Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a condition found in children who have received grossly negligent care and do not form a healthy emotional attachment with their primary caregivers -- usually their mothers -- before age 5.
Attachment develops when a child is repeatedly soothed, comforted, and cared for, and when the caregiver consistently meets the child's needs. It is through attachment with a loving and protective caregiver that a young child learns to love and trust others, to become aware of others' feelings and needs, to regulate his or her emotions, and to develop healthy relationships and a positive self-image. The absence of emotional warmth during the first few years of life can negatively affect a child's entire future.
Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by feelings of extreme social inhibition, inadequacy, and sensitivity to negative criticism and rejection. Yet the symptoms involve more than simply being shy or socially awkward. Avoidant personality disorder causes significant problems that affect the ability to interact with others and maintain relationships in day-to-day life. About 1% of the general population has avoidant personality disorder.
What Are the Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder?
RAD can affect every aspect of a child's life and development. There are two types of RAD: inhibited and disinhibited.
Common Symptoms of Inhibited RAD Include:
Unresponsive or resistant to comforting
Excessively inhibited (holding back emotions)
Withdrawn or a mixture of approach and avoidance
Common Symptoms With Disinhibited RAD Include:
Inappropriately familiar or selective in the choice of attachment figures
What Causes Reactive Attachment Disorder?
RAD occurs when attachment between a young child and his or her primary caregiver does not occur or is interrupted due to grossly negligent care. This can occur for many reasons, including:
Persistent disregard of the child's emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection
Persistent disregard of the child's basic physical needs
Repeated changes of primary caregivers that prevent formation of stable attachments (for example, frequent changes in foster care)
How Common Is Reactive Attachment Disorder?
It is difficult to know exactly how many children have RAD, since many families affected by the disorder never seek help. However, it is generally believed that RAD is uncommon.
How Is Reactive Attachment Disorder Diagnosed?
As with adults, mental disorders in children are diagnosed based on signs and symptoms that suggest a particular condition. If physical symptoms are present, the doctor may perform a complete medical history and physical exam, including a review of developmental milestones. Although there are no lab tests to specifically diagnose RAD, the doctor may sometimes use various tests, such as neuroimaging studies or blood tests, if there are concern that a physical illness or medication side effects might be causing the symptoms.
If the doctor cannot find a physical cause for the symptoms, he or she will likely refer the child to a child and adolescent psychiatrist or psychologist, mental health professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses in children and teens. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a child for a mental disorder. The doctor bases his or her diagnosis on reports of the child's symptoms, and his or her observation of the child's attitude and behavior.