CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

OTHER NAME(S):

Acide Linoléique Conjugué, Acide Linoléique Conjugué Cis-9,trans-11, Acide Linoléique Conjugué trans-10,cis-12, Acido Linoleico Conjugado, ALC, Cis-9,trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Cis-Linoleic Acid, CLA, CLA-Free Fatty Acid, CLA-Triacylglycerol, LA, Linoleic Acid, Trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a group of chemicals found in the fatty acid linoleic acid. Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in the diet. An average diet supplies 15-174 mg of conjugated linoleic acid daily.

Conjugated linoleic acid is commonly taken by mouth for weight loss. It is also often used for bodybuilding and fitness, but there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body fat deposits and improve immune function.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • High blood pressure. Taking conjugated linoleic acid along with ramipril seems to reduce blood pressure more than ramipril alone in people with uncontrolled high blood pressure.
  • Obesity. Taking conjugated linoleic acid by mouth daily might help decrease body fat in adults. Also, conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger, but it’s not clear if this leads to reduced caloric intake. Conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to decrease body weight or body mass index (BMI) in most people. Also, taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to prevent weight gain in previously obese people who lost some weight.
    Adding conjugated linoleic acid to fatty foods does not seem to promote weight loss. However, adding conjugated linoleic acid to milk might help decrease body fat in obese adults.
    In children, taking 3 grams of conjugated linoleic acid daily seems to help reduce body fat.
    While conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body weight, some research shows that taking a particular form of conjugated linoleic acid (the trans-10,cis-12 isomer) might increase risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It’s not clear whether supplements containing different forms of conjugated linoleic acid have this same risk.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Common cold. Research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid does not prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold.
  • Diabetes. Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Exercise performance. Taking conjugated linoleic acid in combination with aerobic training does not seem to improve muscle endurance, muscle power, breathing, or fatigue in men.
  • High cholesterol. Drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve levels of cholesterol or blood fats called triglycerides in people with mildly high cholesterol levels.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Allergies (hay fever). Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve well-being in people with birch allergies. However, it doesn’t seem to improve allergy symptoms.
  • Asthma. Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve airway sensitivity and ability to exercise in people with asthma. However, it doesn’t seem to reduce the need to use inhalers or improve the volume of air the lung can contain.
  • Breast cancer. Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for preventing breast cancer is conflicting. Some early research has found that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. However, other research has found that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, some research has found that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Colon and rectal cancer. Some early research suggests that a diet high in conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with a lower risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in women. It is not known whether taking conjugated linoleic acid supplements provides the same benefit.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 90 days along with dieting seems to decrease body fat compared to baseline in people with metabolic syndrome. However, it does not seem to lower cholesterol levels or blood pressure.
  • Strength. Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for improving strength is conflicting. Some research shows that taking conjugated linoleic acid, alone or along with creatine and whey protein, helps increase strength and improve lean tissue mass in people who are strength training. However, other research shows that conjugated linoleic acid does not improve strength or body composition when used along with strength training.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggest that taking conjugated linoleic acid, alone or along with vitamin E, reduces pain and morning stiffness, as well as lab markers of swelling, compared to pretreatment in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate conjugated linoleic acid for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Conjugated linoleic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts found in foods and is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts (larger amounts than those found in food). It might cause side effects such as stomach upset, diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, backache, and increased risk of bleeding. In rare cases, conjugated linoleic acid has caused liver toxicity.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Conjugated linoleic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for up to 7 months. There is not enough evidence to know if long-term use is safe.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Conjugated linoleic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. But there is not enough evidence to know if conjugated linoleic acid is safe to use in medicinal mounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders. Conjugated linoleic acid might slow blood clotting. In theory, conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Diabetes: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid can worsen diabetes. Avoid use.

Metabolic syndrome: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of getting diabetes if you have metabolic syndrome. Use cautiously.

Surgery: Conjugated linoleic acid might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using it at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH

  • For reducing body fat in obese patients, a dose of 1.8 to 7 grams per day has been used. However, doses greater than 3.4 grams per day do not seem to offer any additional benefit.
  • For reducing high blood pressure, conjugated linoleic acid 4.5 grams per day along with ramipril (Altace) 37.5 mg/day has been used for 8 weeks.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH
  • For reducing body fat, a dose of 3 grams per day for 7 months has been in overweight children aged 6 to 10 years.

View References

REFERENCES:

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  • McClelland, S., Cox, C., O'Connor, R., de Gaetano, M., McCarthy, C., Cryan, L., Fitzgerald, D., and Belton, O. Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses the migratory and inflammatory phenotype of the monocyte/macrophage cell. Atherosclerosis 2010;211(1):96-102. View abstract.
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  • Naumann, E., Carpentier, Y. A., Saebo, A., Lassel, T. S., Chardigny, J. M., Sebedio, J. L., and Mensink, R. P. Cis-9, trans- 11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) do not affect the plasma lipoprotein profile in moderately overweight subjects with LDL phenotype B. Atherosclerosis 2006;188(1):167-174. View abstract.
  • Nazare, J. A., de la Perriere, A. B., Bonnet, F., Desage, M., Peyrat, J., Maitrepierre, C., Louche-Pelissier, C., Bruzeau, J., Goudable, J., Lassel, T., Vidal, H., and Laville, M. Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects. Br.J Nutr 2007;97(2):273-280. View abstract.
  • Nicolosi, R. J., Rogers, E. J., Kritchevsky, D., Scimeca, J. A., and Huth, P. J. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces plasma lipoproteins and early aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Artery 1997;22(5):266-277. View abstract.
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  • Norris, L. E., Collene, A. L., Asp, M. L., Hsu, J. C., Liu, L. F., Richardson, J. R., Li, D., Bell, D., Osei, K., Jackson, R. D., and Belury, M. A. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2009;90(3):468-476. View abstract.
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