Cucumber

What Are Cucumbers?

Cucumbers are popular long, lean, and green garden vegetables. Technically, they’re fruits from the same family as watermelons and pumpkins, but most people consider them veggies.

Cucumbers are native to India, have a slight melon-like taste, and sometimes can be slightly bitter.

Cucumber Types

There are two main types:

Slicing cucumbers are eaten fresh, often in a salad. They can be 12 inches or longer and usually have smooth skin. There are "burpless" varieties that have less of a plant compound called cucurbitacin. That gives them a milder taste, and it may make you burp less after you eat them. You may also hear them called “seedless cucumbers” or “European cucumbers.”

Pickling cucumbers are much smaller and are the type used to make pickles. They can be 3-7 inches long, and they typically have bumps or spines on their skin.

Nutritional Benefits of Cucumber

A serving of cucumber -- one-half a cup -- is about 8 calories. They have small amounts of vitamin K and vitamin A and are about 95% water. They also have several phytonutrients (plant chemicals) called lignans.

One medium unpeeled, raw cucumber has the following:

  • Calories: 30
  • Total fat: 0 grams
  • Carbs: 6 grams
  • Protein: 3 grams
  • Fiber: 2 grams
  • Vitamin C: 10% of the recommended daily value (DV)
  • Vitamin K: 57% of the DV
  • Magnesium: 9% of the DV
  • Potassium: 12% of the DV
  • Manganese: 9% of the DV

Health Benefits of Cucumber

All that water in cucumbers can help keep you hydrated. Plus, the fiber boost they give you helps you stay regular and avoid constipation.

The vitamin K helps blood clot and keep your bones healthy. Vitamin A has many jobs, like helping with vision, the immune system, and reproduction. It also makes sure organs like your heart, lungs, and kidneys work the way they should.

The lignans may help prevent osteoporosis, heart disease, and some cancers.

Antioxidants such as beta carotene in cucumbers can help fight free radicals in your body, unpaired electrons that damage cells and can lead to disease.

Cucumbers may also have health benefits outside your body. Putting them on your skin may help ease sunburn pain, swelling, and damaged skin. That's why people sometimes put a slice or two under their eyes, hoping to shrink bags and ease puffiness.

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Risks of Cucumber

There are few risks to eating cucumbers. One concern may be the pesticides growers use on them. Before you eat them, peel the skin off or wash it in warm running water. That’ll make sure your cucumber is safe to enjoy.

Cucumbers come with a natural wax on their skin. Washing cucumbers after picking them takes away that wax, so producers add a synthetic wax back on before sending them to grocery stores. The wax helps them stay shelf stable longer, but it also holds onto germs. The wax itself isn’t harmful, but peeling the skin before you eat the cucumber can lower the risk of contamination. However, the skin is where most of the nutrients live. A better option may be to buy organic and wash your cukes well before enjoying.

How to Prepare and Store Cucumbers

Most people wash, slice, and toss their cucumbers into a salad. Before you do, you may want to soak them in salt water first. That will lower the amount of water in them and keep the cucumbers from making your salad dressing watery.

You can eat the peel of a cucumber. In fact, it will add fiber and vitamin A to your diet. Just be sure to wash the cucumber first.

When you shop for cucumbers, skip ones that are yellow, puffy, or have sunk-in areas, bulges, or wrinkled ends. Those overripe cucumbers won't taste great. Instead, look for bright, firm, medium to dark-green, slender cucumbers. Any bruises or dark spots are signs of decay.

Store cucumbers unpeeled in your refrigerator's crisper drawer. If they have a wax coating that gives them a shiny look, use them within a week. If they don't have a wax coating, use them sooner. Don't keep them out at room temperature long, or they will become soft and limp.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Neha Pathak, MD on September 03, 2020

Sources

SOURCES:

University of Missouri Integrative Pest Management: "Cucumber: A Brief History."

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis: "Classification of fruits and vegetables."

Colorado Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence: "Cucumbers."

University of Illinois Extension: "Cucumber."

Cleveland Clinic: "Dehydrated? These 7 Foods Will Satisfy Your Thirst and Hunger."

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release: "Cucumber, with peel, raw."

Nutrients: "Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys."

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements: "Vitamin K," "Vitamin A."

Oregon State University, Linus Paulding Institute: "Lignans."

Fitoterapia: "Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber."

Iranian Journal of Public Health: "Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues."

University of Wyoming Extension: "Cool as a Cucumber."

The World’s Healthiest Foods: “Cucumbers.”

U.S. Food & Drug Administration: “Nutrition Information for Raw Vegetables.”

Fitoterapia: “Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.”

The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging: “In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.”

McGill University: “Why do they spray wax on apples?”

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