3-({3-[(4-Aminobutyl)amino]propyl}amino)-7-hydroxycholestan-24-yl Hydrogen Sulfate, Escualamina.<br/><br/>


Overview Information

Squalamine is a chemical. It can be found in the stomach and liver of the spiny dogfish shark. Squalamine can also be made in the laboratory.

People take squalamine as an antibiotic to fight bacterial infections.

Squalamine is applied to the scalp for a type of ringworm. It is also used as an eye drop for an eye disorder called retinal vein occlusion.

Squalamine is injected into the vein for cancer and for an eye disorder called age-related macular degeneration.

Don’t confuse squalamine with shark cartilage, which is prepared from the cartilage of spiny dogfish shark, hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and other shark species. Also, don’t confuse squalamine with oil made from shark liver.

How does it work?

Squalamine is thought to prevent growth of bacteria that cause infections. It also seems to prevent the growth of new blood vessels that allow tumors to grow.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration; AMD). Early research shows injecting squalamine in the vein might help people with AMD see better.
  • Lung cancer. Early research shows that injecting squalamine in the vein along with certain cancer medications might reduce tumor size and help patients live slightly longer.
  • Blocked veins in the eye (retinal vein occlusion). Early research shows that using squalamine eye drops might help people with blocked veins in the eye see better.
  • Scalp ringworm. Early research shows that applying a lotion containing squalamine to the scalp does not cure scalp ringworm. But it might help the hair grow faster.
  • Other types of cancer.
  • Infections, when taken by mouth or applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of squalamine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Squalamine is POSSIBLY SAFE in adults when used as eye drops for up to 38 weeks or when injected in the vein by a health care professional. Injections of squalamine into the vein might cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, or fatigue.

It is not known if taking squalamine by mouth is safe or what the possible side effects might be.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of squalamine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Squalamine is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin, short-term, in children 6-15 years old


We currently have no information for SQUALAMINE Interactions.



The appropriate dose of squalamine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for squalamine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References


  • Bhargava P, Marshall JL, Dahut W, et al. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of squalamine, a novel antiangiogenic agent, in patients with advanced cancers. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7(12):3912-9. View abstract.
  • Coulibaly O, Thera MA, Koné AK, et al. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of squalamine ointment for tinea capitis treatment. Mycopathologia. 2015;179(3-4):187-93. View abstract.
  • Garcia CA, Quiroz-Mercado H, Uwaydat S, et al. A phase I/II trial of intravenous squalamine lactate for treatment of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 2004;45(13):2362.
  • Herbst RS, Hammond LA, Carbone DP, et al. A phase I/IIA trial of continuous five-day infusion of squalamine lactate (MSI-1256F) plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(11):4108-15. View abstract.
  • Kikuchi K, Bernard EM, Sadownik A, et al. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:1433-8. View abstract.
  • Magainin Pharmaceuticals announces new research program for anti-angiogenesis agent - Squalamine - at Georgetown Univ Med Ctr. PRNewswire. www.prnewswire.com (Accessed 22 January 2000).
  • Magainin Presents Neuroblastoma Data for Squalamine at AACR Meeting. Available at: www.prnewswire.com (Accessed 3 April 2000).
  • Moore KS, Wehrli S, Roder H, et al. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:1354-8. View abstract.
  • Rose V, Schiller J, Wood A, et al. Randomized phase II trial of weekly squalamine, carboplatin, and paclitaxel as first line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2004;22(14 suppl):7109.
  • Sills AK Jr, Williams JI, Tyler BM, et al. Squalamine inhibits angiogenesis and solid tumor growth in vivo and perturbs embryonic vasculature. Cancer Res 1998;58:2784-92. View abstract.
  • Wroblewski JJ, Hu AY. Topical squalamine 0.2% and intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg as combination therapy for macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion: An open-label, randomized study. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47(10):914-923. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.