PARSLEY

OTHER NAME(S):

Apium crispum, Apium petroselinum, Carum petroselinum, Common Parsley, Garden Parsley, Graine de Persil, Hamburg Parsley, Huile de Persil, Parsley Fruit, Parsley Oil, Parsley Root, Parsley Seed, Perejil, Persely, Persil, Persil Cultivé, Persil Frisé, Persil de Naples, Persil Odorant, Persil Plat, Persin, Petersylinge, Petroselini Fructus, Petroselini Herba, Petrosilini Radix, Petroselinum crispum, Petroselinum hortense, Petroselinum sativum, Petroselinum vulgare, Prajmoda, Racine de Persil, Rock Parsley.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Parsley is an herb. The leaf, seed, and root are used to make medicine.

Some people take parsley by mouth for urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, constipation, diabetes, cough, asthma, and high blood pressure.

In some women it is taken by mouth to start menstrual flow or to cause an abortion.

Some people apply parsley directly to the skin for cracked or chapped skin, bruises, tumors, insect bites, and to stimulate hair growth.

In foods and beverages, parsley is widely used as a garnish, condiment, food, and flavoring.

In manufacturing, parsley seed oil is used as a fragrance in soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes.

How does it work?

Parsley might help stimulate the appetite, improve digestion, increase urine production, reduce spasms, and increase menstrual flow.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Kidney stones.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Cracked or chapped skin.
  • Bruises.
  • Tumors.
  • Insect bites.
  • Digestive problems.
  • Menstrual problems.
  • Liver disorders.
  • Asthma.
  • Cough.
  • Fluid retention and swelling (edema).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of parsley for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Parsley is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts commonly found in food.

Parsley is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth as medicine, short-term. In some people, parsley can cause allergic skin reactions.

Consuming very large amounts of parsley is LIKELY UNSAFE, as this can cause other side effects like “tired blood” (anemia) and liver or kidney problems.

Also, applying parsley seed oil directly to the skin is LIKELY UNSAFE as it can cause the skin to become extra sensitive to the sun and cause a rash. Not enough is known about the safety of applying parsley root and leaf to the skin.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Eating parsley in food amounts is fine, but parsley in larger medicinal amounts is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. Parsley has been used to cause an abortion and to start menstrual flow. In addition, developing evidence suggests that taking An-Tai-Yin, an herbal combination product containing parsley and dong quai, during the first three months of pregnancy increases the risk of serious birth defects. If you are pregnant, stick with using only the amount of parsley typically found in food.

Not enough is known about the safety of using parsley in medicinal amounts during breast-feeding. It’s best not to use more than typical food amounts of parsley.

Bleeding disorders: Parsley might slow blood clotting. In theory, taking parsley might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Diabetes: Parsley might lower blood sugar levels. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use parsley.

Fluid retention (edema): There is a concern that parsley might cause the body to hold onto sodium (salt), and this increases water retention.

High blood pressure: There is a concern that parsley might cause the body to hold onto sodium (salt), and this could make high blood pressure worse.

Kidney disease: Don’t take parsley if you have kidney disease. Parsley contains chemicals that can make kidney disease worse.

Surgery: Parsley might lower blood glucose levels and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgical procedures. Stop using parsley at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with PARSLEY

    Warfarin (Coumadin) is taken to thin the blood and slow blood clotting. Large amounts of parsley leaf might increase blood clotting. Taking parsley along with warfarin might decrease how well warfarin (Coumadin) works to thin the blood.

  • Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with PARSLEY

    Parsley seems to work like a "water pill" by causing the body to lose water. Taking parsley along with other "water pills" might cause the body to lose too much water. Losing too much water can cause you to be dizzy and your blood pressure to go too low.<br/><br/> Some "water pills" include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDIURIL, Microzide), and others.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Aspirin interacts with PARSLEY

    Some people are allergic to parsley. Aspirin might increase your sensitivity to parsley if you are allergic to parsley. This has only been reported in one person. But to be on the safe side, if you are allergic to parsley do not take aspirin and eat parsley.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of parsley depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for parsley. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

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  • Beier, R. C. Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990;113:47-137. View abstract.
  • Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Ozsoy-Sacan, O., and Karabulut-Bulan, O. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study. Phytother.Res 2004;18(12):996-999. View abstract.
  • Chaudhary, S. K., Ceska, O., Tetu, C., Warrington, P. J., Ashwood-Smith, M. J., and Poulton, G. A. Oxypeucedanin, a Major Furocoumarin in Parsley, Petroselinum crispum. Planta Med 1986;52(6):462-464. View abstract.
  • Chrubasik, S., Droste, C., and Black, A. Asparagus P(R) cannot compete with first-line diuretics in lowering the blood pressure in treatment-requiring antihypertensives. Phytother.Res 2009;23(9):1345-1346. View abstract.
  • Chrubasik, S., Droste, C., Dragano, N., Glimm, E., and Black, A. Effectiveness and tolerability of the herbal mixture Asparagus P on blood pressure in treatment-requiring antihypertensives. Phytomedicine 2006;13(9-10):740-742. View abstract.
  • Egan, C. L. and Sterling, G. Phytophotodermatitis: a visit to Margaritaville. Cutis 1993;51(1):41-42. View abstract.
  • Gadi, D., Bnouham, M., Aziz, M., Ziyyat, A., Legssyer, A., Legrand, C., Lafeve, F. F., and Mekhfi, H. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 8-17-2009;125(1):170-174. View abstract.
  • Gorgus, E., Lohr, C., Raquet, N., Guth, S., and Schrenk, D. Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2010;48(1):93-98. View abstract.
  • Kreydiyyeh, S. I. and Usta, J. Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79(3):353-357. View abstract.
  • Mele, V. [On poisoning with parsley used as an abortifacient]. Folia Med (Napoli) 1968;51(8):601-613. View abstract.
  • Meyer, H., Bolarinwa, A., Wolfram, G., and Linseisen, J. Bioavailability of apigenin from apiin-rich parsley in humans. Ann Nutr.Metab 2006;50(3):167-172. View abstract.
  • Ozsoy-Sacan, O., Yanardag, R., Orak, H., Ozgey, Y., Yarat, A., and Tunali, T. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) extract versus glibornuride on the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 3-8-2006;104(1-2):175-181. View abstract.
  • Peterson, S., Lampe, J. W., Bammler, T. K., Gross-Steinmeyer, K., and Eaton, D. L. Apiaceous vegetable constituents inhibit human cytochrome P-450 1A2 (hCYP1A2) activity and hCYP1A2-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44(9):1474-1484. View abstract.
  • Yanardag, R., Bolkent, S., Tabakoglu-Oguz, A., and Ozsoy-Sacan, O. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(8):1206-1210. View abstract.
  • Zaynoun, S., Abi, Ali L., Tenekjian, K., and Kurban, A. The bergapten content of garden parsley and its significance in causing cutaneous photosensitization. Clin.Exp.Dermatol. 1985;10(4):328-331. View abstract.
  • Alyami FA and Rabah DM. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2011;22(3):511-4. View abstract.
  • Arslan S, Ucar R, Caliskaner AZ. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley "Over-use" as an Herbal Remedy. Med Arch. 2014;68(6):426-7. View abstract.
  • Bolton-Smith C, Price RJ, Fenton ST, et al. Compilation of a provisional UK database for the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods. Br J Nutr 2000;83:389-99. View abstract.
  • Chuang CH, Doyle P, Wang JD, et al. Herbal medicines used during the first trimester and major congenital malformations: an analysis of data from a pregnancy cohort study. Drug Saf 2006;29:537-48. View abstract.
  • Ciganda C, and Laborde A. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion. J Toxicol.Clin Toxicol. 2003;41:235-239. View abstract.
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  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
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  • Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
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  • Jakovljevic, V., Raskovic, A., Popovic, M., and Sabo, J. The effect of celery and parsley juices on pharmacodynamic activity of drugs involving cytochrome P450 in their metabolism. Eur.J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;27(3):153-156. View abstract.
  • Kreydiyyeh SI, Usta J, Kaouk I, et al. The mechanism underlying the laxative properties of parsley extract. Phytomedicine 2001;8:382-8.. View abstract.
  • Nielsen SE, Young JF, Daneshvar B, et al. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) intake on urinary apigenin excretion, blood antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers for oxidative stress in human subjects. Br J Nutr 1999;81:447-55. View abstract.
  • Ojala T, Vuorela P, Kiviranta J, et al. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins. Planta Med 1999;65:715-8. View abstract.
  • Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  • Tunali T, Yarat A, Yanardag R, et al. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the skin of STZ induced diabetic rats. Phytother Res 1999;13:138-41.. View abstract.

More Resources for PARSLEY

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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