Birth Control and the IUD (Intrauterine Device)

Medically Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson, MD on June 10, 2022

If you’re looking into your options for birth control, one method you may want to think about is the IUD. They’re not for everyone, but today’s IUDs are considered both effective and safe for most women. And they’re also long-lasting.

What Is an IUD?

"IUD" stands for "intrauterine device." Shaped like a "T" and a bit bigger than a quarter, an IUD fits inside your uterus. It prevents pregnancy by stopping sperm from reaching and fertilizing eggs.

Five types are available in the United States.

Four -- Liletta, Kyleena, Mirena, and Skyla -- release small amounts of the hormone progestin (levonorgestrel) into your body. It’s the same hormone used in many birth control pills. These types of IUDs tend to make your period lighter and may be a good option if you have heavy periods.

The fifth is ParaGard, also called the copper T IUD. It’s hormone-free. The copper triggers your immune system to prevent pregnancy. It can cause your periods to be heavier, especially at first. But ParaGard lasts longer than hormonal IUDs. Watch a video on the basics of an IUD.

How effective are IUDs?

If you use an IUD correctly, your chance of getting pregnant is less than 1%.

What are the benefits of IUDs?

  • They last a long time.
  • They're mostly hassle-free. Once you have one inserted, you don't have to think about it, and neither does your partner.
  • It’s one cost, upfront.
  • They’re safe to use if you're breastfeeding.

Read more about other benefits of birth control beyond pregnancy prevention.

Who can use them?

Most healthy women can use an IUD. They’re especially suited to women with one partner and at low risk of contracting an STD. IUDs don't protect against STDs. You shouldn’t use one if:

  • You have an STD or had a recent pelvic infection.
  • You’re pregnant.
  • You have cancer of the cervix or uterus.
  • You have unexplained vaginal bleeding.

You can’t use the copper IUD if you have an allergy to copper or have Wilson's disease, which causes your body to hold too much copper.

Hormonal IUDs are considered safe unless you have liver disease, breast cancer, or are at a high risk for breast cancer.

In rare cases, the size or shape of your uterus may make it tough to place an IUD. Watch a video on the truth about IUDs and their safety.

How is an IUD inserted?

Your doctor will insert the IUD during an office visit. They may suggest you take over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen a few hours before the procedure to offset cramping.

The procedure starts out similar to getting a Pap smear. You’ll put your feet in stirrups. The doctor will then place a speculum in the vagina to hold the vagina open. The doctor will put the IUD in a small tube that they’ll insert into your vagina. They’ll move the tube up through the cervix and into the uterus. Then they’ll push the IUD out of the tube and pull the tube out. Strings attached to the IUD will hang 1-2 inches into the vagina.

The procedure is uncomfortable, and you may have cramps and bleeding, but they tend to go away in a few days. Some women may also feel lightheaded from the pain.

You can have most IUDs placed at any time in your cycle. But it may be more comfortable to have one inserted while you’re having your period. This is when your cervix is most open. Find out more on what to expect with IUD insertion.

How soon do IUDs start working?

The non-hormonal ParaGard is effective as soon as it’s inserted.

If it’s put in during your period, hormonal IUDs start working right away. Otherwise, this type may take up to 7 days to be effective.

How long does one last?

This depends on what kind of IUD you get.

  • 3 years for Skyla
  • 5 years for Kyleena
  • 6 years for Liletta and Mirena
  • 10 years for ParaGard

Learn more about the types of IUDs and which one is right for you.

Will my periods change?

With hormonal IUDs, many women have fewer cramps. For the first few months, some women have irregular spotting. Eventually, most women have light periods or no period at all. Pregnancies rarely happen with IUDs, but if not having a period will make you constantly worry that you’re pregnant, you may want to consider the copper IUD instead.

The copper ParaGard may make periods heavier and cramping worse. This may go away after a few months. Read more on how to use birth control to stop your period.

Can my partner feel it?

Your partner shouldn't be able to feel anything, but if they do, it will only be minor contact with the strings of the IUD. This shouldn't cause any discomfort. The strings soften the longer you have the IUD and can be trimmed shorter.

Are there side effects?

IUDs are safe. Some women do have side effects, but most are mild. Serious problems with them are rare.

Some women feel lightheaded right after their doctor inserts the IUD, but the feeling should pass after a few minutes. In the first few days after insertion, you can expect to have period-like cramps.

You’re very unlikely to get pregnant while you have an IUD. But if it happens, it raises your risk for miscarriage, infection, and early labor and delivery. It also puts you at risk for an ectopic pregnancy, when a fertilized egg implants outside of your uterus. Let your doctor know if you think you might be pregnant or if you have belly pain or vaginal bleeding.

About 1 in 10 women will get ovarian cysts in the first year after they get an IUD. They’re usually harmless and go away on their own within 3 months. But some can cause bloating, swelling, or pain in the lower belly. If a cyst ruptures, it will cause severe pain. See your doctor if you have these symptoms.

An IUD slightly raises your odds for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. Signs include belly pain, pain during sex, smelly vaginal discharge, heavy bleeding, chills, and fever. Let your doctor know about these symptoms right away. It’s important to treat PID quickly to prevent more serious problems.

It’s rare, but an IUD can poke through the wall of your uterus as your doctor puts it in. It’s called perforation. If it happens, your doctor will have to remove the device. Know more about the side effects of an IUD.

Can my IUD fall out?

Your doctor will check your device during your regular office visits. Your cervix should hold the IUD in place, but in rare cases, it can fall all the way or part of the way out.

This is more likely if:

  • You don't have children.
  • You’re under 20 years old.
  • You had the IUD put in right after having a baby or after having a second-trimester abortion.
  • You have fibroids in your uterus.
  • Your uterus is an unusual size or shape.

IUDs are more likely to come out during your period. You may see the device on a pad or tampon. Check periodically to make sure you can feel the strings. If they feel shorter or longer or if you can feel the IUD itself pushing against your cervix, it may have moved. If this happens, contact your doctor.

Do IUDs cause abortions?

No. Some people mistakenly believe that an IUD is an abortifacient, a method that terminates a pregnancy. Instead, an IUD is a contraceptive, meaning that it prevents conception in the first place.

You could use a copper IUD as an emergency contraceptive right after you’ve had sex. But it’s still not an abortifacient because it works by preventing the sperm from fertilizing the egg.

Some people have been concerned that IUDs would be banned because of growing restrictions on abortion laws. But experts expect IUDs to remain legal since their purpose is to block, not end, a pregnancy.

How Much Do IUDs Cost?

If you have insurance through your employer, a private health plan you bought, or Medicaid, you most likely can get an IUD without any cost to you. That means you won’t have any copays or other out-of-pocket costs. That goes for not only the IUD itself, but for your doctor visits and to insert or remove the device.

Medicaid is a federal-state public insurance program for low-income people. Almost every state allows free access to both hormonal and copper IUDs.

If you don’t have insurance, the IUDs typically cost little over $1,000 for the device alone. Some manufacturers have prescription programs that will help you get the IUD for free. Some health centers operated by Planned Parenthood and local and state governments also provide IUD insertion and removal for free or a low cost depending on your income.

What if I want to have kids in the future?

Using an IUD shouldn’t affect your ability to have children later on. If you want to get pregnant, ask your doctor to take out your IUD. Your cycle should return to normal as soon as the IUD is removed. Get more information on pregnancy and IUDs.

How is an IUD removed?

Your doctor will take out the IUD in their office. It should only take a few minutes. You’ll put your feet in stirrups and the doctor will use forceps to slowly pull the IUD out. You may have some cramping and bleeding, but this should go away in 1-2 days. Learn more about what to expect with IUD removal.

Show Sources


Association of Reproductive Health Professionals: "Health Matters Fact Sheets: Hormonal IUD."

CDC: "How effective are birth control methods?"

Mirena Prescribing Information.

Skyla Prescribing Information.

Liletta Prescribing Information.

ParaGard Prescribing Information.

Planned Parenthood: "IUD."

Family Planning Council/Access Matters: "Facts About IUDs."

Kids "IUD."

Association of Reproductive Health Professionals: Health Matters Fact Sheets: Copper T IUD," "Non-hormonal Contraceptive Methods."

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy: "IUD."

American Academy of Family Physicians: "Intrauterine Device (IUD)."

Planned Parenthood: “IUD,” "When does an IUD start working?"

Sutter Health Palo Alto Medical Foundation: "The Intrauterine Device (IUD)."

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: "Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC): IUD and Implant."

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Population Affairs: "Intrauterine Device (IUD) Fact Sheet."

FDA: "Birth Control: Medicines To Help You."

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy: "Paragard Vs Mirena: Which IUD Is Best For You?"

Center for Young Women’s Health: “Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs).”

Contraception: “The safety of intrauterine devices among young women: a systematic review.”

Guttmacher Institute: “Contraception Is Not Abortion: The Strategic Campaign of Antiabortion Groups to Persuade the Public Otherwise.”

Kaiser Family Foundation:I would like to get an IUD. Is my plan required to cover the full cost of the brand I would like to get?” “Medicaid Coverage of Family Planning Benefits: Findings from a 2021 State Survey.”

Baltimore City Health Department: “Family Planning & Reproductive Health.”

© 2022 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved. View privacy policy and trust info