What is esophageal spasm?
Normally, contractions of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach) move food from the mouth to the stomach with a regular, coordinated rhythm.
Esophageal spasm means that contractions of the
irregular, uncoordinated, and sometimes powerful. This condition may be called diffuse esophageal spasm, or DES. These spasms can prevent food from reaching the stomach. When this happens, the food gets stuck in the esophagus.
Sometimes the squeezing moves down the esophagus in a coordinated way, but it is very strong. This can be called nutcracker esophagus. These contractions move food through the esophagus but can cause severe pain.
Esophageal spasm is not common. Often, symptoms that
may suggest esophageal spasm are the result of another condition such as
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or achalasia. Achalasia is a
problem with the nervous system in which the muscles of the esophagus and the
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) don't work properly.
Anxiety or panic attacks can also cause similar symptoms.
What causes esophageal spasm?
The cause of
esophageal spasm is unknown. Many doctors believe it results from a disruption
of the nerve activity that coordinates the swallowing action of the esophagus.
In some people, very hot or very cold foods may trigger an episode.
What are the symptoms?
Most people with this
condition have chest pain that may spread outward to the arms, back, neck, or
jaw. This pain can feel similar to a
heart attack. If you have chest pain, you should be
evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible to rule out or treat cardiac disease.
Other symptoms include difficulty or inability to swallow food or
liquid, pain with swallowing, the feeling that food is caught in the center of
the chest, and a burning sensation in the chest (heartburn).