NUTMEG AND MACE

OTHER NAME(S):

Buah Pala, Jaatipatree, Jaiphal, Jatiphal, Jatiphala, Jatiphalam, Magic, Muscade, Muscade et Macis, Muscadier, Muskatbaum, Muskatnuss, Myristica, Myristica fragrans, Myristica officinalis, Myristica Oil, Myristicae Semen, Noix de Muscade, Noix de Muscade et Macis, Nuez Moscada, Nuez Moscada y Macis,Nutmeg, Nux Moschata, Ron Dau Kou.

Overview

Overview Information

Nutmeg and mace are plant products. Nutmeg is the shelled, dried seed of the plant Myristica fragrans, and mace is the dried net-like covering of the shell of the seed. The tree grows in Indonesia, as well as several other tropical regions, such as Malaysia and the Caribbean.

Nutmeg is used for cavities in the first teeth of children and for many other conditions. But there is no good scientific evidence to support its use for any condition. Nutmeg is also sometimes used to create a "high".

In foods, nutmeg is used as a spice and flavoring.

In manufacturing, nutmeg oil is used as a fragrance in soaps and cosmetics. Nutmeg oil is distilled from worm-eaten nutmeg seeds. The worms remove much of the starch and fat, leaving the portions of the seed that are rich in oil.

How does it work?

Nutmeg and mace contain chemicals that might affect the central nervous system. Nutmeg and mace might also kill bacteria and fungi.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Cavities. In children with cavities in their baby teeth, sometimes a dentist will scoop out the inside of the tooth where it is rotting. This helps to save the tooth until it falls out on its own. Usually a compound called formocresol is then put in the tooth. Early research shows that applying a gel containing nutmeg extract helps to prevent pain, swelling, and root problems over 12 months just as well as formocresol.
  • Anxiety.
  • Arthritis.
  • Cancer.
  • Cholera.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Intestinal gas.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Insomnia.
  • Nausea.
  • Producing hallucinations.
  • A mental disorder marked by hallucinations and delusion (psychosis).
  • Stomach problems.
  • Swelling (inflammation).
  • Pain, when applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of nutmeg and mace for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Nutmeg is LIKELY SAFE when used in amounts commonly found in foods. But nutmeg is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in doses larger than amounts found in foods and for long periods of time. Long-term use of nutmeg in doses of 120 mg or more daily has been linked to hallucinations and other mental side effects. People who have taken larger doses of nutmeg have experienced nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, agitation and hallucinations. Other serious side effects have included death.

When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information available to know if nutmeg is safe or what the side effects might be.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Nutmeg is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in doses larger than amounts found in foods when pregnant. It might cause miscarriages or birth defects. There isn't enough reliable information to know if nutmeg is safe to use in doses larger than amounts found in foods when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick with food amounts.

Infertility: Early research suggests that taking high doses might reduce fertility in men. Avoid nutmeg if you are trying to have a baby.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) substrates) interacts with NUTMEG AND MACE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Nutmeg and mace might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking nutmeg and mace along with some medications that are changed by the liver can lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking nutmeg and mace talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include chlorzoxazone, theophylline, bufuralol, and others.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with NUTMEG AND MACE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Nutmeg and mace might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking nutmeg and mace along with some medications that are changed by the liver can lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking nutmeg and mace talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) substrates) interacts with NUTMEG AND MACE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Nutmeg and mace might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking nutmeg and mace along with some medications that are changed by the liver can lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking nutmeg and mace talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B2 (CYP2B2) substrates) interacts with NUTMEG AND MACE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Taking nutmeg and mace along with some medications that are changed by the liver can lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking nutmeg and mace talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

  • Phenobarbital (Luminal) interacts with NUTMEG AND MACE

    The body breaks down phenobarbital (Luminal) to get rid of it. Nutmeg and mace might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenobarbital (luminal). Taking nutmeg and mace along with phenobarbital (luminal) might decrease the effectiveness of phenobarbital (Luminal).

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of nutmeg and mace depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for nutmeg and mace. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Chung, J. Y., Choo, J. H., Lee, M. H., and Hwang, J. K. Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans. Phytomedicine 2006;13(4):261-266. View abstract.
  • Culikova, V. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds). Acta Univ Carol.Med (Praha) 2000;41(1-4):105-118. View abstract.
  • Kresanek, J., Plackova, S., Caganova, B., and Klobusicka, Z. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic. Przegl.Lek. 2005;62(6):357-360. View abstract.
  • Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B. M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother.Res 2005;19(11):988-991. View abstract.
  • O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.
  • Shah AM, Calello DP, Quintero-Solivan J, Osterhoudt KC. The not-so-nice spice: a teenage girl with palpitations and dry mouth. Pediatr Emerg Care 2011;27:1205-7. View abstract.
  • Abernethy MK, Becker LB. Acute nutmeg intoxication. Am J Emerg Med 1992;10:429-30. View abstract.
  • Ahmad A, Thompson HS. Nutmeg mydriasis. JAMA. 1975;234(3):274. View abstract.
  • Al-Jumaily EF, Al-Amiry MHA. Extraction and Purification of Terpenes from Nutmeg (myristica fragrans) J Al-Nahrain Univ 2012;15(3)151-160.
  • Archer AW. Determination of safrole and myristicin in nutmeg and mace by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1988;438(1):117-21. View abstract.
  • Atherton RR. The 'Nutmeg Challenge': a dangerous social media trend. Arch Dis Child. 2020:archdischild-2020-319407. View abstract.
  • Barceloux DG. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Dis Mon. 2009;55(6):373-9. View abstract.
  • Beattie RT. Nutmeg as a psychoactive agent. Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs. 1968;63(1):105-9. View abstract.
  • Beckerman B, Persaud H. Nutmeg overdose: Spice not so nice. Complement Ther Med. 2019;46:44-46. View abstract.
  • Beyer J, Ehlers D, Maurer HH. Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.): studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ther Drug Monit. 2006;28(4):568-75. View abstract.
  • Brenner N, Frank OS, Knight E. Chronic nutmeg psychosis. J R Soc Med 1993;86:179-80. View abstract.
  • Carstairs SD, Cantrell FL. The spice of life: an analysis of nutmeg exposures in California. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011;49:177-80. View abstract.
  • Chirathaworn C, Kongcharoensuntorn W, Dechdoungchan T, Lowanitchapat A, Sa-nguanmoo P, Poovorawan Y. Myristica fragrans Houtt. methanolic extract induces apoptosis in a human leukemia cell line through SIRT1 mRNA downregulation. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(11):2422-8. View abstract.
  • Cho JY, Choi GJ, Son SW, et al. Isolation and antifungal activity of lignans from Myristica fragrans against various plant pathogenic fungi. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63(9):935-40. View abstract.
  • Demetriades AK, Wallman PD, McGuiness A, Gavalas MC. Low cost, high risk: accidental nutmeg intoxication. Emerg Med J 2005;22:223-5. View abstract.
  • Dhingra D, Sharma A. Antidepressant-like activity of n-hexane extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds in mice. J Med Food. 2006;9(1):84-9. View abstract.
  • Dinakar HS. Acute psychosis associated with nutmeg toxicity. Med Times 1977;105:63-4.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  • Forrester MB. Nutmeg intoxication in Texas, 1998-2004. Hum Exp Toxicol 2005;24:563-6. View abstract.
  • Fundarò A, Cassone MC. [Action of essential oils of chamomile, cinnamon, absinthium, mace and origanum on operant conditioning behavior of the rat]. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1980;56(22):2375-80. View abstract.
  • Futrell JM, Rietschel RL. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis. 1993;52(5):288-90. View abstract.
  • Gonçalves JL, Lopes RC, Oliveira DB, et al. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;99(3):403-7. View abstract.
  • Grover JK, Khandkar S, Vats V, Dhunnoo Y, Das D. Pharmacological studies on Myristica fragrans--antidiarrheal, hypnotic, analgesic and hemodynamic (blood pressure) parameters. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2002;24(10):675-80. View abstract.
  • Hallstrom H, Thuvander A. Toxicological evaluation of myristicin. Nat Toxins 1997;5:186-92. View abstract.
  • Inder WJ, Swanney MP, Donald RA, et al. The effect of glycerol and desmopressin on exercise performance and hydration in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1263-9. View abstract.
  • Jeong HG, Yun CH. Induction of rat hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by myristicin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;217:966-71. View abstract.
  • Kelly BD, Gavin BE, Clarke M, et al. Nutmeg and psychosis. Schizophr Res 2003;60:95-6. View abstract.
  • Kim YB, Park IY, Shin KH. The crystal structure of licarin-B, (C20H20O4), a component of the seeds of Myristica fragrans. Arch Pharm Res. 1991;14(1):1-6. View abstract.
  • Krol CG, Janssen MJ. Unusual use of nutmeg. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2010;154:A2214. View abstract.
  • Lee BK, Kim JH, Jung JW, et al. Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Toxicol Lett. 2005;157(1):49-56. View abstract.
  • Lee HS, Jeong TC, Kim JH. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of myristicin in the rat. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998;705(2):367-72. View abstract.
  • Li W, Yao L, Mi S, Wang N. [The effect of borneol on level of HA and 5-HT in rat's hypothalamus]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27(12):937-9. View abstract.
  • Mali S, Singla S, Sharma A, Gautam A, Niranjan B, Jain S. Efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Terminalia chebula as pulpotomy agents in primary teeth: A clinical study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2018;11(6):505-509. View abstract.
  • Maloney C. Indonesia's great frontier and migration policy. UFSI Rep. 1987;(30):1-11. View abstract.
  • McKenna A, Nordt SP, Ryan J. Acute nutmeg poisoning. Eur J Emerg Med 2004;11:240-1. View abstract.
  • Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Houghton PJ. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Phytother Res. 2007;21(12):1142-5. View abstract.
  • Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, et al. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Phytother Res. 1999;13(4):344-5. View abstract.
  • Oswald EO, Fishbein L, Corbett BJ, Walker MP. Urinary excretion of tertiary amino methoxy methylenedioxy propiophenones as metabolites of myristicin in the rat and guinea pig. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971;244(2):322-8.
  • Panayotopoulos DJ, Chisholm DD. Hallucinogenic effect of nutmeg. Br Med J 1970;1:754. View abstract.
  • Parle M, Dhingra D, Kulkarni SK. Improvement of mouse memory by Myristica fragrans seeds. J Med Food. 2004;7(2):157-61. View abstract.
  • Quin GI, Fanning NF, Plunkett PK. Nutmeg intoxication. J Accid Emerg Med 1998;15:287-8. View abstract.
  • Reynoard J, Torrents R, Domange B, Glaizal M, de Haro L, Simon N. Nutmeg poisoning: Ten years (2008-2018) of experience from the Marseille Poison Control Center. Presse Med. 2019;48(9):994-996. View abstract.
  • Sangalli BC, Chiang W. Toxicology of nutmeg abuse. Clin Toxicol 2000;38:671-8. View abstract.
  • Scholefield JH. Nutmeg-an unusual overdose. Arch Emerg Med 1986;3:154-5. View abstract.
  • Sell AB, Carlini EA. Anesthetic action of methyleugenol and other eugenol derivatives. Pharmacology. 1976;14(4):367-77. View abstract.
  • Sherry CJ, Ray LE, Herron RE. The pharmacological effects of the ligroin extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). J Ethnopharmacol. 1982;6(1):61-6. View abstract.
  • Sonavane GS, Sarveiya VP, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Anxiogenic activity of Myristica fragrans seeds. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;71(1-2):239-44. View abstract.
  • Stein U, Greyer H, Hentschel H. Nutmeg (myristicin) poisoning-report on a fatal case and a series of cases recorded by a poison information centre. Forensic Sci Int 2001;118:87-90. View abstract.
  • Tajuddin, Ahmad S, Latif A, Qasmi IA, Amin KM. An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005;5:16. View abstract.
  • Tajuddin, Ahmad S, Latif A, Qasmi IA. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003;3:6. View abstract.
  • Tezuka Y, Irikawa S, Kaneko T, et al. Screening of Chinese herbal drug extracts for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and identification of an active compound of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;77(2-3):209-17.
  • United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. Grenada. Backgr Notes Ser. 1985:1-4. View abstract.
  • van den Akker TW, Roesyanto-Mahadi ID, van Toorenenbergen AW, van Joost T. Contact allergy to spices. Contact Dermatitis. 1990;22(5):267-72. View abstract.
  • Van Gils C, Cox PA. Ethnobotany of nutmeg in the Spice Islands. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;42(2):117-24. View abstract.
  • Venables GS, Evered D, Hall R. Letter: Nutmeg poisoning. Br Med J 1976;1:96. View abstract.
  • Williams EY, West F. The use of nutmeg as a psychotropic drug. Report of two cases. J Natl Med Assoc 1968;60:289-90. View abstract.
  • Yanti, Rukayadi Y, Kim KH, Hwang JK. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. against oral primary colonizer bacteria. Phytother Res. 2008;22(3):308-12. View abstract.
  • Yun CH, Lee HS, Lee HY, et al. Roles of human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 enzymes in the oxidation of myristicin. Toxicol Lett. 2003;137(3):143-50. View abstract.
  • Zhou Y, Tan J. [Effect of different processing conditions on content of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in semen Myristicae]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998;23(4):217-9, 255. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased NUTMEG AND MACE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department.Read More

More Resources for NUTMEG AND MACE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty .