CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

OTHER NAME(S):

Acide Linoléique Conjugué, Acide Linoléique Conjugué Cis-9,trans-11, Acide Linoléique Conjugué trans-10,cis-12, Acido Linoleico Conjugado, ALC, Cis-9,trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Cis-Linoleic Acid, CLA, CLA-Free Fatty Acid, CLA-Triacylglycerol, LA, Linoleic Acid, Trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a type of fat. Dairy products and beef are the major sources of conjugated linoleic acid in the diet. An average diet supplies 15-174 mg of conjugated linoleic acid daily.

Conjugated linoleic acid is commonly taken by mouth for weight loss. It is also often used for bodybuilding and fitness, but there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body fat deposits and improve immune function.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • High blood pressure. Taking conjugated linoleic acid along with the blood pressure drug ramipril seems to reduce blood pressure more than ramipril alone in people with uncontrolled high blood pressure.
  • Obesity. Taking conjugated linoleic acid by mouth daily might help decrease body fat in adults. Also, conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger, but it's not clear if this leads to reduced food intake. Conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to decrease body weight or body mass index (BMI) in most people. Also, taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to prevent weight gain in previously obese people who lost some weight.
    Adding conjugated linoleic acid to fatty foods does not seem to promote weight loss. However, adding conjugated linoleic acid to milk might help decrease body fat in obese adults.
    In children, taking 3 grams of conjugated linoleic acid daily seems to help reduce body fat.
    While conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body weight, some research shows that taking a particular form of conjugated linoleic acid (the trans-10,cis-12 isomer) might increase risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It's not clear whether supplements containing different forms of conjugated linoleic acid have this same risk.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Common cold. Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold.
  • Diabetes. Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve levels of cholesterol or blood fats called triglycerides in people with mildly high cholesterol levels.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Hay fever. Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve well-being in people with birch allergies. However, it doesn't seem to improve allergy symptoms.
  • Asthma. Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve airway sensitivity and ability to exercise in people with asthma. However, it doesn't seem to reduce the need to use inhalers or improve the volume of air the lungs can hold.
  • Athletic performance. Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve endurance, power, or fatigue in men taking part in aerobic exercise. However, some research shows that it may lengthen the amount of time that it takes for the body to get tired during exercise.
  • Breast cancer. Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for preventing breast cancer is mixed. Some early research has found that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. However, other research has found that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Also, some research has found that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Some early research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid daily might cause small improvements in the ability to recall words in older men, but not women.
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Some early research suggests that a diet high in conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with a lower risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in women. It is not known whether taking conjugated linoleic acid supplements provides the same benefit.
  • A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 90 days along with dieting seems to decrease body fat compared to baseline in people with metabolic syndrome. However, it does not seem to lower cholesterol levels or blood pressure.
  • Muscle strength. Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for improving strength is mixed. Some research shows that taking conjugated linoleic acid, alone or with creatine and whey protein, helps increase strength and improve lean muscle mass in people who lift weights. However, other research shows that conjugated linoleic acid does not improve strength or body composition when used along with strength training. Additional research in older adults shows that conjugated linoleic acid does not improve hand strength.
  • Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Some research shows that taking conjugated linoleic acid daily can decrease body fat, increase muscle, and lower fat levels in the blood in people with NAFLD.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid alone or along with vitamin E reduces pain, and morning stiffness, and as well as lab markers of swelling in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate conjugated linoleic acid for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Conjugated linoleic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts found in foods and is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts (larger amounts than those found in food). It might cause side effects such as stomach upset, diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, backache, and increased risk of bleeding. In rare cases, conjugated linoleic acid has caused liver toxicity.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Conjugated linoleic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. But there isn't enough reliable information to know if conjugated linoleic acid is safe to use in medicinal amounts when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Conjugated linoleic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for up to 7 months. There isn't enough reliable information to know if long-term use is safe.

Bleeding disorders. Conjugated linoleic acid might slow blood clotting. In theory, conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Diabetes: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid can worsen diabetes. Avoid use.

Metabolic syndrome: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of getting diabetes if you have metabolic syndrome. Use cautiously.

Surgery: Conjugated linoleic acid might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using it at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH

  • For obesity:a dose of 1.8 to 7 grams per day has been used. However, doses greater than 3.4 grams per day do not seem to offer any additional benefit.
  • For high blood pressure: conjugated linoleic acid 4.5 grams per day along with ramipril (Altace) 37.5 mg/day has been used for 8 weeks.
CHILDREN

BY MOUTH
  • For obesity: a dose of 3 grams per day for 7 months has been used in overweight children aged 6 to 10 years.

View References

REFERENCES:

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  • Castaneda-Gutierrez, E., Benefield, B. C., de Veth, M. J., Santos, N. R., Gilbert, R. O., Butler, W. R., and Bauman, D. E. Evaluation of the mechanism of action of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on reproduction in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2007;90(9):4253-4264. View abstract.
  • Chajes, V., Lavillonniere, F., Ferrari, P., Jourdan, M. L., Pinault, M., Maillard, V., Sebedio, J. L., and Bougnoux, P. Conjugated linoleic acid content in breast adipose tissue is not associated with the relative risk of breast cancer in a population of French patients. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(7):672-673. View abstract.
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  • Chao, P. M., Chen, W. H., Liao, C. H., and Shaw, H. M. Conjugated linoleic acid causes a marked increase in liver alpha-tocopherol and liver alpha-tocopherol transfer protein in C57BL/6 J mice. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2010;80(1):65-73. View abstract.
  • Cherian, G., Traber, M. G., Goeger, M. P., and Leonard, S. W. Conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil in laying hen diets: effects on egg fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and tocopherols during storage. Poult.Sci 2007;86(5):953-958. View abstract.
  • Cho, H. J., Kim, W. K., Kim, E. J., Jung, K. C., Park, S., Lee, H. S., Tyner, A. L., and Park, J. H. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits cell proliferation and ErbB3 signaling in HT-29 human colon cell line. Am J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2003;284(6):G996-1005. View abstract.
  • Cho, H. J., Lee, H. S., Chung, C. K., Kang, Y. H., Ha, Y. L., Park, H. S., and Park, J. H. trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces insulin-like growth factor-II secretion in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. J Med Food 2003;6(3):193-199. View abstract.
  • Choi, J. S., Jung, M. H., Park, H. S., and Song, J. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on insulin resistance and mRNA levels of genes regulating energy metabolism in high-fat-fed rats. Nutrition 2004;20(11-12):1008-1017. View abstract.
  • Choi, J. S., Koh, I. U., Jung, M. H., and Song, J. Effects of three different conjugated linoleic acid preparations on insulin signalling, fat oxidation and mitochondrial function in rats fed a high-fat diet. Br.J Nutr 2007;98(2):264-275. View abstract.
  • Chung, S., Brown, J. M., Sandberg, M. B., and McIntosh, M. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases adipocyte lipolysis and alters lipid droplet-associated proteins: role of mTOR and ERK signaling. J Lipid Res 2005;46(5):885-895. View abstract.
  • Cimini, A., Cristiano, L., Colafarina, S., Benedetti, E., Di Loreto, S., Festuccia, C., Amicarelli, F., Canuto, R. A., and Ceru, M. P. PPARgamma-dependent effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the human glioblastoma cell line (ADF). Int J Cancer 12-20-2005;117(6):923-933. View abstract.
  • Colakoglu, S., Colakoglu, M., Taneli, F., Cetinoz, F., and Turkmen, M. Cumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levels. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2006;46(4):570-577. View abstract.
  • Corino, C., Pastorelli, G., Rosi, F., Bontempo, V., and Rossi, R. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in sows on performance and immunoglobulin concentration in piglets. J Anim Sci 2009;87(7):2299-2305. View abstract.
  • Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., Abeysekara, S., and Zello, G. A. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19(1):79-96. View abstract.
  • Cunningham, D. C., Harrison, L. Y., and Shultz, T. D. Proliferative responses of normal human mammary and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors in culture. Anticancer Res 1997;17(1A):197-203. View abstract.
  • Cusack, S., Jewell, C., and Cashman, K. D. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the viability and metabolism of human osteoblast-like cells. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2005;72(1):29-39. View abstract.
  • Darestani, A. T., Hosseinpanah, F., Tahbaz, F., Amiri, Z., Darestani, R. T., and Hedayati, M. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition and leptin concentration in post-menopausal women. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism 2010;12(1):84.
  • Dauchy, R. T., Dauchy, E. M., Davidson, L. K., Krause, J. A., Lynch, D. T., Tirrell, P. C., Tirrell, R. P., Sauer, L. A., Van der, Riet P., and Blask, D. E. Inhibition of fatty acid transport and proliferative activity in tissue-isolated human squamous cell cancer xenografts perfused in situ with melatonin or eicosapentaenoic or conjugated linoleic acids. Comp Med 2007;57(4):377-382. View abstract.
  • De La, Torre A., Debiton, E., Durand, D., Chardigny, J. M., Berdeaux, O., Loreau, O., Barthomeuf, C., Bauchart, D., and Gruffat, D. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and their conjugated derivatives inhibit growth of human cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6B):3943-3949. View abstract.
  • de Veth, M. J., Bauman, D. E., Koch, W., Mann, G. E., Pfeiffer, A. M., and Butler, W. R. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for improving reproduction: a multi-study analysis in early-lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2009;92(6):2662-2669. View abstract.
  • Desroches, S., Chouinard, P. Y., Galibois, I., Corneau, L., Delisle, J., Lamarche, B., Couture, P., and Bergeron, N. Lack of effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids naturally incorporated into butter on the lipid profile and body composition of overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82(2):309-319. View abstract.
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  • Drury, B., Warford-Woolgar, L. J., Herchak, D. J., Bankovic-Calic, N., Crow, G., Taylor, C. G., Zahradka, P., Ogborn, M. R., and Aukema, H. M. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces early glomerular enlargement and elevated renal cyclooxygenase-2 levels in young obese fa/fa zucker rats. J Nutr 2009;139(2):285-290. View abstract.
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  • Evans, N. P., Misyak, S. A., Schmelz, E. M., Guri, A. J., Hontecillas, R., and Bassaganya-Riera, J. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma. J Nutr 2010;140(3):515-521. View abstract.
  • Eyjolfson, V., Spriet, L. L., and Dyck, D. J. Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(5):814-820. View abstract.
  • Fischer-Posovszky, P., Kukulus, V., Zulet, M. A., Debatin, K. M., and Wabitsch, M. Conjugated linoleic acids promote human fat cell apoptosis. Horm.Metab Res 2007;39(3):186-191. View abstract.
  • Gaullier, J. M., Halse, J., Hoivik, H. O., Hoye, K., Syvertsen, C., Nurminiemi, M., Hassfeld, C., Einerhand, A., O'Shea, M., and Gudmundsen, O. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. Br.J Nutr 2007;97(3):550-560. View abstract.
  • Gaullier, J. M., Halse, J., Hoye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., and Gudmundsen, O. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr 2005;135(4):778-784. View abstract.
  • Halade, G. V., Rahman, M. M., Williams, P. J., and Fernandes, G. Combination of conjugated linoleic acid with fish oil prevents age-associated bone marrow adiposity in C57Bl/6J mice. J Nutr Biochem. 7-23-2010; View abstract.
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  • Herrera, J. A., Arevalo-Herrera, M., Shahabuddin, A. K., Ersheng, G., Herrera, S., Garcia, R. G., and Lopez-Jaramillo, P. Calcium and conjugated linoleic acid reduces pregnancy-induced hypertension and decreases intracellular calcium in lymphocytes. Am.J.Hypertens. 2006;19(4):381-387. View abstract.
  • Herrera, J. A., Shahabuddin, A. K., Ersheng, G., Wei, Y., Garcia, R. G., and Lopez-Jaramillo, P. Calcium plus linoleic acid therapy for pregnancy-induced hypertension. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005;91(3):221-227. View abstract.
  • Herrmann, J., Rubin, D., Hasler, R., Helwig, U., Pfeuffer, M., Auinger, A., Laue, C., Winkler, P., Schreiber, S., Bell, D., and Schrezenmeir, J. Isomer-specific effects of CLA on gene expression in human adipose tissue depending on PPARgamma2 P12A polymorphism: a double blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:35. View abstract.
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