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Consumer Reports: “Caffeine levels in drinks, snacks, and drugs,” “Is Decaffeinated Coffee Bad for You?” “Is There More Caffeine in Espresso Than in Coffee?” “Are You Getting Too Much Caffeine?” “The Buzz on Death Wish Coffee.”
Indiana University Bloomington: “IU study finds caffeine boosts enzyme that could protect against dementia.”
Journal of Caffeine Research: “Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals,” “Caffeine Content Labeling: A Missed Opportunity for Promoting Personal and Public Health.”
Mayo Clinic: “Caffeine: How much is too much?” “Caffeine content for coffee, tea, soda and more.”
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: “Energy Drinks.”
FDA: “FDA Consumer Advice on Pure Powdered Caffeine,” “Caffeine Intake By The U.S. Population,” “Added Caffeine in Gum.”
USDA: "Basic Report: 14210, Beverages, coffee, brewed, espresso, restaurant-prepared," "Basic Report: 19904, Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids," "Basic Report: 14355, Beverages, tea, black, brewed, prepared with tap water," "Basic Report: 14278, Beverages, tea, green, brewed, regular."
Reviewed by Christine Mikstas, RD, LD on November 13, 2019
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
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