Beta-sitostanol, Bêta-sitostanol, Dihydro-beta-sitosterol, Ester de Stanol Végétal, Fucostanol, Phytostanol, Plant Stanol, Plant Stanol Esters, Stanol Végétal, Stigmastanol, 24-alpha-ethylcholestanol.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationSitostanol is a plant product. It is made from vegetable oils or the oil from pine tree wood pulp, and is then combined with canola oil. Sitostanol is used for prevention of heart disease and high cholesterol.
Sitostanol is an ingredient in Benecol margarine and some salad dressings. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows manufacturers of products that contain sitostanol or related plant chemicals (stanol esters) to claim that the product lowers the risk of getting coronary heart disease (CHD). The FDA reasons that sitostanol and other plant stanol esters along with a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol might reduce the risk of CHD by lowering bloodcholesterol levels. Although there is plenty of evidence that sitostanol does lower cholesterol levels, so far there is no proof that long-term use actually lowers the risk of developing CHD.
Do not confuse sitostanol with beta-sitosterol, an unsaturated plant sterol in the cholesterol-lowering margarine Take Control. Both sitostanol and beta-sitosterol are used for lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol and appear to be equally effective.
How does it work?Sitostanol blocks both the cholesterol from food and the cholesterol made by the liver from entering the body.
Uses & Effectiveness
Likely Effective for
- Reducing cholesterol levels. Sitostanol is effective for reducing cholesterol levels in adults with high cholesterol. It doesn't have to be taken with meals to work. Cholesterol levels decrease within 2 to 3 weeks of starting sitostanol, and return to pretreament levels within 2 to 3 weeks of discontinuation. Sitostanol may not have the same effect in all people. About 12% of patients do not respond to sitostanol.
People usually take sitostanol as part of a sitostanol-enriched food such as margarine. Sitostanol alone can reduce total and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 10% to 15%. Research suggests a dose of about 2 grams per day lowers cholesterol the most. Higher doses do not seem to work any better. When added to a cholesterol-lowering prescription medication (one of the “statins,” such as pravastatin (Pravachol) or simvastatin (Zocor), sitostanol reduces total cholesterol by an additional 3% to 11% and LDL cholesterol by another 7% to 16%.
Sitostanol also seems to be effective for reducing cholesterol levels in healthy children. However, treating children is not recommended unless “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are greater than 190 mg/dL or greater than 160 mg/dL if the child also has other risk factors for heart disease.
Possibly Effective for
- Reducing cholesterol levels in children with an inherited tendency toward high cholesterol (familial hypercholesterolemia).
Side Effects & SafetySitostanol is safe for most people. It might cause stomach upset or too much fat in the stool (steatorrhea).
Adults can safely use sitostanol for up to one year, and children can safely use it for up to three months.
There is some concern that sitostanol might decrease absorption of some nutrients since it decreases fat absorption. Sitostanol does seem to reduce the absorption of dietary beta-carotene, but this reduction may not be important to health.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of sitostanol during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
We currently have no information for SITOSTANOL Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For high cholesterol: 800 mg to 4 grams of sitostanol per day have been tried. However, doses above 2 grams per day don't seem to work any better than 2 grams per day. Single daily doses seem to be as effective as divided doses administered twice or three times daily.
- Anon. FDA authorizes new coronary heart disease health claim for plant sterol and plant stanol esters. FDA. 2000. Available at: <a href="http://www3.scienceblog.com/community/older/archives/M/1/fda0642.htm" target="_blank">http://www3.scienceblog.com/community/older/archives/M/1/fda0642.htm</a>. (Accessed 26 May 2016).
- Becker M, Staab D, Von Bergmann K. Treatment of severe familial hypercholesterolemia in childhood with sitosterol and sitostanol. J Pediatr 1993;122:292-6. View abstract.
- Berendschot TT, Plat J, de Jong A, Mensink RP. Long-term plant stanol and sterol ester-enriched functional food consumption, serum lutein/zeaxanthin concentration and macular pigment optical density. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun;101(11):1607-10. View abstract.
- Chen JT, Wesley R, Shamburek RD, et al. Meta-Analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:171-83. View abstract.
- Cholesterol-lowering margarines. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1999;41:56-8.
- Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Cholesterol reduction by different plant stanol mixtures and with variable fat intake. Metabolism 1999;48:575-80. View abstract.
- Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Effects of inhibiting cholesterol absorption and synthesis on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolemic non-insulin-dependent diabetic men. J Lipid Res 1996;37:1776-85. View abstract.
- Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Serum cholesterol and cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic NIDDM patients before and during sitostanol ester-margarine treatment. Diabetologia 1994;37:773-80. View abstract.
- Gylling H, Puska P, Vartiainen E, et al. Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. J Lipid Res 1999;40:593-600. View abstract.
- Gylling H, Puska P, Vartiainen E, et al. Retinol, vitamin D, carotenes and alpha-tocopherol in serum of a moderately hypercholesterolemic population consuming sitostanol ester margarine. Am J Cardiol 1999;145:279-85.
- Gylling H, Radhakrishnan R, Miettinen TA. Reduction of serum cholesterol in postmenopausal women with previous myocardial infarction and cholesterol malabsorption induced by dietary sitostanol ester margarine: women and dietary sitostanol. Circulation 1997;96:4226-31. View abstract.
- Gylling H, Siimes MA, Miettinen TA. Sitostanol ester margarine in dietary treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res 1995;36:1807-12. View abstract.
- Hallikainen M, Kurl S, Laakso M, Miettinen TA, Gylling H. Plant stanol esters lower LDL cholesterol level in statin-treated subjects with type 1 diabetes by interfering the absorption and synthesis of cholesterol. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug;217(2):473-8. View abstract.
- Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Gylling H, et al. Comparison of the effects of plant sterol ester and plant stanol ester-enriched margarines in lowering serum cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects on a low-fat diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:715-25. View abstract.
- Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Effects of low-fat stanol ester enriched margarines on concentrations of serum carotenoids in subjects with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:966-9. View abstract.
- Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr 2000;130:767-76. View abstract.
- Hallikainen MA, Uusitupa MI. Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:403-10. View abstract.
- Heinemann T, Kullak-Ublick GA, Pietruck B, von Bergmann K. Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40 Suppl 1:S59-63. View abstract.
- Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, et al. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1144-50. View abstract.
- Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, et al. Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J Lipid Res 2000;41:697-705. View abstract.
- Law M. Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. BMJ 2000;320:861-4. View abstract.
- Lichtenstein AH, Deckelbaum RJ. Stanol/sterol ester-containing foods and blood cholesterol levels: a statement for healthcare professionals from Nutrition Committee, Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, Metabolism of American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;103:1177-9. View abstract.
- Malhotra A, Shafiq N, Arora A, Singh M, Kumar R, Malhotra S. Dietary interventions (plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, soy protein and dietary fibers) for familial hypercholesterolaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 10;6:CD001918. View abstract.
- Mensink RP, de Jong A, Lütjohann D, Haenen GR, Plat J. Plant stanols dose-dependently decrease LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but not cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations, at intakes up to 9 g/d. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):24-33. View abstract.
- Miettinen TA, Puska P, Gylling H, et al. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. N Engl J Med 1995;333(20):1308-12. View abstract.
- Musa-Veloso K, Poon TH, Elliot JA, Chung C. A comparison of the LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant stanols and plant sterols over a continuous dose range: results of a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2011 Jul;85(1):9-28. View abstract.
- Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:1198-206. View abstract.
- O'Neill FH, Sanders TA, Thompson GR. Comparison of efficacy of plant stanol ester and sterol ester: short-term and longer-term studies. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4;96(1A):29D-36D. View abstract.
- Plat J, van Onselen EN, van Heugten MM, Mensink RP. Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of consumption frequency of margarines and shortenings enriched with plant stanol esters. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:671-7. View abstract.
- Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, Vanstone CA, Jones PJ. No changes in serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations with the intake of plant sterol/stanol esters in the context of a controlled diet. Metabolism. 2002 May;51(5):652-6. View abstract.
- Ras RT, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 28;112(2):214-9. View abstract.
- Schonfeld G. Plant sterols in atherosclerosis prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):3-4. View abstract.
- Spilburg CA, Goldberg AC, McGill JB, et al. Fat-free foods supplemented with soy stanol-lecithin powder reduce cholesterol absorption and LDL cholesterol. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:577-81. View abstract.
- Talati R, Sobieraj DM, Makanji SS, Phung OJ, Coleman CI. The comparative efficacy of plant sterols and stanols on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 May;110(5):719-26. View abstract.
- Tammi A, Ronnemaa T, Gylling H, et al. Plant stanol ester margarine lowers serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of healthy children: the STRIP project. Spec Turku Coronary Risk Factors Intervention Project. J Pediatr 2000;136:503-10. View abstract.
- Vanhanen HT, Kajander J, Lehtovirta H. Serum levels, absorption efficiency, faecal elimination and synthesis of cholesterol during increasing doses of dietary sitostanol esters in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Clin Sci (Colch) 1994;87:61-7. View abstract.
- Vásquez-Trespalacios EM, Romero-Palacio J. Efficacy of yogurt drink with added plant stanol esters (Benecol®, Colanta) in reducing total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial NCT01461798. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Aug 6;13:125. View abstract.
- Vuorio AF, Gylling H, Turtola H, et al. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-north karelia mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:500-6. View abstract.
- Weststrate JA, Meijer GW. Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:334-43. View abstract.
- Williams CL, Bollella MC, Strobino BA, et al. Plant stanol ester and bran fiber in childhood: effects on lipids, stool weight and stool frequency in preschool children. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:572-81. View abstract.
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