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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Current Research continued...

Recent large studies of families with lupus have identified a number of genetic regions that appear to be associated with risk of SLE. Although the specific genes and their function remain unknown, intensive work in mapping the entire human genome offers promise that these genes will be identified in the near future. This should provide knowledge of the complex factors that contribute to lupus susceptibility.

NIAMS-funded researchers are uncovering the impact of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors on the course and outcome of lupus in Hispanics, African Americans, and Caucasians. Preliminary data show that African American and Hispanic lupus patients typically have more kidney damage compared with Caucasians. In addition, NIAMS-funded researchers found that African American lupus patients have more skin damage compared with Hispanics and Caucasians, and that the death rate from lupus is higher in African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians.

It is thought that autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, occur when a genetically susceptible individual encounters an unknown environmental agent or trigger. In this circumstance, an abnormal immune response can be initiated that leads to the signs and symptoms of lupus. Research has focused on both the genetic susceptibility and the environmental trigger. Although the environmental trigger remains unknown, microbial agents such as Epstein-Barr virus and others have been considered. Researchers also are studying other factors that may affect a person's susceptibility to lupus. For example, because lupus is more common in women than in men, some researchers are investigating the role of hormones and other male-female differences in the development and course of the disease. A current study funded by the NIH is focusing on the safety and effectiveness of oral contraceptives (birth-control pills) and hormone replacement therapy in women with lupus. Doctors have worried about the wisdom of prescribing oral contraceptives or estrogen replacement therapy for women with lupus because of a widely held view that estrogens can make the disease worse. Oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy do not, as once feared, appear to intensify lupus symptoms. Scientists do not know the effects of oral contraceptives on women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

Patients with lupus are at risk of developing atherosclerotic vascular disease (hardening of the blood vessels that can cause heart attack, angina, or stroke). The increased risk is due partly to having lupus and partly to steroid therapy. Preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease in lupus patients is a new area of study. NIAMS-funded researchers are studying the most effective ways to manage cardiovascular risk factors and prevent cardiovascular disease in adult lupus patients.

In childhood lupus, researchers are evaluating the safety and effectiveness of drugs called statins that lower LDL (or bad) cholesterol levels as a method of preventing fat buildup in the blood vessels.

Research has focused on both the genetic susceptibility and the environmental trigger.

One out of five lupus patients experiences symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, memory disturbances, stroke, or changes in behavior that result from changes in the brain or other parts of the central nervous system. Such lupus patients have what is called "neuropsychiatric" lupus. NIAMS-funded scientists are applying new tools such as brain imaging techniques to discover cellular activity and specific genes that may cause neuropsychiatric lupus. By uncovering the mechanisms responsible for central nervous system damage in lupus patients, researchers hope to move closer to improved diagnosis and treatment for patients with neuropsychiatric lupus.

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WebMD Public Information from the U.S. National Institutes of Health

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