America is in the midst of an anger epidemic. From traffic jams to computer
glitches to friends who don’t show up when they say they will, there’s never
been a shortage of things to get mad about. And now, fallout from the economic
crisis -- lost jobs, shrunken nest eggs, etc. -- seems to be amplifying our
Sometimes dreams make a lot of sense -- like when we’ve been working hard
and we end up dreaming, alas, that we’re still at work. Other times the meaning
of dreams is less clear. That doesn’t mean the dream isn’t important to our
Retired teacher Barbara Kern can vividly recall the details of a dream she
had nearly four decades ago, for instance. “I’m lying on my back, holding the
bottom rungs of a fireman’s ladder that has been extended to its full height,”
In a recent USA Today/Gallup poll, 53% of Americans said they were
angry about the economy. In another poll, conducted recently by the American
Psychological Association, 60% of Americans reported feeling angry or irritable
-- up from 50% in 2007 -- with eight out of 10 calling the economy a major cause of stress.
There’s nothing inherently wrong with anger. Psychologists say it’s normal
to feel angry when your well-being is threatened -- and that goes for your
financial as well as emotional and physical well-being. Although people
differ in the way they express anger -- men may turn aggressive, women sad, and
adolescents impulsive -- just about everyone gets angry from time to time, says
David L. Kupfer, PhD, a clinical psychologist in Falls Church, Va. “I’ll bet
the Dalai Lama gets angry if his plane is delayed,” he says.
Anger can be a force for good, as when it encourages people to act against
injustice. It can be a life guide of sorts, helping steer you away from the
situations and people you find noxious. And as we all know from high school
biology, anger is a key element of the lifesaving “fight or flight” response,
in which we act quickly to repel attackers or flee them.
But chronic, intense anger is neither helpful nor healthy. It can cause
problems in your personal relationships and at work;
research has linked high levels of anger to heart attack, stroke, and premature death. “There is no question that
anger that is chronic or poorly managed is bad for your health,” says Redford
B. Williams, MD, director of the Behavioral Medicine Research Center at Duke
University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.
How do you avoid being a victim of your own wrath? A generation ago,
psychologists often advocated immediate, unfettered expressions of anger.
“Letting it all hang out” was considered a good way to dissipate rage. But
recent evidence suggests the contrary: Rather than easing angry feelings,
forcefully expressing them seems to intensify them. “Now we know the only thing
cathartic expressions of anger does is make you better at being angry,” Kupfer
There’s now widespread agreement among anger experts that it’s better to
evaluate angry feelings before acting on or even accepting them.
Williams is a leading proponent of this view; he recommends asking yourself
four specific questions whenever you feel angry:
Is the situation or event that triggered my anger important? That
is, is the thing that triggered my rage something that threatens my
Given the situation or event, is my anger appropriate? Faced with
the same circumstances, would the average person get angry?
Is the situation modifiable? Is there something I can do to change
it for the better?
Is it worth it to try to modify the situation? That is, is it worth
my time and effort?