Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH on March 28, 2018
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: "Drinking Levels Defined."
National Alliance for Mental Illness: "What Is Tardive Dyskinesia," "Tardive Dyskinesia."
UptoDate: “Tardive dyskinesia: Prevention and Treatment,” "Tardive dyskinesia: Etiology and epidemiology," ""Tardive dyskinesia: Clinical features and diagnosis."
Center for Quality Assessment in Mental Health: "Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) Overview."
Tardive Dyskinesia: A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Association, 1992.
Medscape: “Psychiatrist’s Role in Tardive Dyskinesia: From Diagnosis to Emerging Treatment.”
National Institute of Mental Health: "Psychotherapies."
Mind (UK): "Antipsychotics," "Tardive dyskinesia (TD)."
FDA Medication Guide -- Reglan.
The American Journal of Psychiatry: "Lower Risk for Tardive Dyskinesia Associated With Second-Generation Antipsychotics: A Systematic Review of 1-Year Studies."
World Psychiatry: "Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors and events associated with second-generation antipsychotic compared to antidepressant use in a non-elderly adult sample: results from a claims-based inception cohort study."
MD Magazine: "Tardive Dyskinesia: Clues to the Diagnosis and Treatment."
The Lancet Neurology: "The new definition and diagnostic criteria of Parkinson’s disease."
World Journal of Radiology: "Neuroimaging in Huntington’s disease."
The Ochsner Journal: "Medication-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia: A Review and Update."
Medscape: “Tardive Dyskinesia.”
Journal of the Neurological Sciences: "Updating the commendations for treatment of tardive syndromes: A systematic review of new evidence and practical treatment algorithm."
Psychology Today: "New Drug Valbenazine Approved by FDA for Tardive Dyskinesia."
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences: "Tardive dyskinesia (syndrome): Current concept and modern approaches to its management, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences."
Drugs.com: "Valbenazine Side Effects."
UW Health: "Botulinum Toxin Injections for Movement Disorders."
Journal of the Neurological Sciences: "Deep brain stimulation for tardive syndromes: Systematic review and meta-analysis."
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: "Nocturnal Oral Movements in a Patient with Schizophrenia."
Neurology Reviews: “Tips for Living with Tardive Dyskinesia.”
University of California, San Diego: "Tardive Dyskinesia."
National Institute on Drug Abuse: "The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction: The Basics," "Why is there comorbidity between substance use disorders and mental illnesses?"