B. Bifidum, B. Breve, B. Infantis, B. lactis, B. Longum, Bifido, Bifido Bacterium Longum, Bifidobacterias, Bifidobactérie, Bifidobactéries, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis; Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum; Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium infantis; Bifidobacterium lactis; Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidum, Bifidus, Bifidus Brevis, Bifidus Infantis, Bifidus Longum, Bifidobacteria Bifidus, Lactobacillus Bifidus, L. Bifidus, Probiotic, Probiotique.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBifidobacteria are a group of bacteria that normally live in the intestines. They can be grown outside the body and then taken by mouth as medicine.
Bifidobacteria are commonly used for diarrhea, constipation, an intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome, for preventing the common cold or flu, and lots of other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
How does it work?Bifidobacteria belong to a group of bacteria called lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are found in fermented foods like yogurt and cheese. Bifidobacteria are used in treatment as so-called "probiotics," the opposite of antibiotics. They are considered "friendly" bacteria and are taken to grow and multiply in areas of the body where they normally would occur. The human body counts on its normal bacteria to perform several jobs, including breaking down foods, helping the body take in nutrients, and preventing the take-over of "bad" bacteria. Probiotics such as bifidobacteria are typically used in cases when a disease occurs or might occur due to a kill-off of normal bacteria. For example, treatment with antibiotics can destroy disease-causing bacteria, but also normal bacteria in the GI (gastrointestinal) and urinary tracts. The theory is that taking Bifidobacterium probiotics during antibiotic treatment can prevent or minimize the death of good bacteria and the take-over by bad bacteria.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Constipation. Research shows that taking bifidobacteria can increase bowel movements by about 2-4 stools per week in people with constipation.
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Taking bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus along with standard H. pylori therapy helps get rid of H. pylori infections about twice as well as taking standard H. pylori therapy alone. It can also reduce side effects caused by H. pylori therapy.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Most research shows that taking bifidobacteria for 4-8 weeks can reduce IBS symptoms such as stomach pain, bloating, and difficulty having a bowel movement. It might also reduce symptoms such as anxiety and depression in people with IBS. But some conflicting research exists.
- A complication after surgery for ulcerative colitis called pouchitis. Taking a combination of bifidobacteria, lactobacillus, and streptococcus by mouth seems to help prevent pouchitis after surgery for ulcerative colitis.
- Airway infections. Most research shows that using probiotics containing bifidobacteria helps prevent airway infections such as the common cold in otherwise healthy people, including school-aged children and college students. But taking bifidobacteria does not seem to reduce the risk of airway infections in hospitalized children and teens.
- Diarrhea in infants (rotaviral diarrhea). Giving bifidobacteria to infants with rotaviral diarrhea can shorten the duration of diarrhea by about one day.
- Traveler's diarrhea. Taking bifidobacteria helps prevent traveler's diarrhea when used with other probiotics such as lactobacillus or streptococcus.
- Ulcerative colitis. Research shows that taking probiotics containing bifidobacterium along with lactobacillus and streptococcus can help increase remission rate by almost 2-fold in people with active ulcerative colitis. However, most research shows that bifidobacterium is not beneficial for preventing relapse.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Diarrhea due to an infection with the bacteria Clostridium difficile. Most research shows that taking bifidobacteria along with other probiotics does not prevent diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile infection.
- Mortality of premature babies. Adding bifidobacteria to infant formula does not reduce the risk of death in premature babies.
- Infant development. Giving formula containing bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus does not improve growth in infants.
- Damage to the intestinal tract in preterm infants (Necrotizing enterocolitis; NEC). Research shows that giving bifidobacteria to preterm infants does not prevent necrotizing enterocolitis or death from any cause.
- Blood infection (sepsis). Adding bifidobacteria to infant formula does not prevent sepsis in premature babies.
- Weight loss. Taking bifidobacterium for 6 months does not improve weight loss in people who are overweight or obese.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Diarrhea caused by antibiotics. Research shows that taking bifidobacteria along with antibiotics can reduce the chance of diarrhea by about 45%. But some conflicting results exist. It is possible that bifidobacteria might prevent diarrhea caused by some antibiotics but not others. Also, bifidobacteria might work better when used in certain combinations with lactobacillus and streptococcus. But not all combination seem to work.
- Scaly, itchy skin (eczema). Some research shows that giving bifidobacterium to infants can help TREAT eczema, but conflicting results exist. Other research shows that giving bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus to pregnant women during the last 2 months of pregnancy, and then giving to the infant for the first 2 months after birth, can help PREVENT eczema. But conflicting results exist. Giving bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus to only at-risk infants during the first 6 months of life does not prevent eczema.
- Celiac disease. Early research shows that taking bifidobacteria as part of a gluten-free diet does not improve stomach and intestinal symptoms compared to diet alone in children with newly diagnosed celiac disease.
- Infections related to chemotherapy treatment. Early research shows that taking bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus or bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus plus enterococcus does not prevent yeast infections in people with leukemia who are undergoing chemotherapy.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking bifidobacteria along with lactobacillus helps lower fasting blood sugar and insulin levels in people with diabetes during pregnancy. But taking this combination doesn't help lower cholesterol or other blood fats in people with this condition.
- Muscle pain caused by exercise. Early research shows that taking bifidobacteria plus streptococcus doesn't reduce muscle soreness caused by lifting weights. But it does seem to improve range of motion during follow-up exercises despite muscle soreness.
- High cholesterol. Early research shows that drinking milk containing bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus can reduce "bad" low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with slightly high cholesterol. But it also seems to reduce "good" high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
- Japanese cedar pollen allergy. Some research shows that taking bifidobacteria during pollen season reduces nose and eye symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy. But conflicting results exists. Bifidobacteria does not seem to reduce sneezing or throat symptoms associated with Japanese cedar pollen allergy.
- Preventing infections after exposure to radiation. Early research shows that antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria can help improve short-term survival in the treatment of radiation sickness. In combination with antibiotics, bifidobacteria appear to help prevent dangerous bacteria from growing and causing a serious infection.
- Arthritis. Early research shows that taking bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus does not reduce symptom severity or lessen joint pain in people with moderate-to-severe arthritis.
- Breast pain, possibly due to infection (mastitis).
- Lactose intolerance.
- Liver problems.
- Lyme disease.
- Replacing beneficial bacteria removed by diarrhea.
- Stomach problems.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyBifidobacteria are LIKELY SAFE for adults and children when taken by mouth appropriately. In some people, treatment with bifidobacteria might upset the stomach and intestine, causing diarrhea, bloating and gas.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking bifidobacteria if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Weakened immune system: There is some concern that "probiotics" might grow too well in people with a weak immune system and cause infections. Although this has not occurred specifically with bifidobacteria, there have been rare cases involving other probiotic species such as Lactobacillus. If you have a weakened immune system (e.g., you have HIV/AIDS or are undergoing cancer treatment), check with your healthcare provider before using bifidobacteria.
Blockage in the intestines: Two cases of blood infections have been reported for infants given bifidobacteria probiotics. In both cases, the infants had had stomach surgery. It's thought that the blood infections resulted from intestinal blockage caused by the stomach surgeries, which allowed the bifidobacteria to cross into the bloodstream. In one case, taking bifidobacteria after the intestinal blockage was corrected did not cause another blood infection. Therefore the risk of blood infections is not a concern for most infants taking bifidobacteria. But bifidobacteria should be used cautiously or avoided in infants with stomach or intestinal blockages.
Be cautious with this combination
Antibiotic drugs interacts with BIFIDOBACTERIA
Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Antibiotics can also reduce friendly bacteria in the body. Bifidobacteria are a type of friendly bacteria. Taking antibiotics along with bifidobacteria might reduce the effectiveness of bifidobacteria. To avoid this interaction take bifidobacteria products at least two hours before or after antibiotics.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For constipation: 100 million to 20 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria have been used daily. In most cases, bifidobacteria are taken daily for 1-4 weeks. In some cases 5-60 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus have been taken daily for 1 week to 1 month.
- For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): For improving stomach and intestinal symptoms, 100 million to 1 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria has been used daily for 4-8 weeks. Also, 5 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus plus streptococcus has been used twice daily for 4 weeks. For improving depression and anxiety in people with IBS, 10 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria has been used once daily for 6 weeks.
- For airway infections: 3 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria have been used daily for 6 weeks.
- For a complication after surgery for ulcerative colitis called pouchitis: a dose of up to 3 trillion colony-forming units of bifodobacteria plus lactobacillus plus streptococcus has been given once daily for up to 12 months.
- For Helicobacter pylori treatment: 5 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus daily for 1 week during H. pylori treatment plus one week thereafter has been used.
- For ulcerative colitis: For increasing remission, 3 grams equivalent to 900 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus plus bifidobacterium plus streptococcus has been used once or twice daily.
- For constipation: 1-100 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria daily for 4 weeks has been used in children aged 3-16 years.
- For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): 10 billion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria daily for 4 weeks has been used.
- For airway infections: 2-10 billion colony-forming units of combinations of bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus have been used twice daily in children ages 3-13 years.
- Diarrhea in infants (rotaviral diarrhea): Bifidobacteria, along or along with streptococcus, has been used in children up to 3 years-old. Also, bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus has been used twice daily for 3 days.
- Ulcerative colitis: Up to 1.8 trillion colony-forming units of bifidobacteria plus lactobacillus plus streptococcus has been used daily for up to 1 year in children 1-16 years-old.
- Akatsu, H., Iwabuchi, N., Xiao, J. Z., Matsuyama, Z., Kurihara, R., Okuda, K., Yamamoto, T., and Maruyama, M. Clinical Effects of Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on Immune Function and Intestinal Microbiota in Elderly Patients Receiving Enteral Tube Feeding. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 11-27-2012; View abstract.
- Andrade, S. and Borges, N. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on plasma lipids of women with normal or moderately elevated cholesterol. J.Dairy Res. 2009;76(4):469-474. View abstract.
- Araya-Kojima Tomoko, Yaeshima Tomoko Ishibashi Norio Shimamura Seiichi Hayasawa Hirotoshi. Inhibitory Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on Harmful Intestinal Bacteria. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1995;14(2):59-66.
- Ballongue J, Grill J Baratte-Euloge P. Action sur la flore intestinale de laits fermentés au Bifidobacterium. Lait 1993;73:249-256.
- Bennet, R., Nord, C. E., and Zetterstrom, R. Transient colonization of the gut of newborn infants by orally administered bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Acta Paediatr. 1992;81(10):784-787. View abstract.
- Chouraqui, J. P., Grathwohl, D., Labaune, J. M., Hascoet, J. M., de, Montgolfier, I, Leclaire, M., Giarre, M., and Steenhout, P. Assessment of the safety, tolerance, and protective effect against diarrhea of infant formulas containing mixtures of probiotics or probiotics and prebiotics in a randomized controlled trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2008;87(5):1365-1373. View abstract.
- Das RR.Singh M, Shafiq N. Probiotics in Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis. World Allergy Organization Journal 2010;3(9):239-244.
- del Giudice, M. M. and Brunese, F. P. Probiotics, prebiotics, and allergy in children: what's new in the last year? J Clin.Gastroenterol. 2008;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S205-S208. View abstract.
- Firmansyah, A., Dwipoerwantoro, P. G., Kadim, M., Alatas, S., Conus, N., Lestarina, L., Bouisset, F., and Steenhout, P. Improved growth of toddlers fed a milk containing synbiotics. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 2011;20(1):69-76. View abstract.
- Gianotti, L., Morelli, L., Galbiati, F., Rocchetti, S., Coppola, S., Beneduce, A., Gilardini, C., Zonenschain, D., Nespoli, A., and Braga, M. A randomized double-blind trial on perioperative administration of probiotics in colorectal cancer patients. World J Gastroenterol. 1-14-2010;16(2):167-175. View abstract.
- Hascoet, J. M., Hubert, C., Rochat, F., Legagneur, H., Gaga, S., Emady-Azar, S., and Steenhout, P. G. Effect of formula composition on the development of infant gut microbiota. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2011;52(6):756-762. View abstract.
- Igarashi M, Iiyama Y Kato R Tomita M Asami N Ezawa I. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and lactulose on the strength of bone in ovariectomized osteoporosis model rates. Bifidus 1994;7:139-147.
- Iwabuchi N, Hiruta N Kanetada S Yaeshima T Iwatsuki K Yasui H. Effects of Intranasal Administration of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on Mucosal Immune System in Respiratory Tract and Influenza Virus Infection in Mice. Milk Science 2009;38(3):129-133.
- Iwabuchi, N., Takahashi, N., Xiao, J. Z., Miyaji, K., and Iwatsuki, K. In vitro Th1 cytokine-independent Th2 suppressive effects of bifidobacteria. Microbiol.Immunol. 2007;51(7):649-660. View abstract.
- Iwabuchi, N., Takahashi, N., Xiao, J. Z., Yonezawa, S., Yaeshima, T., Iwatsuki, K., and Hachimura, S. Suppressive effects of Bifidobacterium longum on the production of Th2-attracting chemokines induced with T cell-antigen-presenting cell interactions. FEMS Immunol.Med.Microbiol. 2009;55(3):324-334. View abstract.
- Iwabuchi, N., Xiao, J. Z., Yaeshima, T., and Iwatsuki, K. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum ameliorates influenza virus infection in mice. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2011;34(8):1352-1355. View abstract.
- Kageyama T, Nakano Y Tomoda T. Comparative Study on Oral Administration of Some Bifidobacterium Preparations. Medicine and Biology(Japan) 1987;115(2):65-68.
- Kageyama T, Tomoda T Nakano Y. The Effect of Bifidobacterium Administration in Patients with Leukemia. Bifidobacteria Microflora. 1984;3(1):29-33.
- Kondo, J., Xiao, J. Z., Shirahata, A., Baba, M., Abe, A., Ogawa, K., and Shimoda, T. Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding. World J Gastroenterol 4-14-2013;19(14):2162-2170. View abstract.
- Matsumoto, T., Ishikawa, H., Tateda, K., Yaeshima, T., Ishibashi, N., and Yamaguchi, K. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum prevents gut-derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis in mice. J Appl.Microbiol. 2008;104(3):672-680. View abstract.
- Namba K, Yaeshima T Ishibashi N Hayasawa H and Yamazaki Shoji. Inhibitory Effects of Bifidobacterium longum on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Bioscience Microflora 2003;22(3):85-91.
- Namba, K., Hatano, M., Yaeshima, T., Takase, M., and Suzuki, K. Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 administration on influenza infection, influenza vaccine antibody titer, and cell-mediated immunity in the elderly. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2010;74(5):939-945. View abstract.
- Odamaki, T., Sugahara, H., Yonezawa, S., Yaeshima, T., Iwatsuki, K., Tanabe, S., Tominaga, T., Togashi, H., Benno, Y., and Xiao, J. Z. Effect of the oral intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the cell numbers of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in microbiota. Anaerobe. 2012;18(1):14-18. View abstract.
- Odamaki, T., Xiao, J. Z., Iwabuchi, N., Sakamoto, M., Takahashi, N., Kondo, S., Iwatsuki, K., Kokubo, S., Togashi, H., Enomoto, T., and Benno, Y. Fluctuation of fecal microbiota in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season and influence of probiotic intake. J Investig.Allergol.Clin.Immunol. 2007;17(2):92-100. View abstract.
- Odamaki, T., Xiao, J. Z., Iwabuchi, N., Sakamoto, M., Takahashi, N., Kondo, S., Miyaji, K., Iwatsuki, K., Togashi, H., Enomoto, T., and Benno, Y. Influence of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 intake on faecal microbiota in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. J Med.Microbiol. 2007;56(Pt 10):1301-1308. View abstract.
- Odamaki, T., Xiao, J. Z., Sakamoto, M., Kondo, S., Yaeshima, T., Iwatsuki, K., Togashi, H., Enomoto, T., and Benno, Y. Distribution of different species of the Bacteroides fragilis group in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2008;74(21):6814-6817. View abstract.
- Ogata T, Kingaku M Yaeshima T Teraguchi S Fukuwatari Y Ishibashi N Hayasawa H Fujisawa T Lino H. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 yogurt administration on the intestinal environment of healthy adults. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1999;11:41-46.
- Ogata T, Nakamura T Anjitsu K Yaeshima T Takahashi S Fukuwatari Y Ishibashi N Hayasawa H Fujisawa T Iino H. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 administration on the intestinal environment, defecation frequency and fecal characteristics of human volunteers. Biosci Microflora 1997;16:53-58.
- Orrhage, K., Sjostedt, S., and Nord, C. E. Effect of supplements with lactic acid bacteria and oligofructose on the intestinal microflora during administration of cefpodoxime proxetil. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2000;46(4):603-612. View abstract.
- Puccio, G., Cajozzo, C., Meli, F., Rochat, F., Grathwohl, D., and Steenhout, P. Clinical evaluation of a new starter formula for infants containing live Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and prebiotics. Nutrition 2007;23(1):1-8. View abstract.
- Reddy, B. S. and Rivenson, A. Inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium longum on colon, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis induced by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, a food mutagen. Cancer Res. 9-1-1993;53(17):3914-3918. View abstract.
- Rouge, C., Piloquet, H., Butel, M. J., Berger, B., Rochat, F., Ferraris, L., Des, Robert C., Legrand, A., de la Cochetiere, M. F., N'Guyen, J. M., Vodovar, M., Voyer, M., Darmaun, D., and Roze, J. C. Oral supplementation with probiotics in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(6):1828-1835. View abstract.
- Seki M, Igarashi T Fukuda Y Simamura S Kaswashima T Ogasa K. The effect of Bifidobacterium cultured milk on the "regularity" among an aged group. Nutr Foodstuff 1978;31:379-387.
- Sekine I, Yoshiwara S Homma N Takanori H Tonosuka S. Effects of Bifidobacterium-containing milk on chemiluminescence reaction of peripheral leukocytes and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells - a possible role of Bifidobacterium on activation of macrophages. Therapeutics (Japan) 1985;14:691-695.
- Simakachorn, N., Bibiloni, R., Yimyaem, P., Tongpenyai, Y., Varavithaya, W., Grathwohl, D., Reuteler, G., Maire, J. C., Blum, S., Steenhout, P., Benyacoub, J., and Schiffrin, E. J. Tolerance, safety, and effect on the faecal microbiota of an enteral formula supplemented with pre- and probiotics in critically ill children. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2011;53(2):174-181. View abstract.
- Singh, J., Rivenson, A., Tomita, M., Shimamura, S., Ishibashi, N., and Reddy, B. S. Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing intestinal bacterium inhibits colon cancer and modulates the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 1997;18(4):833-841. View abstract.
- Soh, S. E., Aw, M., Gerez, I., Chong, Y. S., Rauff, M., Ng, Y. P., Wong, H. B., Pai, N., Lee, B. W., and Shek, L. P. Probiotic supplementation in the first 6 months of life in at risk Asian infants--effects on eczema and atopic sensitization at the age of 1 year. Clin.Exp.Allergy 2009;39(4):571-578. View abstract.
- Takeda, Y., Nakase, H., Namba, K., Inoue, S., Ueno, S., Uza, N., and Chiba, T. Upregulation of T-bet and tight junction molecules by Bifidobactrium longum improves colonic inflammation of ulcerative colitis. Inflamm.Bowel.Dis. 2009;15(11):1617-1618. View abstract.
- Tang, M. L., Lahtinen, S. J., and Boyle, R. J. Probiotics and prebiotics: clinical effects in allergic disease. Curr.Opin.Pediatr. 2010;22(5):626-634. View abstract.
- Tomoda T, Nakano Y Kageyama T. Intestinal Candida Overgrowth and Candida Infection in Patients with Leukemia: Effect of Bifidobacterium Administration. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1988;7(2):71-74.
- Tomoda T, Nakano Y Kageyama T. Variation in Small Groups of Constant Intestinal Flora during Administration of Anticancer or Immunosuppressive Drugs. Medicine and Biology(Japan) 1981;103(1):45-49.
- Xiao J, Kondol S Odamaki T Miyaji K Yaeshima T Iwatsuki K Togashi H Benno Y. Effect of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB 536 on the defecation frequency and fecal characteristics of healthy adults: A double-blind cross over study. Japanese Journal of Lactic Acid Bacteria 2007;18(1):31-36.
- Xiao, J. Z., Kondo, S., Takahashi, N., Odamaki, T., Iwabuchi, N., Miyaji, K., Iwatsuki, K., and Enomoto, T. Changes in plasma TARC levels during Japanese cedar pollen season and relationships with symptom development. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2007;144(2):123-127. View abstract.
- Xiao, J. Z., Kondo, S., Yanagisawa, N., Miyaji, K., Enomoto, K., Sakoda, T., Iwatsuki, K., and Enomoto, T. Clinical efficacy of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum for the treatment of symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy in subjects evaluated in an environmental exposure unit. Allergol.Int. 2007;56(1):67-75. View abstract.
- Xiao, J. Z., Kondo, S., Yanagisawa, N., Takahashi, N., Odamaki, T., Iwabuchi, N., Iwatsuki, K., Kokubo, S., Togashi, H., Enomoto, K., and Enomoto, T. Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 [corrected] in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Investig.Allergol.Clin.Immunol. 2006;16(2):86-93. View abstract.
- Xiao, J. Z., Kondo, S., Yanagisawa, N., Takahashi, N., Odamaki, T., Iwabuchi, N., Miyaji, K., Iwatsuki, K., Togashi, H., Enomoto, K., and Enomoto, T. Probiotics in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin.Exp.Allergy 2006;36(11):1425-1435. View abstract.
- Yaeshima T, Takahashi S Matsumoto N Ishibashi N Hayasawa H Lino H. Effect of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the intestinal environment, fecal characteristics and defecation frequency: A comparison with standard yogurt. Biosci Microflora 1997;16:73-77.
- Yaeshima T, Takahashi S Ogura A Konno T Iwatsuki K Ishibashi N Hayasawa H. Effect of Non-fermented Milk Containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the Defecation Frequency and Fecal Characteristics in Healthy Adults. Journal of Nutrition Food 2001;4(2):1-6.
- Yaeshima T, Takahashi S Ota S Nakagawa K Ishibashi N Hiramatsu A Ohashi T Hayasawa H Iino H. Effect of sweet yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation frequency and fecal characteristics of healthy adults: A comparison with sweet standard yogurt. Kenko Eiyo Shokuhin Kenkyu 1998;1(3/4):29-34.
- Yamazaki, S., Machii, K., Tsuyuki, S., Momose, H., Kawashima, T., and Ueda, K. Immunological responses to monoassociated Bifidobacterium longum and their relation to prevention of bacterial invasion. Immunology 1985;56(1):43-50. View abstract.
- Zsivkovits, M., Fekadu, K., Sontag, G., Nabinger, U., Huber, W. W., Kundi, M., Chakraborty, A., Foissy, H., and Knasmuller, S. Prevention of heterocyclic amine-induced DNA damage in colon and liver of rats by different lactobacillus strains. Carcinogenesis 2003;24(12):1913-1918. View abstract.
- AlFaleh K, Anabrees J, Bassler D, Al-Kharfi T. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD005496. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005496.pub3. View abstract.
- AlFaleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD005496. View abstract.
- Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, Thornton CA, Gravenor MB, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Wang D, Morgan G. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2014;99(11):1014-9. View abstract.
- Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2013 Oct 12;382(9900):1249-57. View abstract.
- Arunachalam K, Gill HS, Chandra RK. Enhancement of natural immune function by dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:263-7. View abstract.
- Bastürk A, Artan R, Yilmaz A. Efficacy of synbiotic, probiotic, and prebiotic treatments for irritable bowel syndrome in children: A randomized controlled trial. Turk J Gastroenterol 2016;27(5):439-43. View abstract.
- Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48(10):1127-35. View abstract.
- Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al. VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46. View abstract.
- Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017;6(4). View abstract.
- Bouhnik Y, Pochart P, Marteau P, et al. Fecal recovery in humans of viable bifidobacterium ingested in fermented milk. Gastroenterology 1992;102:875-8. View abstract.
- Chang HY, Chen JH, Chang JH, Lin HC, Lin CY, Peng CC. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171579. View abstract.
- Chen RM, Wu JJ, Lee SC, et al. Increase of intestinal Bifidobacterium and suppression of coliform bacteria with short-term yogurt ingestion. J Dairy Sci 1999:82:2308-14. View abstract.
- Chiang BL, Sheih YH, Wang LH, et al. Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019): optimization and definition of cellular immune responses. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:849-55. View abstract.
- Colombel JF, Cortot A, Neut C, Romond C. Yoghurt with Bifidobacterium longum reduces erythromycin-induced gastrointestinal effects. Lancet 1987;2:43.
- Costeloe K, Hardy P, Juszczak E, Wilks M, Millar MR; Probiotics in Preterm Infants Study Collaborative Group. Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 in very preterm infants: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016 Feb 13;387(10019):649-60. View abstract.
- Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2744-9. View abstract.
- Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1075-84. View abstract.
- Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic Agents, A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-5. View abstract.
- Eskesen D, Jespersen L, Michelsen B, Whorwell PJ, Müller-Lissner S, Morberg CM. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled,parallel-group trial. Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 28;114(10):1638-46. View abstract.
- Fernández-Carrocera LA, Solis-Herrera A, Cabanillas-Ayón M, Gallardo-Sarmiento RB, García-Pérez CS, Montaño-Rodríguez R, Echániz-Aviles MO. Double-blind,randomised clinical assay to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in preterm newborns weighing less than 1500 g in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013;98(1):F5-9. View abstract.
- Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9. View abstract.
- Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD004827. View abstract.
- Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7. View abstract.
- Gore C, Custovic A, Tannock GW, Munro K, Kerry G, Johnson K, Peterson C, Morris J, Chaloner C, Murray CS, Woodcock A. Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema: randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years. Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(1):112-22. View abstract.
- Ha GY, Yang CH, Kim H, Chong Y. Case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:1227-8. View abstract.
- Han K, Wang J, Seo JG, Kim H. Efficacy of double-coated probiotics for irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Gastroenterol. 2017;52(4):432-443. View abstract.
- Hirayama K, Rafter J. The role of probiotic bacteria in cancer prevention. Microbes Infect 2000;2:681-6. View abstract.
- Hojsak I, Tokic Pivac V, Mocic Pavic A, Pasini AM, Kolacek S. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis fails to prevent common infections in hospitalized children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):680-4. View abstract.
- Hoyos AB. Reduced incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with enteral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis to neonates in an intensive care unit. Int J Infect Dis 1999;3:197-202. View abstract.
- Ishikawa H, Akedo I, Umesaki Y, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:56-63. View abstract.
- Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, et al. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1604-10. View abstract.
- Jäger R, Purpura M, Stone JD, et al. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 supplementation attenuates performance and range-of-motion decrements following muscle damaging exercise. Nutrients 2016;8(10). pii: E642. View abstract.
- Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF. Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2013;32(6):928-34. View abstract.
- Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant. J Infect 1996;32:165-7. View abstract.
- Karamali M, Dadkhah F, Sadrkhanlou M, et al. Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Metab 2016;42(4):234-41. View abstract.
- Kato K, Mizuno S, Umesaki Y, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1133-41. View abstract.
- Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904. . View abstract.
- Korschunov VM, Smeyanov VV, Efimov BA, et al. Therapeutic use of an antibiotic-resistant Bifidobacterium preparation in men exposed to high-dose gamma-irradiation. J Med Microbiol 1996;44:70-4. View abstract.
- Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis. Gut 2006;55:833-41. View abstract.
- Langkamp-Henken B, Rowe CC, Ford AL, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Khouri L,Specht GJ, Girard SA, Spaiser SJ, Dahl WJ. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2015 14;113(3):426-34. View abstract.
- Lau CS, Chamberlain RS. Probiotics are effective at preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gen Med. 2016;9:27-37. View abstract.
- Lewis SJ, Freedman AR. Review article: the use of biotherapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12:807-22. View abstract.
- Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179. View abstract.
- Lievin V, Peiffer I, Hudault S, et al. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity. Gut 2000;47:646-52. View abstract.
- Macfarlane GT, Cummings JH. Probiotics and prebiotics: can regulating the activities of intestinal bacteria benefit health? BMJ 1999;318:999-1003. View abstract.
- McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:812-22. View abstract.
- Meydani SN, Ha WK. Immunologic effects of yogurt. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:861-72. View abstract.
- Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E. et al. Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43. View abstract.
- Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004;53:108-14. View abstract.
- O'Callaghan A, van Sinderen D. Bifidobacteria and Their Role as Members of the Human Gut Microbiota. Front Microbiol. 2016 Jun 15;7:925. View abstract.
- O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005;128:541-51. View abstract.
- Olivares M, Castillejo G, Varea V, Sanz Y. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 in children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 14;112(1):30-40. View abstract.
- Park MS, Kwon B, Ku S, Ji GE4. The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection. Nutrients. 2017;9(8). pii: E887. View abstract.
- Phuapradit P, Varavithya W, Vathanophas K, et al. Reduction of rotavirus infection in children receiving bifidobacteria-supplemented formula. J Med Assoc Thai 1999;82:S43-S48. View abstract.
- Pierce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19.
- Pinto-Sanchez MI, Hall GB, Ghajar K, et al. Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 reduces depression scores and alters brain activity: a pilot study in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2017;153(2):448-459.e8. View abstract.
- Rastall RA. Bacteria in the gut: friends and foes and how to alter the balance. J Nutr 2004;134:2022S-2026S. View abstract.
- Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1355-60. View abstract.
- Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al. Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60. View abstract.
- Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren. Pediatr Int. 2012;54(5):682-7. View abstract.
- Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S. View abstract.
- Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(6 Suppl):1682S-7S; discussion 1688S-90S. View abstract.
- Saavedra JM, et al. Feeding of bifidobacterium bifidum and streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 1994;344:1046-9. View abstract.
- Sato S, Uchida T, Kuwana S, et al. Bacteremia induced by Bifidobacterium breve in a newborn with cloacal exstrophy. Pediatr Int. 2016;58(11):1226-8. View abstract.
- Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6. View abstract.
- Scarpignato C, Rampal P. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: A clinical pharmacological approach. Chemotherapy 1995;41:48-81. View abstract.
- Shen J, Zuo ZX, Mao AP. Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pouchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(1):21-35. View abstract.
- Simrén M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31(2):218-27. View abstract.
- Søndergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, Svensson U, Bytzer P, Ekesbo R. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46(6):663-72. View abstract.
- Stenman LK, Lehtinen MJ, Meland N, et al. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial. EBioMedicine 2016;13:190-200. View abstract.
- Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11. View abstract.
- Tabbers MM, Milliano I, Roseboom MG, Benninga MA. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study. Nutr J 2011;10:19. View abstract.
- Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31. View abstract.
- Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8. View abstract.
- Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-69. View abstract.
- Wang ZH, Gao QY, Fang JY. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(1):25-32. View abstract.
- Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J, et al. Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul;101(7):1581-90. View abstract.
- Wildt S, Nordgaard I, Hansen U, Brockmann E, Rumessen JJ. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5(2):115-21. View abstract.
- Xiao JZ, Takahashi S, Odamaki T, et al. Antibiotic susceptibility of bifidobacterial strains distributed in the Japanese market. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(2):336-42. View abstract.
- Zamani B, Golkar HR, Farshbaf S, et al. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2016;19(9):869-79. View abstract.