Heart disease and cardiovascular problems
People who are obese have an increased risk of:
- Heart disease, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart failure, and an abnormal heartbeat.
- High blood pressure.
- High levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, as well as lower levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.
The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as BMI increases. People who have a large percentage of body fat in the abdominal area-a waist measurement greater than 40 in. (102 cm) in men and greater than 35 in. (89 cm) in women-are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, even if their BMIs are within the normal range.
People who are obese are at greater risk for different types of cancer, including:
- Endometrial cancer.
- Breast cancer after menopause.
- Colorectal cancer.
- Esophageal cancer.
- Kidney cancer.
People who are obese may have more digestive problems.
- Obesity increases the chance of having gallstones.
- Obesity is linked with liver problems such as an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), a fatty liver (steatosis), or cirrhosis.
- Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are more common in people who are obese than in people of normal weight.
People who are obese may have difficulty breathing.
- They are more likely to have sleep apnea.
- Obesity is linked with a higher prevalence of asthma.
- People who are obese tend to take smaller or shallower breaths (pickwickian syndrome). These small, gasping breaths may not get as much oxygen into the blood as needed, leaving them always tired. Pickwickian syndrome can eventually lead to heart problems.
People who are obese have a greater risk for arthritis. Extra weight puts more stress on the joints than normal, especially in the legs and lower back.
Sex hormone problems
Obesity is linked with:
- Problems with becoming pregnant (infertility).
- Irregular menstrual periods.
- Increased risk of birth defects, especially neural tube defects.