Osteopenia: Early Signs of Bone Loss
How Can my Doctor Test for Osteopenia and Osteoporosis? continued...
DXA scan results are reported as T-scores:
- Normal bone: T-score above -1
- Osteopenia: T-score between -1 and -2.5
- Osteoporosis: T-score of -2.5 or lower
Other tests can be done to help diagnose osteoporosis and osteopenia. Quantitative ultrasound is one such test. It measures the speed of sound in the bone to assess bone density and strength. DXA scans are usually still needed to confirm results from ultrasound and other tests.
For in-depth information, see WebMD's Diagnosing Osteoporosis.
Who Should Get a Bone Density Test?
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force advise that you receive screening bone density scans if:
- You are a woman 65 or older.
- You are a woman 60 or older with certain risk factors that put you at increased risk of fracture.
Talk to your health care provider to determine the best screening plan for you.
The Female Athlete Triad and Osteopenia
The female athlete triad is a combination of three medical conditions that are becoming increasingly common in young female athletes. These conditions are eating disorders, amenorrhea -- or lack of menstrual periods, and osteopenia or low bone mass. These issues are of growing concern mainly because of the media's increased pressure on teens to maintain a "perfect" body weight and be thin.
Female athletes who compete in gymnastics, dancing, swimming, skating, and running are at high risk for the female athlete triad as they strive to appear lean and fit.
We know that more female athletes lack a menstrual period than women in the general population. Not having a period is associated with decreased estrogen levels. Decreased estrogen levels may be the cause of low bone mass or osteopenia.
Low-calorie diets are usually the first predictor of eating disorders. Excessive exercise or exercise obsession can be another sign of an eating disorder. Each of these three problems must be medically evaluated and treated to ensure a good outcome for the woman.
For in-depth information, see WebMD's Osteoporosis Risk Factors: Are You at Risk?
How Can I Prevent Osteopenia and Osteoporosis?
Osteopenia is every woman's concern -- no matter what your age or health status. That's because osteopenia is the first step to full-blown osteoporosis or severe bone loss.