People take black pepper by mouth for arthritis, asthma, upset stomach, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
People inhale black pepper oil to prevent falls, to help quit smoking and reduce cravings, and for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
In foods, black pepper and black pepper oil are used as a spice.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Insufficient Evidence for
- Athletic performance. Early research in men who are not trained athletes shows that taking a supplement containing black pepper and other ingredients before exercise does not improve performance.
- Fall prevention. Early research shows that applying black pepper oil near the right side of the nose in order to inhale the scent improves stability in older people when their eyes are closed. This improvement is similar to applying and inhaling lavender oil.
- Fatigue. Early research shows that taking black pepper does not improve attention or mental energy in adults with low energy levels.
- Insect bite. Early research shows that applying a specific product (Trikatu) containing black pepper and other ingredients directly to mosquito bites does not reduce the size, redness, or itchiness of the bites.
- Quitting smoking. Early research in men who smoke shows that puffing on a vapor device containing black pepper oil over 3 hours may reduce cigarette cravings and anxiety. Also, early research in adults who are addicted to chewing, dipping, or smokingtobacco shows that inhaling a drop of black pepper oil on a tissue might reduce cravings.
- Trouble swallowing. Some children with different medical conditions, including brain disorders, are fed through a tube (enteral nutrition) because they are not able to eat food consistently. Early research in these children shows that applying black pepper oil to the nostrils or nasal cavity for one minute before meals can improve swallowing and the amount of food they can eat. Other early research in older adults who have had a stroke and are living in a long-term care nursing home, shows that applying black pepper oil near the nostrils for one minute before meals can improve swallowing.
- A skin disorder that causes white patches to develop on the skin (vitiligo).
- A bacterial infection that causes diarrhea (cholera).
- Discolored skin (vitiligo).
- Itchy skin caused by mites (scabies).
- Menstrual pain.
- Nerve pain.
- Sex drive.
- Stuffy nose.
- Sinus infection.
- Upset stomach.
- Weight loss.
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Black pepper oil is POSSIBLY SAFE. If it gets into the eyes, black pepper can burn. Some people might develop an allergy to black pepper.
When inhaled: Black pepper oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when inhaled through the nose or mouth. Black pepper might have a burning aftertaste and it might upset the stomach. Inhaling black pepper oil through the nose or mouth can cause cough. Some people might develop an allergy to black pepper.
Special Precautions and Warnings
There isn't enough reliable information available to know if applying black pepper to the skin is safe while pregnant.
Breast-feeding: Black pepper is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods. There isn't enough reliable information to know if black pepper is safe when used as medicine when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.
Children: Black pepper is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts. Deaths in children have been reported from large amounts of black pepper accidentally entering the lungs. There isn't enough reliable information available to know if applying black pepper oil to the skin is safe for children.
Bleeding conditions: Piperine, a chemical in black pepper, might slow blood clotting. In theory, taking black pepper in amounts greater than those in food might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Diabetes: Black pepper might affect blood sugar levels. In theory, taking black pepper in amounts greater than those in food might affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes. Dosing adjustments for diabetes medications might be needed.
Surgery: Piperine, a chemical in black pepper, might slow blood clotting and affect blood sugar levels. In theory, taking black pepper in amounts treater than those found in food might cause bleeding complications or affect blood sugar levels during surgery. You should stop taking black pepper in amounts greater than those in food at least 2 weeks before surgery.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
Black and white pepper might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking pepper along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the chance of side effects from some medications. Before taking black or white pepper, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Black and white pepper might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might cause more side effects from some medications.
Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, digoxin, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black and white pepper might increase how much phenytoin (Dilantin) the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with phenytoin (Dilantin) might increase the effects and side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin).
Propranolol (Inderal) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black and white pepper might increase how much propranolol (Inderal) the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with propranolol (Inderal) might increase the effects and side effects of propranolol (Inderal).
Rifampin interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black and white pepper might increase how much rifampin the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with rifampin might increase the effects and side effects of rifampin.
Theophylline interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black pepper and white pepper can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. This might cause increased effects and side effects of theophylline.
Lithium interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black pepper and white pepper might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking black pepper and white pepper might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
Be cautious with this combination
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER
Black and white pepper might increase the amount of carbamazepine (Tegretol) absorbed by the body. It might also decrease how quickly the body breaks down and gets rid of carbamazepine. This could increase how much carbamazepine is in the body and potentially increase the chance of side effects. However, there is not enough known about this potential interaction to know if it is a big concern.
Be watchful with this combination
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