, R. P. Systematics of Juniperus section Juniperus based on leaf essential oils and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Biochem.Syst.Ecol. 7-1-2000;28(6):515-528. View abstract.
  • Gardner, D. R., Panter, K. E., James, L. F., and Stegelmeier, B. L. Abortifacient effects of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and common juniper (Juniperus communis) on cattle. Vet.Hum.Toxicol. 1998;40(5):260-263. View abstract.
  • Grainger Bisset, N. Max Wichtl herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals a handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 2000.
  • Janku, I., Hava, M., and Motl, O. [Diuretic substance from juniper (Juniperus communis L.)]. Experientia 6-15-1957;13(6):255-256. View abstract.
  • Lasheras B and et al. Etude pharmacologique preliminaire de Prunus spinosa L. Amelanchier ovalis Medikus, Juniperus communis L. et Urtica dioica L. Plant Med Phytother 1986;20:219-226.
  • Nakanishi, T., Iida, N., Inatomi, Y., Murata, H., Inada, A., Murata, J., Lang, F. A., Iinuma, M., and Tanaka, T. Neolignan and flavonoid glycosides in Juniperus communis var. depressa. Phytochemistry 2004;65(2):207-213. View abstract.
  • Stanic, G, Samarzija, I, and Blazevic, N. Time-dependent diuretic response in rats treated with juniper berry preparations. Phytother Res 1998;12:494-497.
  • Anon. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract. Int J Toxicol 2001;20:41-56. View abstract.
  • Bais S, Gill NS, Rana N, Shandil S. A phytopharmacological review on a medicinal plant: Juniperus communis. Int Sch Res Notices 2014;2014:634723. View abstract.
  • Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Filipowicz N, Kaminski M, Kurlenda J, et al. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected components. Phytother Res 2003;17:227-31. View abstract.
  • Mascolo N, Autore G, Capassa F, et al. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res 1987:28-31.
  • Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  • Sanchez de Medina F, Gamez MJ, Jimenez I, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of juniper "berries." Planta Med 1994;60:197-200. View abstract.
  • Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Bailey CJ, Flatt PR. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetologia 1990;33:462-4. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.