July 31, 2000 -- When 40-something Jeff Cottingham was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, his doctor immediately started him on drugs to control his blood sugar. But Cottingham worried.
Some drugs for diabetes can have dangerous side effects. In a striking example, on March 21, 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed one of the most widely prescribed diabetes drugs, Rezulin (troglitazone), from the market after it was linked to 90 cases of liver failure and 63 deaths.
If you have diabetes, you probably know the warning signs of low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia. "It's been described best as a little like the feeling you get when you're sliding on ice in a car: panic, rapid heart rate, [and] sort of a sense of doom," says John Buse, MD, PhD, professor of medicine, chief of the division of endocrinology, and executive associate dean for clinical research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine.
You also probably know that hypoglycemia...
Already concerned about such problems two years ago, the Aptos, Calif., resident began taking Sweet Eze, a mixture of herbs and minerals sold for diabetes. The supplement seemed to work wonders for the self-described "old hippie."
His level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) -- a protein that reflects bloodglucose levels over the past two to three months -- plummeted from 11 to well below the danger threshold of 6. "I feel great," says Cottingham, who has experienced no side effects from the supplement. "I'm completely off diabetes medications now."
A success story? Perhaps. But experts advise caution. For one thing, because Sweet Eze contains six different ingredients -- and because the severity of diabetes symptoms can fluctuate on their own -- it's hard to say what exactly is responsible for Cottingham's improvement. For another, supplements carry their own risks. Some products don't contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Others come mixed with dangerous -- and unlisted -- ingredients. And scientists are just beginning to verify which ones actually work.
Doing Ginseng Justice
One herb touted for diabetes got a boost recently from a Canadian clinical trial. University of Toronto researcher Vladamir Vulksan, PhD, announced at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) annual meeting in June 2000 that he'd gotten some positive results using ginseng.
In addition to their usual diabetes regimen -- a careful diet, regular exercise, and in some cases, medication -- 23 type 2 diabetic patients took either 3 grams of American ginseng or a placebo each day for eight weeks, at which point they switched treatments. The diabetic patients' fasting blood sugar levels dropped about 9% more when they took ginseng compared with when they took the placebo; glycosylated hemoglobin levels between the two groups differed by 4%, with the ginseng group being lower.
Despite these encouraging results, Vulksan cautions that it's too early for diabetic patients to rely on ginseng. Herbs sold in this country are not standardized, he says, so it's difficult to know for certain what you're buying and impossible to ensure consistent dosages. Besides, his study looked only at American ginseng, and he's not certain the results would hold true for the seven other varieties. What's more, researchers haven't conclusively identified ginseng's active ingredients.
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