BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

OTHER NAME(S):

Black Pepper, Blanc Poivre, Extrait de Poivre, Grain de Poivre, Hu Jiao, Kali Mirchi, Kosho, Krishna, Marich, Maricha, Pepe, Pepper, Pepper Extract, Pepper Plant, Peppercorn, Pfeffer, Pimenta, Pimienta, Pimienta Negra y Pimienta Blanca, Piper, Piper nigrum, Piperine, Poivre, Poivre Noir, Poivre Noir et Blanc, Poivre Noir et Poivre Blanc, Poivrier, Vellaja, White Pepper.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Black pepper and white pepper are made from the Piper nigrum plant. Black pepper is ground from dried, whole unripe fruit. White pepper is ground from dried, ripe fruit that has had the outer layer removed. The black pepper and white pepper powder are used to make medicine.

People take black pepper for stomach upset, bronchitis, and cancer. They take white pepper for stomach upset, malaria, cholera, and cancer.

Black pepper is sometimes applied directly to the skin for treating nerve pain (neuralgia) and a skin disease called scabies. Black pepper and white pepper are also used topically as a counterirritant for pain.

In foods and beverages, black pepper, white pepper, and pepper oil (a product distilled from black pepper) are used as flavoring agents.

How does it work?

Black and white pepper might help fight germs (microbes) and cause the stomach to increase the flow of digestive juices. There is conflicting evidence about their role in cancer. Some evidence suggests pepper might protect against colon cancer, but other evidence suggests it might promote liver cancer.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of black and white pepper for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Black pepper and white pepper are safe when used in food amounts and might be safe for most people when used in medicinal amounts. Pepper might have a burning aftertaste. Taking large amounts of black and white pepper by mouth, which can accidentally get into the lungs, has been reported to cause death. This is especially true in children.

Black pepper and white pepper, when applied directly to the skin, are safe for most adults. However, there isn't enough information to know if use on the skin is safe for children. Black pepper and white pepper may cause redness and burning if they get into the eyes.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s OK to use black and white pepper in food amounts if you are pregnant. But taking larger amounts might be unsafe. There is concern that black pepper in large amounts might trigger a miscarriage. Also, avoid putting pepper on your skin. Not enough is known about the safety of using topical pepper during pregnancy.

If you are breast-feeding, limit pepper intake to food amounts. Not enough is known about the safety of using larger medicinal amounts.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Lithium interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black pepper and white pepper might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking black pepper and white pepper might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br/><br/> Black and white pepper might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking pepper along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the chance of side effects from some medications. Before taking black or white pepper, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.<br/><br/> Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

  • Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Black and white pepper might make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might cause more side effects from some medications.<br/><br/> Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, digoxin, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.

  • Phenytoin (Dilantin) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black and white pepper might increase how much phenytoin (Dilantin) the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with phenytoin (Dilantin) might increase the effects and side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin).

  • Propranolol (Inderal) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black and white pepper might increase how much propranolol (Inderal) the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with propranolol (Inderal) might increase the effects and side effects of propranolol (Inderal).

  • Rifampin interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black and white pepper might increase how much rifampin the body absorbs. Taking black and white pepper along with rifampin might increase the effects and side effects of rifampin.

  • Theophylline interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black pepper and white pepper can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. This might cause increased effects and side effects of theophylline.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol) interacts with BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

    Black and white pepper might increase the amount of carbamazepine (Tegretol) absorbed by the body. It might also decrease how quickly the body breaks down and gets rid of carbamazepine. This could increase how much carbamazepine is in the body and potentially increase the chance of side effects. However, there is not enough known about this potential interaction to know if it is a big concern.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of black pepper and white pepper for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for black pepper and white pepper. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Naseri, M. K. and Yahyavi, H. Antispasmodic effect of Piper nigrum fruit hot water extract on rat ileum. Pak.J Biol.Sci 6-1-2008;11(11):1492-1496. View abstract.
  • Ngamo, L. S., Ngassoum, M. B., Jirovetz, L., Ousman, A., Nukenine, E. C., and Mukala, O. E. Protection of stored maize against Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) by use of essential oils of spices from Cameroon. Meded.Rijksuniv.Gent Fak.Landbouwkd.Toegep.Biol.Wet. 2001;66(2a):473-478. View abstract.
  • Ononiwu, I. M., Ibeneme, C. E., and Ebong, O. O. Effects of piperine on gastric acid secretion in albino rats. Afr.J Med Med Sci 2002;31(4):293-295. View abstract.
  • Panda, S. and Kar, A. Piperine lowers the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, glucose and hepatic 5'D activity in adult male mice. Horm.Metab Res. 2003;35(9):523-526. View abstract.
  • Park, I. K., Lee, S. G., Shin, S. C., Park, J. D., and Ahn, Y. J. Larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identified in Piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species. J Agric.Food Chem. 3-27-2002;50(7):1866-1870. View abstract.
  • Pathak, N. and Khandelwal, S. Cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties of piperine on murine splenocytes: an in vitro study. Eur.J Pharmacol. 12-8-2007;576(1-3):160-170. View abstract.
  • Pathak, N. and Khandelwal, S. Modulation of cadmium induced alterations in murine thymocytes by piperine: oxidative stress, apoptosis, phenotyping and blastogenesis. Biochem.Pharmacol. 8-14-2006;72(4):486-497. View abstract.
  • Pathak, N. Immunomodulatory role of piperine in cadmium induced thymic atrophy and splenomegaly in mice. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 2009;28(1):52-60.
  • Pattanaik S, Hota D, Prabhakar S, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction of a single dose of piperine with steady-state carbamazepine in epilepsy patients. Phytother Res 2009;23:1281-6. View abstract.
  • Piperine inhibition of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in PC12 cells. Eur.J Pharmacol. 5-10-2006;537(1-3):37-44. View abstract.
  • Pires, OC. Preliminary comparative analysis of the acute toxicity and median lethal dose LD50 of the fruit of the Brazilian black pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and black pepper Piper nigrum L. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense (Argentina) 2004;23:176-182.
  • Piyachaturawat, P. and Pholpramool, C. Enhancement of fertilization by piperine in hamsters. Cell Biol.Int. 1997;21(7):405-409. View abstract.
  • Piyachaturawat, P., Glinsukon, T., and Peugvicha, P. Postcoital antifertility effect of piperine. Contraception 1982;26(6):625-633. View abstract.
  • Piyachaturawat, P., Glinsukon, T., and Toskulkao, C. Acute and subacute toxicity of piperine in mice, rats and hamsters. Toxicol.Lett. 1983;16(3-4):351-359. View abstract.
  • Piyachaturawat, P., Kingkaeohoi, S., and Toskulkao, C. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by piperine. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 1995;18(4):333-344. View abstract.
  • Piyachaturawat, P., Sriwattana, W., Damrongphol, P., and Pholpramool, C. Effects of piperine on hamster sperm capacitation and fertilization in vitro. Int.J Androl 1991;14(4):283-290. View abstract.
  • Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1996;47(1):55-59. View abstract.
  • Pradeep, C. R. and Kuttan, G. Effect of piperine on the inhibition of lung metastasis induced B16F-10 melanoma cells in mice. Clin Exp.Metastasis 2002;19(8):703-708. View abstract.
  • Pradeep, C. R. and Kuttan, G. Piperine is a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), c-Fos, CREB, ATF-2 and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in B16F-10 melanoma cells. Int.Immunopharmacol. 12-20-2004;4(14):1795-1803. View abstract.
  • Raay, B., Medda, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., and Basu, M. K. Targeting of piperine intercalated in mannose-coated liposomes in experimental leishmaniasis. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 1999;36(4):248-251. View abstract.
  • Raghavendra, R. H. and Naidu, K. A. Spice active principles as the inhibitors of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane biosynthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2009;81(1):73-78. View abstract.
  • Rathnawathie, M. and Buckle, K. A. Determination of piperine in pepper (Piper nigrum) using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 7-15-1983;264(2):316-320. View abstract.
  • Rauscher, F. M., Sanders, R. A., and Watkins, J. B., III. Effects of piperine on antioxidant pathways in tissues from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem.Mol.Toxicol. 2000;14(6):329-334. View abstract.
  • Reen, R. K., Roesch, S. F., Kiefer, F., Wiebel, F. J., and Singh, J. Piperine impairs cytochrome P4501A1 activity by direct interaction with the enzyme and not by down regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression in the rat hepatoma 5L cell line. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 1-17-1996;218(2):562-569. View abstract.
  • Reen, R. K., Wiebel, F. J., and Singh, J. Piperine inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in V79 Chinese hamster cells genetically engineered to express rat cytochrome P4502B1. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;58(3):165-173. View abstract.
  • Rentmeister-Bryant, H. and Green, B. G. Perceived irritation during ingestion of capsaicin or piperine: comparison of trigeminal and non-trigeminal areas. Chem.Senses 1997;22(3):257-266. View abstract.
  • Rho, M. C., Lee, S. W., Park, H. R., Choi, J. H., Kang, J. Y., Kim, K., Lee, H. S., and Kim, Y. K. ACAT inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum. Phytochemistry 2007;68(6):899-903. View abstract.
  • Ribeiro, T. S., Freire-de-Lima, L., Previato, J. O., Mendonca-Previato, L., Heise, N., and de Lima, M. E. Toxic effects of natural piperine and its derivatives on epimastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Bioorg.Med Chem.Lett. 7-5-2004;14(13):3555-3558. View abstract.
  • Rose, J. E. and Behm, F. M. Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1994;34(3):225-229. View abstract.
  • Saxena, R., Venkaiah, K., Anitha, P., Venu, L., and Raghunath, M. Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods of India: contribution of their phenolic content. Int.J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58(4):250-260. View abstract.
  • Schneider, N. G., Olmstead, R., Mody, F. V., Doan, K., Franzon, M., Jarvik, M. E., and Steinberg, C. Efficacy of a nicotine nasal spray in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addiction 1995;90(12):1671-1682. View abstract.
  • Schulz, H., Baranska, M., Quilitzsch, R., Schutze, W., and Losing, G. Characterization of peppercorn, pepper oil, and pepper oleoresin by vibrational spectroscopy methods. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-4-2005;53(9):3358-3363. View abstract.
  • Scott, I. M., Gagnon, N., Lesage, L., Philogene, B. J., and Arnason, J. T. Efficacy of botanical insecticides from Piper species (Piperaceae) extracts for control of Ruropean chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Econ.Entomol. 2005;98(3):845-855. View abstract.
  • Scott, I. M., Puniani, E., Jensen, H., Livesey, J. F., Poveda, L., Sanchez-Vindas, P., Durst, T., and Arnason, J. T. Analysis of Piperaceae germplasm by HPLC and LCMS: a method for isolating and identifying unsaturated amides from Piper spp extracts. J Agric.Food Chem. 3-23-2005;53(6):1907-1913. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K. and Sakthisekaran, D. Chemopreventive effect of piperine on modulating lipid peroxidation and membrane bound enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis. Biomed.Pharmacother. 2004;58(4):264-267. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Banu, S. M., and Sakthisekaran, D. Oral supplementation of piperine leads to altered phase II enzymes and reduced DNA damage and DNA-protein cross links in Benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung carcinogenesis. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2005;268(1-2):141-147. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Banu, S. M., and Sakthisekaran, D. Protective effect of piperine on benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Clin Chim.Acta 2004;350(1-2):73-78. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Padmavathi, R., Magesh, V., and Sakthisekaran, D. Preliminary study on inhibition of genotoxicity by piperine in mice. Fitoterapia 2005;76(3-4):296-300. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Prince Vijeya, Singh J., and Sakthisekaran, D. In vivo effect of piperine on serum and tissue glycoprotein levels in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2006;19(2):107-111. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Senthilnathan, P., Magesh, V., and Sakthisekaran, D. Modulatory effect of Piperine on mitochondrial antioxidant system in Benzo(a)pyrene-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(1):85-89. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Singh, J. P., Krishnan, K. B., and Sakthisekaran, D. Cytoprotective effect of piperine against benzo[a]pyrene induced lung cancer with reference to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in Swiss albino mice. Fitoterapia 2003;74(1-2):109-115. View abstract.
  • Selvendiran, K., Thirunavukkarasu, C., Singh, J. P., Padmavathi, R., and Sakthisekaran, D. Chemopreventive effect of piperine on mitochondrial TCA cycle and phase-I and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2005;271(1-2):101-106. View abstract.
  • Sharma, A., Gautam, S., and Jadhav, S. S. Spice extracts as dose-modifying factors in radiation inactivation of bacteria. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(4):1340-1344. View abstract.
  • Sharma, P., Varma, M. V., Chawla, H. P., and Panchagnula, R. In situ and in vivo efficacy of peroral absorption enhancers in rats and correlation to in vitro mechanistic studies. Farmaco 2005;60(11-12):874-883. View abstract.
  • Sheahan K, Page DV, Kemper T, Suarez R. Childhood sudden death secondary to accidental aspiration of black pepper. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1988;9:51-3. View abstract.
  • Shenoy, N. R. and Choughuley, A. S. Characterization of potentially mutagenic products from the nitrosation of piperine. Cancer Lett. 7-10-1992;64(3):235-239. View abstract.
  • Shwaireb, M. H., Wrba, H., el Mofty, M. M., and Dutter, A. Carcinogenesis induced by black pepper (Piper nigrum) and modulated by vitamin A. Exp.Pathol. 1990;40(4):233-238. View abstract.
  • Siddiqui, B. S., Gulzar, T., Mahmood, A., Begum, S., Khan, B., and Afshan, F. New insecticidal amides from petroleum ether extract of dried Piper nigrum L. whole fruits. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2004;52(11):1349-1352. View abstract.
  • Siebert, T. E., Wood, C., Elsey, G. M., and Pollnitz, A. P. Determination of rotundone, the pepper aroma impact compound, in grapes and wine. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-28-2008;56(10):3745-3748. View abstract.
  • Simas, N. K., Lima, Eda C., Kuster, R. M., Lage, C. L., and Oliveira Filho, A. M. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae. Rev.Soc.Bras.Med Trop. 2007;40(4):405-407. View abstract.
  • Singh A, Rao AR. Evaluation of the modulatory influence of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.) on the hepatic detoxication system. Cancer Lett 1993;72:5-9. View abstract.
  • Singh, J., Reen, R. K., and Wiebel, F. J. Piperine, a major ingredient of black and long peppers, protects against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and micronuclei formation in H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett. 11-11-1994;86(2):195-200. View abstract.
  • Song, Q. F., Qu, Y. C., Zheng, H. B., Zhang, G. H., Lin, H. G., and Yang, J. L. [Differentiation of erythroleukemia K562 cells induced by piperine]. Ai.Zheng. 2008;27(6):571-574. View abstract.
  • Srinivasan, K. Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(8):735-748. View abstract.
  • Stevens, D. A. and Lawless, H. T. Enhancement of responses to sequential presentation of oral chemical irritants. Physiol Behav. 1987;39(1):63-65. View abstract.
  • Subehan, Usia, T., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum. Planta Med 2006;72(6):527-532. View abstract.
  • Suresh, D. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on the rat liver drug-metabolizing enzyme system in vivo and in vitro. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;84(12):1259-1265. View abstract.
  • Taqvi, S. I., Shah, A. J., and Gilani, A. H. Blood pressure lowering and vasomodulator effects of piperine. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2008;52(5):452-458. View abstract.
  • Taqvi, SI, Shah, AJ, and Gilani, AH. Insight into the possible mechanism of antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of piperine. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2009;47(660):664.
  • Unchern, S., Nagata, K., Saito, H., and Fukuda, J. Piperine, a pungent alkaloid, is cytotoxic to cultured neurons from the embryonic rat brain. Biol.Pharm.Bull 1994;17(3):403-406. View abstract.
  • Unchern, S., Nagata, K., Saito, H., and Fukuda, J. Reduction of neurite extension by piperine, examined on hippocampal and septal neurons in serum-free cultures. Biol.Pharm.Bull 1994;17(7):898-901. View abstract.
  • Unchern, S., Saito, H., and Nishiyama, N. Death of cerebellar granule neurons induced by piperine is distinct from that induced by low potassium medium. Neurochem.Res. 1998;23(1):97-102. View abstract.
  • Unchern, S., Saito, H., and Nishiyama, N. Selective cytotoxicity of piperine on cultured rat hippocampal neurons in comparison with cultured astrocytes: the possible involvement of lipid peroxidation. Biol.Pharm.Bull 1997;20(9):958-961. View abstract.
  • Unnikrishnan, M. C. and Kuttan, R. Tumour reducing and anticarcinogenic activity of selected spices. Cancer Lett. 5-15-1990;51(1):85-89. View abstract.
  • Usia, T., Iwata, H., Hiratsuka, A., Watabe, T., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activities of Indonesian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):67-73. View abstract.
  • Veerareddy, P. R., Vobalaboina, V., and Nahid, A. Formulation and evaluation of oil-in-water emulsions of piperine in visceral leishmaniasis. Pharmazie 2004;59(3):194-197. View abstract.
  • Velpandian T, Jasuja R, Bhardwaj RK, et al. Piperine in food: interference in the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2001;26:241-7. View abstract.
  • Vijayakumar, R. S. and Nalini, N. Efficacy of piperine, an alkaloidal constituent from Piper nigrum on erythrocyte antioxidant status in high fat diet and antithyroid drug induced hyperlipidemic rats. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2006;24(6):491-498. View abstract.
  • Vijayakumar, R. S. and Nalini, N. Piperine, an active principle from Piper nigrum, modulates hormonal and apo lipoprotein profiles in hyperlipidemic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(2):71-86. View abstract.
  • Vijayakumar, R. S., Surya, D., and Nalini, N. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress. Redox.Rep. 2004;9(2):105-110. View abstract.
  • Wakabayashi, K., Nagao, M., and Sugimura, T. Mutagens and carcinogens produced by the reaction of environmental aromatic compounds with nitrite. Cancer Surv. 1989;8(2):385-399. View abstract.
  • Warner, J. R., Nath, J., and Ong, T. M. Antimutagenicity studies of chlorophyllin using the Salmonella arabinose-resistant assay system. Mutat.Res. 1991;262(1):25-30. View abstract.
  • Wattanathorn, J., Chonpathompikunlert, P., Muchimapura, S., Priprem, A., and Tankamnerdthai, O. Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(9):3106-3110. View abstract.
  • Wongpa, S., Himakoun, L., Soontornchai, S., and Temcharoen, P. Antimutagenic effects of piperine on cyclophosphamide-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(4):623-627. View abstract.
  • Wood, C., Siebert, T. E., Parker, M., Capone, D. L., Elsey, G. M., Pollnitz, A. P., Eggers, M., Meier, M., Vossing, T., Widder, S., Krammer, G., Sefton, M. A., and Herderich, M. J. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-28-2008;56(10):3738-3744. View abstract.
  • Wrba, H., el Mofty, M. M., Schwaireb, M. H., and Dutter, A. Carcinogenicity testing of some constituents of black pepper (Piper nigrum). Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 1992;44(2):61-65. View abstract.
  • Zutshi, R. K., Singh, R., Zutshi, U., Johri, R. K., and Atal, C. K. Influence of piperine on rifampicin blood levels in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Assoc.Physicians India 1985;33(3):223-224. View abstract.
  • Al Bataina, B. A., Maslat, A. O., and Al Kofahil, M. M. Element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using XRF and Ames test. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2003;17(2):85-90. View abstract.
  • Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol.Res. 2006;99(4):466-472. View abstract.
  • Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions. Parasitol.Res. 2006;99(4):473-477. View abstract.
  • Chaubey, M. K. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Oleo.Sci 2008;57(3):171-179. View abstract.
  • Chaudhry, N. M. and Tariq, P. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates. Pak.J Pharm Sci 2006;19(3):214-218. View abstract.
  • Dearlove, R. P., Greenspan, P., Hartle, D. K., Swanson, R. B., and Hargrove, J. L. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices. J Med Food 2008;11(2):275-281. View abstract.
  • Farag, S. E. and Abo-Zeid, M. Degradation of the natural mutagenic compound safrole in spices by cooking and irradiation. Nahrung 1997;41(6):359-361. View abstract.
  • George, D. R., Sparagano, O. A., Port, G., Okello, E., Shiel, R. S., and Guy, J. H. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor. Vet.Parasitol. 5-26-2009;162(1-2):129-134. View abstract.
  • Hasegawa, G. R. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War. Mil.Med. 2008;173(5):499-506. View abstract.
  • Hashim, S., Aboobaker, V. S., Madhubala, R., Bhattacharya, R. K., and Rao, A. R. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. Nutr.Cancer 1994;21(2):169-175. View abstract.
  • Krishnakantha, T. P. and Lokesh, B. R. Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 1993;30(2):133-134. View abstract.
  • Mabrouk, S. S. and El Shayeb, N. M. Inhibition of aflatoxin formation by some spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1980;171(5):344-347. View abstract.
  • Marotta, R. B. and Floch, M. H. Diet and nutrition in ulcer disease. Med Clin North Am 1991;75(4):967-979. View abstract.
  • Nalini, N., Manju, V., and Menon, V. P. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. J Med.Food 2006;9(2):237-245. View abstract.
  • Natarajan, K. S., Narasimhan, M., Shanmugasundaram, K. R., and Shanmugasundaram, E. R. Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-21-2006;105(1-2):76-83. View abstract.
  • O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 12-21-2005;11(47):7499-7507. View abstract.
  • Panossian, A., Nikoyan, N., Ohanyan, N., Hovhannisyan, A., Abrahamyan, H., Gabrielyan, E., and Wikman, G. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1-2):84-91. View abstract.
  • Pathak, N. and Khandelwal, S. Comparative efficacy of piperine, curcumin and picroliv against Cd immunotoxicity in mice. Biometals 2008;21(6):649-661. View abstract.
  • Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Nahrung 2000;44(1):42-46. View abstract.
  • Prasad, N. S., Raghavendra, R., Lokesh, B. R., and Naidu, K. A. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2004;70(6):521-528. View abstract.
  • Pratibha, N., Saxena, V. S., Amit, A., D'Souza, P., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51. View abstract.
  • Ramakrishna, Rao R., Platel, K., and Srinivasan, K. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Nahrung 2003;47(6):408-412. View abstract.
  • Saraswat, M., Muthenna, P., Suryanarayana, P., Petrash, J. M., and Reddy, G. B. Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):558-565. View abstract.
  • Saraswat, M., Reddy, P. Y., Muthenna, P., and Reddy, G. B. Prevention of non-enzymic glycation of proteins by dietary agents: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. Br.J Nutr. 2009;101(11):1714-1721. View abstract.
  • Subehan, Usia, T., Iwata, H., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 5-24-2006;105(3):449-455. View abstract.
  • Tantaoui-Elaraki, A. and Beraoud, L. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol Oncol. 1994;13(1):67-72. View abstract.
  • Thavara, U., Tawatsin, A., Bhakdeenuan, P., Wongsinkongman, P., Boonruad, T., Bansiddhi, J., Chavalittumrong, P., Komalamisra, N., Siriyasatien, P., and Mulla, M. S. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop.Med.Public Health 2007;38(4):663-673. View abstract.
  • Topal, U., Sasaki, M., Goto, M., and Otles, S. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2008;59(7-8):619-634. View abstract.
  • Vasudevan, K., Vembar, S., Veeraraghavan, K., and Haranath, P. S. Influence of intragastric perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats. Indian J.Gastroenterol. 2000;19(2):53-56. View abstract.
  • Woo, H. M., Kang, J. H., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Sung, M. K., and Yu, R. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes. Life Sci. 2-13-2007;80(10):926-931. View abstract.
  • 65 Navarro, I. T., Vidotto, O., Giraldi, N., and Mitsuka, R. [Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii to sodium chloride and condiments in pork sausage]. Bol.Oficina Sanit.Panam. 1992;112(2):138-143. View abstract.
  • Agbor, G. A., Vinson, J. A., Oben, J. E., and Ngogang, J. Y. In vitro antioxidant activity of three Piper species. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2007;7(2):49-64. View abstract.
  • Aher, S., Biradar, S., Gopu, C. L., and Paradkar, A. Novel pepper extract for enhanced P-glycoprotein inhibition. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61(9):1179-1186. View abstract.
  • Ahmed, M., Rahman, M. W., Rahman, M. T., and Hossain, C. F. Analgesic principle from the bark of Careya arborea. Pharmazie 2002;57(10):698-701. View abstract.
  • Allameh, A., Saxena, M., Biswas, G., Raj, H. G., Singh, J., and Srivastava, N. Piperine, a plant alkaloid of the piper species, enhances the bioavailability of aflatoxin B1 in rat tissues. Cancer Lett. 1-31-1992;61(3):195-199. View abstract.
  • Andaya, B. Women and Economic Change: The Pepper Trade in Pre-Modern Southeast Asia. Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 1995;38(2):165-190.
  • Annis, S. L., Velasquez, L., Xu, H., Hammerschmidt, R., Linz, J., and Trail, F. Novel procedure for identification of compounds inhibitory to transcription of genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(10):4656-4660. View abstract.
  • Bai, Y. F. and Xu, H. Protective action of piperine against experimental gastric ulcer. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2000;21(4):357-359. View abstract.
  • Bajad, S., Bedi, K. L., Singla, A. K., and Johri, R. K. Antidiarrhoeal activity of piperine in mice. Planta Med 2001;67(3):284-287. View abstract.
  • Bajad, S., Bedi, K. L., Singla, A. K., and Johri, R. K. Piperine inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats and mice. Planta Med 2001;67(2):176-179. View abstract.
  • Bang, J. S., Oh, da H., Choi, H. M., Sur, B. J., Lim, S. J., Kim, J. Y., Yang, H. I., Yoo, M. C., Hahm, D. H., and Kim, K. S. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1beta-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Res.Ther 2009;11(2):R49. View abstract.
  • Bano G, Amla V, Raina RK, et al. The effect of piperine on pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in healthy volunteers. Planta Med 1987;53:568-9.
  • Bano G, et al. Effect of piperine on bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;41;615-7. View abstract.
  • Bezerra, D. P., Castro, F. O., Alves, A. P., Pessoa, C., Moraes, M. O., Silveira, E. R., Lima, M. A., Elmiro, F. J., and Costa-Lotufo, L. V. In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by piplartine and piperine, two alkaloid amides from Piper. Braz.J Med Biol.Res. 2006;39(6):801-807. View abstract.
  • Bezerra, D. P., de Castro, F. O., Alves, A. P., Pessoa, C., de Moraes, M. O., Silveira, E. R., Lima, M. A., Elmiro, F. J., de Alencar, N. M., Mesquita, R. O., Lima, M. W., and Costa-Lotufo, L. V. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of 5-FU combined with piplartine and piperine. J Appl.Toxicol. 2008;28(2):156-163. View abstract.
  • Bezerra, D. P., Pessoa, C., de Moraes, M. O., Silveira, E. R., Lima, M. A., Elmiro, F. J., and Costa-Lotufo, L. V. Antiproliferative effects of two amides, piperine and piplartine, from Piper species. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2005;60(7-8):539-543. View abstract.
  • Bhardwaj RK, Glaeser H, Becquemont L, et al. Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002;302:645-50. View abstract.
  • Capasso, R., Izzo, A. A., Borrelli, F., Russo, A., Sautebin, L., Pinto, A., Capasso, F., and Mascolo, N. Effect of piperine, the active ingredient of black pepper, on intestinal secretion in mice. Life Sci 9-27-2002;71(19):2311-2317. View abstract.
  • Catchpole, O. J., Grey, J. B., Perry, N. B., Burgess, E. J., Redmond, W. A., and Porter, N. G. Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-13-2003;51(17):4853-4860. View abstract.
  • Choi, B. M., Kim, S. M., Park, T. K., Li, G., Hong, S. J., Park, R., Chung, H. T., and Kim, B. R. Piperine protects cisplatin-induced apoptosis via heme oxygenase-1 induction in auditory cells. J Nutr.Biochem. 2007;18(9):615-622. View abstract.
  • Cohle SD, Trestrail JD III, Graham MA, et al. Fatal pepper aspiration. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:633-6. View abstract.
  • Comparison of the effects of piperine administered intragastrically and intraperitoneally on the liver and liver mixed-function oxidases in rats. Drug Metabol.Drug Interact. 1991;9(1):23-30. View abstract.
  • D'Cruz, S. C. and Mathur, P. P. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats. Asian J Androl 2005;7(4):363-368. View abstract.
  • D'Cruz, S. C., Vaithinathan, S., Saradha, B., and Mathur, P. P. Piperine activates testicular apoptosis in adult rats. J Biochem.Mol.Toxicol. 2008;22(6):382-388. View abstract.
  • D'Hooge, R., Pei, Y. Q., Raes, A., Lebrun, P., van Bogaert, P. P., and de Deyn, P. P. Anticonvulsant activity of piperine on seizures induced by excitatory amino acid receptor agonists. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46(6):557-560. View abstract.
  • Daware, M. B., Mujumdar, A. M., and Ghaskadbi, S. Reproductive toxicity of piperine in Swiss albino mice. Planta Med 2000;66(3):231-236. View abstract.
  • Debrauwere, J. and Verzele, M. Constituents of peppers: IV. The hydrocarbons of pepper essential oil. J Chromatogr.Sci 1976;14(6):296-298. View abstract.
  • Dessirier, J. M., Nguyen, N., Sieffermann, J. M., Carstens, E., and O'Mahony, M. Oral irritant properties of piperine and nicotine: psychophysical evidence for asymmetrical desensitization effects. Chem.Senses 1999;24(4):405-413. View abstract.
  • Dhuley, J. N., Raman, P. H., Mujumdar, A. M., and Naik, S. R. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by piperine during experimental inflammation in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1993;31(5):443-445. View abstract.
  • Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:308-16. View abstract.
  • Duessel, S., Heuertz, R. M., and Ezekiel, U. R. Growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by plant compounds. Clin Lab Sci. 2008;21(3):151-157. View abstract.
  • Ebihara, T., Ebihara, S., Maruyama, M., Kobayashi, M., Itou, A., Arai, H., and Sasaki, H. A randomized trial of olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil in older people with swallowing dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54(9):1401-1406.View abstract.
  • El Hamss, R., Idaomar, M., Alonso-Moraga, A., and Munoz, Serrano A. Antimutagenic properties of bell and black peppers. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2003;41(1):41-47. View abstract.
  • el Mofty, M. M., Soliman, A. A., Abdel-Gawad, A. F., Sakr, S. A., and Shwaireb, M. H. Carcinogenicity testing of black pepper (Piper nigrum) using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis) as a quick biological test animal. Oncology 1988;45(3):247-252. View abstract.
  • el-Mofty MM, Khudoley VV, Shwaireb MH. Carcinogenic effect of force-feeding an extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis). Oncology 1991;48:347-50. View abstract.
  • Eldershaw, T. P., Colquhoun, E. Q., Bennett, K. L., Dora, K. A., and Clark, M. G. Resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb. Life Sci 1994;55(5):389-397. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Epstein, W and Netz, D. Isolation of piperine from black pepper. Journal of Chemical Education 1993;70(7):598.
  • Faas, L., Venkatasamy, R., Hider, R. C., Young, A. R., and Soumyanath, A. In vivo evaluation of piperine and synthetic analogues as potential treatments for vitiligo using a sparsely pigmented mouse model. Br.J Dermatol. 2008;158(5):941-950. View abstract.
  • Freeman, S., Ebihara, S., Ebihara, T., Niu, K., Kohzuki, M., Arai, H., and Butler, J. P. Olfactory stimuli and enhanced postural stability in older adults. Gait.Posture. 2009;29(4):658-660. View abstract.
  • Freire-de-Lima, L., Ribeiro, T. S., Rocha, G. M., Brandao, B. A., Romeiro, A., Mendonca-Previato, L., Previato, J. O., de Lima, M. E., de Carvalho, T. M., and Heise, N. The toxic effects of piperine against Trypanosoma cruzi: ultrastructural alterations and reversible blockage of cytokinesis in epimastigote forms. Parasitol.Res. 2008;102(5):1059-1067. View abstract.
  • Friedman, M., Levin, C. E., Lee, S. U., Lee, J. S., Ohnisi-Kameyama, M., and Kozukue, N. Analysis by HPLC and LC/MS of pungent piperamides in commercial black, white, green, and red whole and ground peppercorns. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-14-2008;56(9):3028-3036. View abstract.
  • Gevaert, T., Vandepitte, J., Hutchings, G., Vriens, J., Nilius, B., and De Ridder, D. TRPV1 is involved in stretch-evoked contractile changes in the rat autonomous bladder model: a study with piperine, a new TRPV1 agonist. Neurourol.Urodyn. 2007;26(3):440-450. View abstract.
  • Ghadirian, P., Ekoe, J. M., and Thouez, J. P. Food habits and esophageal cancer: an overview. Cancer Detect.Prev. 1992;16(3):163-168. View abstract.
  • Ghoshal, S., Prasad, B. N., and Lakshmi, V. Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;50(3):167-170. View abstract.
  • Gulcin, I. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. Int.J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(7):491-499. View abstract.
  • Hamada, T. [Studies on the crude drugs used for the folk medicine described in "mimi-bukuro"]. Yakushigaku.Zasshi 1995;30(1):46-53. View abstract.
  • Han, Y., Chin Tan, T. M., and Lim, L. Y. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 8-1-2008;230(3):283-289. View abstract.
  • Hiwale, A. R., Dhuley, J. N., and Naik, S. R. Effect of co-administration of piperine on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2002;40(3):277-281. View abstract.
  • Hogg JW, Terhune SJ, and Lawrence BM. Essential oils and their constituents 18. Cosmet.Perfum. 1974;89(64):69.
  • Hu, Y., Guo, D. H., Liu, P., Rahman, K., Wang, D. X., and Wang, B. Antioxidant effects of a Rhodobryum roseum extract and its active components in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats and cardiac myocytes against oxidative stress-triggered damage. Pharmazie 2009;64(1):53-57. View abstract.
  • Hu, Y., Liao, H. B., Liu, P., Guo, D. H., and Wang, Y. Y. [Antidepressant effects of piperine and its neuroprotective mechanism in rats]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Xue.Bao. 2009;7(7):667-670. View abstract.
  • Izzo, A. A., Capasso, R., Pinto, L., Di Carlo, G., Mascolo, N., and Capasso, F. Effect of vanilloid drugs on gastrointestinal transit in mice. Br.J Pharmacol. 2001;132(7):1411-1416. View abstract.
  • Jamwal, D. S. and Singh, J. Effects of piperine on enzyme activities and bioenergetic functions in isolated rat liver mitochondria and hepatocytes. J Biochem.Toxicol. 1993;8(4):167-174. View abstract.
  • Jeannel, D., Hubert, A., de Vathaire, F., Ellouz, R., Camoun, M., Ben Salem, M., Sancho-Garnier, H., and de The, G. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study. Int J Cancer 9-15-1990;46(3):421-425. View abstract.
  • Jensen, H. R., Scott, I. M., Sims, S. R., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol.Biol. 2006;15(3):329-339. View abstract.
  • Jensen, H. R., Scott, I. M., Sims, S., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of Piper nigrum. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-22-2006;54(4):1289-1295. View abstract.
  • Jhamandas, K., Yaksh, T. L., Harty, G., Szolcsanyi, J., and Go, V. L. Action of intrathecal capsaicin and its structural analogues on the content and release of spinal substance P: selectivity of action and relationship to analgesia. Brain Res. 7-23-1984;306(1-2):215-225. View abstract.
  • Jin, Z., Borjihan, G., Zhao, R., Sun, Z., Hammond, G. B., and Uryu, T. Antihyperlipidemic compounds from the fruit of Piper longum L. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(8):1194-1196. View abstract.
  • Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Ngassoum, M. B., and Geissler, M. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry. J Chromatogr.A 11-8-2002;976(1-2):265-275. View abstract.
  • Johri, R. K., Thusu, N., Khajuria, A., and Zutshi, U. Piperine-mediated changes in the permeability of rat intestinal epithelial cells. The status of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, uptake of amino acids and lipid peroxidation. Biochem.Pharmacol. 4-1-1992;43(7):1401-1407. View abstract.
  • Kakarala M, Brenner DE, Korkaya H, Cheng C, Tazi K, Ginestier C, Liu S, Dontu G, Wicha MS. Targeting breast stem cells with the cancer preventive compounds curcumin and piperine. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Aug;122(3):777-85.View abstract.
  • Kamble VA. Spice derived essential oils: effective antifungal and possible therapeutic agents. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 2008;14(3-4):129-143.
  • Kanaki, N., Dave, M., Padh, H., and Rajani, M. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn. J Nat.Med 2008;62(3):281-283. View abstract.
  • Kapoor, I. P., Singh, B., Singh, G., De Heluani, C. S., De Lampasona, M. P., and Catalan, C. A. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum). J Agric.Food Chem. 6-24-2009;57(12):5358-5364. View abstract.
  • Karekar, V. R., Mujumdar, A. M., Joshi, S. S., Dhuley, J., Shinde, S. L., and Ghaskadbi, S. Assessment of genotoxic effect of piperine using Salmonella typhimurium and somatic and somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46(10):972-975. View abstract.
  • Kasibhatta, R. and Naidu, M. U. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine under fasting conditions: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Drugs R.D. 2007;8(6):383-391. View abstract.
  • Khajuria A, Zutshi U, Bedi KL. Permeability characteristics of piperine on oral absorption-an active alkaloid from peppers and a bioavailability enhancer. Indian J Exp Biol 1998;36:46-50. View abstract.
  • Khajuria, A., Thusu, N., Zutshi, U., and Bedi, K. L. Piperine modulation of carcinogen induced oxidative stress in intestinal mucosa. Mol.Cell Biochem. 1998;189(1-2):113-118. View abstract.
  • Kim, S. H. and Lee, Y. C. Piperine inhibits eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness by suppressing T cell activity and Th2 cytokine production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61(3):353-359. View abstract.
  • Kong, L. D., Cheng, C. H., and Tan, R. X. Inhibition of MAO A and B by some plant-derived alkaloids, phenols and anthraquinones. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91(2-3):351-355. View abstract.
  • Koul, I. B. and Kapil, A. Evaluation of the liver protective potential of piperine, an active principle of black and long peppers. Planta Med 1993;59(5):413-417. View abstract.
  • Kozukue, N., Park, M. S., Choi, S. H., Lee, S. U., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Levin, C. E., and Friedman, M. Kinetics of light-induced cis-trans isomerization of four piperines and their levels in ground black peppers as determined by HPLC and LC/MS. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-22-2007;55(17):7131-7139. View abstract.
  • Krishnakumar, N., Manoharan, S., Palaniappan, P. R., Venkatachalam, P., and Manohar, M. G. Chemopreventive efficacy of piperine in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis: an FT-IR study. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(11):2813-2820. View abstract.
  • Kuenzi, F. M. and Dale, N. Effect of capsaicin and analogues on potassium and calcium currents and vanilloid receptors in Xenopus embryo spinal neurones. Br.J Pharmacol. 1996;119(1):81-90. View abstract.
  • Kumar, S., Singhal, V., Roshan, R., Sharma, A., Rembhotkar, G. W., and Ghosh, B. Piperine inhibits TNF-alpha induced adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial monolayer through suppression of NF-kappaB and IkappaB kinase activation. Eur.J Pharmacol. 12-1-2007;575(1-3):177-186. View abstract.
  • Lawless, H. and Stevens, D. A. Effects of oral chemical irritation on taste. Physiol Behav. 1984;32(6):995-998. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. A., Hong, S. S., Han, X. H., Hwang, J. S., Oh, G. J., Lee, K. S., Lee, M. K., Hwang, B. Y., and Ro, J. S. Piperine from the fruits of Piper longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 2005;53(7):832-835. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. E., Park, B. S., Bayman, P., Baker, J. L., Choi, W. S., and Campbell, B. C. Suppression of ochratoxin biosynthesis by naturally occurring alkaloids. Food Addit.Contam 2007;24(4):391-397. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. W., Kim, Y. K., Kim, K., Lee, H. S., Choi, J. H., Lee, W. S., Jun, C. D., Park, J. H., Lee, J. M., and Rho, M. C. Alkamides from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum displaying potent cell adhesion inhibition. Bioorg.Med Chem.Lett. 8-15-2008;18(16):4544-4546. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. W., Rho, M. C., Park, H. R., Choi, J. H., Kang, J. Y., Lee, J. W., Kim, K., Lee, H. S., and Kim, Y. K. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum. J Agric.Food Chem. 12-27-2006;54(26):9759-9763. View abstract.
  • Li, M. and Liu, Z. In vitro effect of Chinese herb extracts on caries-related bacteria and glucan. J Vet.Dent. 2008;25(4):236-239. View abstract.
  • Li, S., Wang, C., Li, W., Koike, K., Nikaido, T., and Wang, M. W. Antidepressant-like effects of piperine and its derivative, antiepilepsirine. J Asian Nat.Prod.Res. 2007;9(3-5):421-430. View abstract.
  • Li, S., Wang, C., Wang, M., Li, W., Matsumoto, K., and Tang, Y. Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms. Life Sci 3-20-2007;80(15):1373-1381. View abstract.
  • Liao, H., Liu, P., Hu, Y., Wang, D., and Lin, H. [Antidepressant-like effects of piperine and its neuroprotective mechanism]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(12):1562-1565. View abstract.
  • Lin, J. K. Food-borne amines and amides as potential precursors of endogenous carcinogens. Proc Natl.Sci Counc.Repub.China B 1986;10(1):20-34. View abstract.
  • Lin, Z., Hoult, J. R., Bennett, D. C., and Raman, A. Stimulation of mouse melanocyte proliferation by Piper nigrum fruit extract and its main alkaloid, piperine. Planta Med 1999;65(7):600-603. View abstract.
  • Lin, Z., Liao, Y., Venkatasamy, R., Hider, R. C., and Soumyanath, A. Amides from Piper nigrum L. with dissimilar effects on melanocyte proliferation in-vitro. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2007;59(4):529-536. View abstract.
  • Lupina, T. and Cripps, H. UV spectrophotometric determination of piperine in pepper preparations: collaborative study. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1987;70(1):112-113. View abstract.
  • Madhyastha, M. S. and Bhat, R. V. Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production on black and white pepper and the inhibitory action of their chemical constituents. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 1984;48(2):376-379. View abstract.
  • Madrigal-Bujaidar, E., Diaz, Barriga S., Mota, P., Guzman, R., and Cassani, M. Sister chromatid exchanges induced in vitro and in vivo by an extract of black pepper. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1997;35(6):567-571. View abstract.
  • Malini, T., Arunakaran, J., Aruldhas, M. M., and Govindarajulu, P. Effects of piperine on the lipid composition and enzymes of the pyruvate-malate cycle in the testis of the rat in vivo. Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int. 1999;47(3):537-545. View abstract.
  • Malini, T., Manimaran, R. R., Arunakaran, J., Aruldhas, M. M., and Govindarajulu, P. Effects of piperine on testis of albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(3):219-225. View abstract.
  • Manoharan, S., Balakrishnan, S., Menon, V. P., Alias, L. M., and Reena, A. R. Chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Singapore Med.J 2009;50(2):139-146. View abstract.
  • Martenson, M. E., Arguelles, J. H., and Baumann, T. K. Enhancement of rat trigeminal ganglion neuron responses to piperine in a low-pH environment and block by capsazepine. Brain Res. 6-27-1997;761(1):71-76. View abstract.
  • Matsuda, D., Ohte, S., Ohshiro, T., Jiang, W., Rudel, L., Hong, B., Si, S., and Tomoda, H. Molecular target of piperine in the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation in macrophages. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2008;31(6):1063-1066. View abstract.
  • Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., Morikawa, T., Yasuda, D., Yamaguchi, I., and Yoshikawa, M. Hepatoprotective amide constituents from the fruit of Piper chaba: Structural requirements, mode of action, and new amides. Bioorg.Med Chem. 10-15-2009;17(20):7313-7323. View abstract.
  • Matsuda, H., Ochi, M., Nagatomo, A., and Yoshikawa, M. Effects of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish on several experimental gastric lesions in rats. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-30-2007;561(1-3):172-181. View abstract.
  • McNamara, F. N., Randall, A., and Gunthorpe, M. J. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Br J Pharmacol 2005;144(6):781-790. View abstract.
  • Meghwal M, Goswami TK. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update. Phytother Res. 2013;27(8):1121-30. View abstract.
  • Micevych, P. E., Yaksh, T. L., and Szolcsanyi, J. Effect of intrathecal capsaicin analogues on the immunofluorescence of peptides and serotonin in the dorsal horn in rats. Neuroscience 1983;8(1):123-131. View abstract.
  • Mittal, R. and Gupta, R. L. In vitro antioxidant activity of piperine. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2000;22(5):271-274. View abstract.
  • Miyauchi, T., Ishikawa, T., Sugishita, Y., Saito, A., and Goto, K. Effects of piperine on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves in the isolated rat atria. Neurosci.Lett. 8-31-1988;91(2):222-227. View abstract.
  • Miyauchi, T., Ishikawa, T., Sugishita, Y., Saito, A., and Goto, K. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the positive chronotropic and inotropic effects of piperine and development of cross-tachyphylaxis between piperine and capsaicin in the isolated rat atria. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther 1989;248(2):816-824. View abstract.
  • Mohtar, M., Johari, S. A., Li, A. R., Isa, M. M., Mustafa, S., Ali, A. M., and Basri, D. F. Inhibitory and resistance-modifying potential of plant-based alkaloids against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Curr.Microbiol. 2009;59(2):181-186. View abstract.
  • Mori, A., Kabuto, H., and Pei, Y. Q. Effects of piperine on convulsions and on brain serotonin and catecholamine levels in E1 mice. Neurochem.Res. 1985;10(9):1269-1275. View abstract.
  • Mujumdar, A. M., Dhuley, J. N., Deshmukh, V. K., Raman, P. H., and Naik, S. R. Anti-inflammatory activity of piperine. Jpn.J Med Sci Biol. 1990;43(3):95-100. View abstract.
  • Mujumdar, A. M., Dhuley, J. N., Deshmukh, V. K., Raman, P. H., Thorat, S. L., and Naik, S. R. Effect of piperine on pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1990;28(5):486-487. View Abstract.
  • Munakata, M., Kobayashi, K., Niisato-Nezu, J., Tanaka, S., Kakisaka, Y., Ebihara, T., Ebihara, S., Haginoya, K., Tsuchiya, S., and Onuma, A. Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil facilitates oral feeding in pediatric patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2008;214(4):327-332. View abstract.
  • Myers, B. M., Smith, J. L., and Graham, D. Y. Effect of red pepper and black pepper on the stomach. Am J Gastroenterol 1987;82(3):211-214. View abstract.
  • Nalini N, Sabitha K, Viswanathan P, Menon VP. Influence of spices on the bacterial (enzyme) activity in experimental colon cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:15-24. View abstract.

More Resources for BLACK PEPPER AND WHITE PEPPER

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.