Drugs called beta-blockers improve the heart's ability to relax, decrease the production of harmful substances produced by the body in response to heart failure, and slow the heart rate. Over time, beta-blockers improve the heart's pumping ability.
Beta-blockers are essential for people with heart failure -- even if they do not have symptoms. Beta-blockers are prescribed for patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction below 40%) and improve survival, even in people with severe symptoms.
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump blood effectively to the lungs or the rest of the body.
This can be because the person has developed a weakened heart muscle or because the heart muscle has thickened or stiffened, making it difficult to fill the heart and backing up blood into the lungs.
With heart failure, the weakened heart pumps less blood than usual, causing the kidneys and adrenal glands to produce chemicals that help the body to hold onto salt and water.
There are several different types of beta-blockers, but only three are specifically approved by the FDA to treat heart failure:
Toprol-XL (metoprolol succinate)
How Should I Take Beta-Blockers for Heart Failure?
These medications may be taken with meals, at bedtime, or in the morning. Food delays how beta-blockers are absorbed but may reduce side effects. Follow the label directions on how often to take this drug. The number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and how long you need to take the medication will depend on your condition.
Beta-blockers should not be used if you have extremely low blood pressure (hypotension) or a slow pulse (bradycardia) that may cause you to feel dizzy or light-headed. If you have severe lung congestion, your health care provider will treat your congestion before prescribing a beta-blocker.
While you are taking this drug, your doctor may tell you to take and record your pulse daily. He will tell you how rapid your pulse should be. If your pulse is slower than it should be, contact your doctor about taking your beta-blocker that day.
Never stop taking your medication without speaking to your doctor first, even if you feel that it is not working. When you start taking beta-blockers, your heart failure symptoms may become slightly worse while your heart adjusts to the medication. This is a normal effect, but let your doctor or nurse know if you become extremely tired, gain more than 5 pounds, have trouble breathing, or have other signs of congestion or swelling. Once your heart adjusts, you will feel better.