DIINDOLYLMETHANE

OTHER NAME(S):

Diindolymetano, Diidolylméthane, DIM, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Diindolylmethane is formed in the body from plant substances contained in "cruciferous" vegetables. These vegetables include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and broccoli.

Diindolylmethane is used for preventing breast, uterine, and colorectal cancer. It is also used to prevent an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH) and treat premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It is used for breast pain and weight loss.

How does it work?

Diindolylmethane might act like estrogen in the body, but there is evidence that under certain circumstances it might also block estrogen effects. Diindolylmethane also appears to help destroy cancer cells and reduce swelling.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Cervical cancer. Early research shows that taking diindolylmethane daily for 3 months does not improve cancer status in women with cervical cancer.
  • Abnormal growth of cells of the cervix (cervical dysplasia). Early research shows that taking diindolylmethane daily for up to 6 months does not improve markers of disease in women with cervical dysplasia.
  • Prostate cancer. Early research shows that taking diindolylmethane daily for 28 days might lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men with prostate cancer. PSA levels can be used to measure the progress of prostate cancer.
  • Preventing breast cancer.
  • Preventing uterine cancer.
  • Preventing colon cancer.
  • Preventing prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH).
  • Treating premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • Weight loss.
  • Breast pain.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of diindolylmethane for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Diindolylmethane is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in the small amounts found in foods. A typical diet supplies 2-24 mg of diindolylmethane. It is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term for medicinal purposes. The most common side effects include headache, nausea, vomiting, gas, and diarrhea.

Taking larger doses of diindolylmethane is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Taking 600 mg of diindolylmethane daily has been reported to lower sodium levels in some people.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Diindolylmethane is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in the small amounts found in foods. But don't take larger amounts. Not enough is known about the safety of larger amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Children: Diindolylmethane is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in the small amounts found in foods. But don't give children larger amounts. Not enough is known about the safety of larger amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Diindolylmethane might act like estrogen, so there is some concern that it might make hormone-sensitive conditions worse. These conditions include breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer; endometriosis; and uterine fibroids. However, developing research also suggests that diindolylmethane might work against estrogen and could possibly be protective against hormone-dependent cancers. But stay on the safe side. Until more is known, don't use diindolylmethane if you have a hormone-sensitive condition.

Interactions

Interactions?

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with DIINDOLYLMETHANE

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br><nb>Diindolylmethane might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking diindolylmethane along with some medications that are changed by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking diindolylmethane talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.<br><nb>Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of diindolylmethane depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for diindolylmethane. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdelrahim, M., Newman, K., Vanderlaag, K., Samudio, I., and Safe, S. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(4):717-728. View abstract.
  • Ahmad, A., Kong, D., Sarkar, S. H., Wang, Z., Banerjee, S., and Sarkar, F. H. Inactivation of uPA and its receptor uPAR by 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) leads to the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth and migration. J.Cell Biochem. 6-1-2009;107(3):516-527. View abstract.
  • Ahmad, A., Kong, D., Wang, Z., Sarkar, S. H., Banerjee, S., and Sarkar, F. H. Down-regulation of uPA and uPAR by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to the inhibition of cell growth and migration of breast cancer cells. J.Cell Biochem. 11-1-2009;108(4):916-925. View abstract.
  • Ali, S., Banerjee, S., Ahmad, A., El-Rayes, B. F., Philip, P. A., and Sarkar, F. H. Apoptosis-inducing effect of erlotinib is potentiated by 3,3'-diindolylmethane in vitro and in vivo using an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. Mol.Cancer Ther. 2008;7(6):1708-1719. View abstract.
  • Azmi, A. S., Ahmad, A., Banerjee, S., Rangnekar, V. M., Mohammad, R. M., and Sarkar, F. H. Chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer: characterization of Par-4 and its modulation by 3,3' diindolylmethane (DIM). Pharm.Res. 2008;25(9):2117-2124. View abstract.
  • Bhuiyan, M. M., Li, Y., Banerjee, S., Ahmed, F., Wang, Z., Ali, S., and Sarkar, F. H. Down-regulation of androgen receptor by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in both hormone-sensitive LNCaP and insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 10-15-2006;66(20):10064-10072. View abstract.
  • Carter, T. H., Liu, K., Ralph, W., Jr., Chen, D., Qi, M., Fan, S., Yuan, F., Rosen, E. M., and Auborn, K. J. Diindolylmethane alters gene expression in human keratinocytes in vitro. J.Nutr. 2002;132(11):3314-3324. View abstract.
  • Chang, X., Tou, J. C., Hong, C., Kim, H. A., Riby, J. E., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane inhibits angiogenesis and the growth of transplantable human breast carcinoma in athymic mice. Carcinogenesis 2005;26(4):771-778. View abstract.
  • Chang, Y. C., Riby, J., Chang, G. H., Peng, B. C., Firestone, G., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Cytostatic and antiestrogenic effects of 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,3'-diindolylmethane, a major in vivo product of dietary indole-3-carbinol. Biochem.Pharmacol. 9-1-1999;58(5):825-834. View abstract.
  • Chen, D. Z., Qi, M., Auborn, K. J., and Carter, T. H. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium. J.Nutr. 2001;131(12):3294-3302. View abstract.
  • Chen, Y., Xu, J., Jhala, N., Pawar, P., Zhu, Z. B., Ma, L., Byon, C. H., and McDonald, J. M. Fas-mediated apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells is enhanced by 3,3'-diindolylmethane through inhibition of AKT signaling and FLICE-like inhibitory protein. Am.J.Pathol. 2006;169(5):1833-1842. View abstract.
  • Degner, S. C., Papoutsis, A. J., Selmin, O., and Romagnolo, D. F. Targeting of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by the indole-3-carbinol metabolite 3,3'-diindolylmethane in breast cancer cells. J.Nutr. 2009;139(1):26-32. View abstract.
  • Del Priore G., Gudipudi, D. K., Montemarano, N., Restivo, A. M., Malanowska-Stega, J., and Arslan, A. A. Oral diindolylmethane (DIM): pilot evaluation of a nonsurgical treatment for cervical dysplasia. Gynecol.Oncol. 2010;116(3):464-467. View abstract.
  • Dong, L., Xia, S., Gao, F., Zhang, D., Chen, J., and Zhang, J. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane attenuates experimental arthritis and osteoclastogenesis. Biochem.Pharmacol. 3-1-2010;79(5):715-721. View abstract.
  • Elackattu, A. P., Feng, L., and Wang, Z. A controlled safety study of diindolylmethane in the immature rat model. Laryngoscope 2009;119(9):1803-1808. View abstract.
  • Gamet-Payrastre, L., Lumeau, S., Gasc, N., Cassar, G., Rollin, P., and Tulliez, J. Selective cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of glucosinolates hydrolysis products on human colon cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Drugs 1998;9(2):141-148. View abstract.
  • Garikapaty, V. P., Ashok, B. T., Tadi, K., Mittelman, A., and Tiwari, R. K. Synthetic dimer of indole-3-carbinol: second generation diet derived anti-cancer agent in hormone sensitive prostate cancer. Prostate 4-1-2006;66(5):453-462. View abstract.
  • Ge, X., Fares, F. A., and Yannai, S. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by indole-3-carbinol is independent of p53 and bax. Anticancer Res. 1999;19(4B):3199-3203. View abstract.
  • Gong, Y., Sohn, H., Xue, L., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a novel mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase inhibitor that can induce p21(Cip1/Waf1) expression by induction of oxidative stress in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 5-1-2006;66(9):4880-4887. View abstract.
  • Heath, E. I., Heilbrun, L. K., Li, J., Vaishampayan, U., Harper, F., Pemberton, P., and Sarkar, F. H. A phase I dose-escalation study of oral BR-DIM (BioResponse 3,3'- Diindolylmethane) in castrate-resistant, non-metastatic prostate cancer. Am.J.Transl.Res. 2010;2(4):402-411. View abstract.
  • Hong, C., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptotic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in human breast cancer cells. Biochem.Pharmacol. 3-15-2002;63(6):1085-1097. View abstract.
  • Hong, C., Kim, H. A., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) induces a G(1) cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells that is accompanied by Sp1-mediated activation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(8):1297-1305. View abstract.
  • Hsu, E. L., Chen, N., Westbrook, A., Wang, F., Zhang, R., Taylor, R. T., and Hankinson, O. CXCR4 and CXCL12 down-regulation: a novel mechanism for the chemoprotection of 3,3'-diindolylmethane for breast and ovarian cancers. Cancer Lett. 6-28-2008;265(1):113-123. View abstract.
  • Hsu, J. C., Zhang, J., Dev, A., Wing, A., Bjeldanes, L. F., and Firestone, G. L. Indole-3-carbinol inhibition of androgen receptor expression and downregulation of androgen responsiveness in human prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 2005;26(11):1896-1904. View abstract.
  • Ichite, N., Chougule, M. B., Jackson, T., Fulzele, S. V., Safe, S., and Singh, M. Enhancement of docetaxel anticancer activity by a novel diindolylmethane compound in human non-small cell lung cancer. Clin.Cancer Res. 1-15-2009;15(2):543-552. View abstract.
  • Jellinck, P. H., Forkert, P. G., Riddick, D. S., Okey, A. B., Michnovicz, J. J., and Bradlow, H. L. Ah receptor binding properties of indole carbinols and induction of hepatic estradiol hydroxylation. Biochem.Pharmacol. 3-9-1993;45(5):1129-1136. View abstract.
  • Jellinck, P. H., Makin, H. L., Sepkovic, D. W., and Bradlow, H. L. Influence of indole carbinols and growth hormone on the metabolism of 4-androstenedione by rat liver microsomes. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 1993;46(6):791-798. View abstract.
  • Jin, Y., Zou, X., and Feng, X. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane negatively regulates Cdc25A and induces a G2/M arrest by modulation of microRNA 21 in human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs 2010;21(9):814-822. View abstract.
  • Kandala, P. K. and Srivastava, S. K. Activation of checkpoint kinase 2 by 3,3'-diindolylmethane is required for causing G2/M cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells. Mol.Pharmacol. 2010;78(2):297-309. View abstract.
  • Kassie, F., Anderson, L. B., Scherber, R., Yu, N., Lahti, D., Upadhyaya, P., and Hecht, S. S. Indole-3-carbinol inhibits 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone plus benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and modulates carcinogen-induced alterations in protein levels. Cancer Res. 7-1-2007;67(13):6502-6511. View abstract.
  • Kassie, F., Melkamu, T., Endalew, A., Upadhyaya, P., Luo, X., and Hecht, S. S. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis and critical cancer-related signaling pathways by N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, indole-3-carbinol and myo-inositol, alone and in combination. Carcinogenesis 2010;31(9):1634-1641. View abstract.
  • Kim, E. J., Park, S. Y., Shin, H. K., Kwon, D. Y., Surh, Y. J., and Park, J. H. Activation of caspase-8 contributes to 3,3'-Diindolylmethane-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. J.Nutr. 2007;137(1):31-36. View abstract.
  • Kim, E. J., Shin, M., Park, H., Hong, J. E., Shin, H. K., Kim, J., Kwon, D. Y., and Park, J. H. Oral administration of 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells in BALB/c mice. J.Nutr. 2009;139(12):2373-2379. View abstract.
  • Kim, Y. H., Kwon, H. S., Kim, D. H., Shin, E. K., Kang, Y. H., Park, J. H., Shin, H. K., and Kim, J. K. 3,3'-diindolylmethane attenuates colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis in mice. Inflamm.Bowel.Dis. 2009;15(8):1164-1173. View abstract.
  • Kong, D., Li, Y., Wang, Z., Banerjee, S., and Sarkar, F. H. Inhibition of angiogenesis and invasion by 3,3'-diindolylmethane is mediated by the nuclear factor-kappaB downstream target genes MMP-9 and uPA that regulated bioavailability of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 4-1-2007;67(7):3310-3319. View abstract.
  • Le, H. T., Schaldach, C. M., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. J.Biol.Chem. 6-6-2003;278(23):21136-21145. View abstract.
  • Leibelt, D. A., Hedstrom, O. R., Fischer, K. A., Pereira, C. B., and Williams, D. E. Evaluation of chronic dietary exposure to indole-3-carbinol and absorption-enhanced 3,3'-diindolylmethane in sprague-dawley rats. Toxicol.Sci. 2003;74(1):10-21. View abstract.
  • Leong, H., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Cytostatic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human endometrial cancer cells result from an estrogen receptor-mediated increase in transforming growth factor-alpha expression. Carcinogenesis 2001;22(11):1809-1817. View abstract.
  • Leong, H., Riby, J. E., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Potent ligand-independent estrogen receptor activation by 3,3'-diindolylmethane is mediated by cross talk between the protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Mol.Endocrinol. 2004;18(2):291-302. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Li, X., and Guo, B. Chemopreventive agent 3,3'-diindolylmethane selectively induces proteasomal degradation of class I histone deacetylases. Cancer Res. 1-15-2010;70(2):646-654. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Li, X., and Sarkar, F. H. Gene expression profiles of I3C- and DIM-treated PC3 human prostate cancer cells determined by cDNA microarray analysis. J.Nutr. 2003;133(4):1011-1019. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Wang, Z., Kong, D., Murthy, S., Dou, Q. P., Sheng, S., Reddy, G. P., and Sarkar, F. H. Regulation of FOXO3a/beta-catenin/GSK-3beta signaling by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. J.Biol.Chem. 7-20-2007;282(29):21542-21550. View abstract.
  • McDougal, A., Gupta, M. S., Morrow, D., Ramamoorthy, K., Lee, J. E., and Safe, S. H. Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 2001;66(2):147-157. View abstract.
  • McGuire, K. P., Ngoubilly, N., Neavyn, M., and Lanza-Jacoby, S. 3,3'-diindolylmethane and paclitaxel act synergistically to promote apoptosis in HER2/Neu human breast cancer cells. J.Surg.Res. 5-15-2006;132(2):208-213. View abstract.
  • Nachshon-Kedmi, M., Yannai, S., Haj, A., and Fares, F. A. Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2003;41(6):745-752. View abstract.
  • Parkin, D. R. and Malejka-Giganti, D. Differences in the hepatic P450-dependent metabolism of estrogen and tamoxifen in response to treatment of rats with 3,3'-diindolylmethane and its parent compound indole-3-carbinol. Cancer Detect.Prev. 2004;28(1):72-79. View abstract.
  • Rahman, K. W., Li, Y., Wang, Z., Sarkar, S. H., and Sarkar, F. H. Gene expression profiling revealed survivin as a target of 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 5-1-2006;66(9):4952-4960. View abstract.
  • Reed, G. A., Arneson, D. W., Putnam, W. C., Smith, H. J., Gray, J. C., Sullivan, D. K., Mayo, M. S., Crowell, J. A., and Hurwitz, A. Single-dose and multiple-dose administration of indole-3-carbinol to women: pharmacokinetics based on 3,3'-diindolylmethane. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(12):2477-2481. View abstract.
  • Reed, G. A., Sunega, J. M., Sullivan, D. K., Gray, J. C., Mayo, M. S., Crowell, J. A., and Hurwitz, A. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of absorption-enhanced 3,3'-diindolylmethane in healthy subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(10):2619-2624. View abstract.
  • Riby, J. E., Xue, L., Chatterji, U., Bjeldanes, E. L., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Activation and potentiation of interferon-gamma signaling by 3,3'-diindolylmethane in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol.Pharmacol. 2006;69(2):430-439. View abstract.
  • Rogan, E. G. The natural chemopreventive compound indole-3-carbinol: state of the science. In Vivo 2006;20(2):221-228. View abstract.
  • Sanderson, J. T., Slobbe, L., Lansbergen, G. W., Safe, S., and van den Berg, M. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and diindolylmethanes differentially induce cytochrome P450 1A1, 1B1, and 19 in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol.Sci. 2001;61(1):40-48. View abstract.
  • Sasieni, P. Chemoprevention of cervical cancer. Best.Pract.Res.Clin.Obstet.Gynaecol. 2006;20(2):295-305. View abstract.
  • Sepkovic, D. W., Bradlow, H. L., and Bell, M. Quantitative determination of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in urine of individuals receiving indole-3-carbinol. Nutr.Cancer 2001;41(1-2):57-63. View abstract.
  • Sepkovic, D. W., Stein, J., Carlisle, A. D., Ksieski, H. B., Auborn, K., and Bradlow, H. L. Diindolylmethane inhibits cervical dysplasia, alters estrogen metabolism, and enhances immune response in the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(11):2957-2964. View abstract.
  • Smith, S., Sepkovic, D., Bradlow, H. L., and Auborn, K. J. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane and genistein decrease the adverse effects of estrogen in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. J.Nutr. 2008;138(12):2379-2385. View abstract.
  • Smith, T. K., Lund, E. K., Clarke, R. G., Bennett, R. N., and Johnson, I. T. Effects of Brussels sprout juice on the cell cycle and adhesion of human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. J.Agric.Food Chem. 5-18-2005;53(10):3895-3901. View abstract.
  • Staub, R. E., Onisko, B., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Fate of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Chem.Res.Toxicol. 2006;19(3):436-442. View abstract.
  • Tadi, K., Chang, Y., Ashok, B. T., Chen, Y., Moscatello, A., Schaefer, S. D., Schantz, S. P., Policastro, A. J., Geliebter, J., and Tiwari, R. K. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, a cruciferous vegetable derived synthetic anti-proliferative compound in thyroid disease. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 11-25-2005;337(3):1019-1025. View abstract.
  • Vivar, O. I., Lin, C. L., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces a G(1) arrest in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor and p53 status. Biochem.Pharmacol. 9-1-2009;78(5):469-476. View abstract.
  • Wang, T. T., Milner, M. J., Milner, J. A., and Kim, Y. S. Estrogen receptor alpha as a target for indole-3-carbinol. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2006;17(10):659-664. View abstract.
  • Wattenberg, L. W. and Loub, W. D. Inhibition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced neoplasia by naturally occurring indoles. Cancer Res. 1978;38(5):1410-1413. View abstract.
  • Xue, L., Firestone, G. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. DIM stimulates IFNgamma gene expression in human breast cancer cells via the specific activation of JNK and p38 pathways. Oncogene 3-31-2005;24(14):2343-2353. View abstract.
  • Zhao, Y. Y., Zhou, L., Pan, Y. Z., Zhao, L. J., Liu, Y. N., Yu, H., Li, Y., and Zhao, X. J. [3,3-diindolylmethane enhances the inhibitory effect of idarubicin on the growth of human prostate cancer cells]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 3-11-2008;88(10):661-664. View abstract.
  • Aggarwal, B. B. and Ichikawa, H. Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives. Cell Cycle 2005;4(9):1201-1215. View abstract.
  • Balk JL. Indole-3-carbinol for cancer prevention. Altern Med Alert 2000; 3:105-7.
  • Bradlow HL, Sepkovic DW, Telang NT, Osborne MP. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;889:204-13. View abstract.
  • Bui PV, Moualla M, Upson DJ. A Possible Association of Diindolylmethane with Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Venous Thrombosis. Case Rep Med. 2016;2016:7527098. View abstract.
  • Castañon A, Tristram A, Mesher D, Powell N, Beer H, Ashman S, Rieck G, Fielder H, Fiander A, Sasieni P. Effect of diindolylmethane supplementation on low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities: double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Br J Cancer. 2012 Jan 3;106(1):45-52. View abstract.
  • Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane. Carcinogenesis 1998 Sep;19:1631-9. View abstract.
  • Chen I, Safe S, Bjeldanes L. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1996;51:1069-76. View abstract.
  • Dalessandri, K. M., Firestone, G. L., Fitch, M. D., Bradlow, H. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 2004;50(2):161-167. View abstract.
  • Firestone, G. L. and Bjeldanes, L. F. Indole-3-carbinol and 3-3'-diindolylmethane antiproliferative signaling pathways control cell-cycle gene transcription in human breast cancer cells by regulating promoter-Sp1 transcription factor interactions. J Nutr 2003;133(7 Suppl):2448S-2455S. View abstract.
  • Ge X, Yanni S, Rennert G, et al. 3'3-diindolylmethane induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;228:153-8. View abstract.
  • Hong C, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptotic effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 15;63(6):1085-97. View abstract.
  • Kotsopoulos J, Zhang S, Akbari M, Salmena L, Llacuachaqui M, Zeligs M, Sun P, Narod SA. BRCA1 mRNA levels following a 4-6-week intervention with oral 3,3'-diindolylmethane. Br J Cancer. 2014 Sep 23;111(7):1269-74. View abstract.
  • Le TM, Sanders CJ, van de Corput L, van Erpecum KJ, Röckmann H. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms caused by the dietary supplement diindolylmethane. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;4(1):175-6. View abstract.
  • McDougal A, Gupta MS, Ramamoorthy K, et al. Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane. Cancer Lett 2000;151:169-79. View abstract.
  • Natl Inst Health, Natl Inst Environmental Health Sci. Indole-3-carbinol. Available at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov.
  • Rahman KM, Ali S, Aboukameel A, Sarkar SH, Wang Z, Philip PA, Sakr WA, Raz A. Inactivation of NF-kappaB by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Oct;6(10):2757-65. View abstract.
  • Rajoria S, Suriano R, Parmar PS, Wilson YL, Megwalu U, Moscatello A, Bradlow HL, Sepkovic DW, Geliebter J, Schantz SP, Tiwari RK. 3,3'-diindolylmethane modulates estrogen metabolism in patients with thyroid proliferative disease: a pilot study. Thyroid. 2011 Mar;21(3):299-304. View abstract.
  • Riby JE, Chang GHF, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptor function by 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60:167-77. View abstract.
  • Wu TY, Huang Y, Zhang C, Su ZY, Boyanapalli S, Khor TO, Wang H, Lin H, Gounder M, Kagan L, Androulakis IP, Kong AN. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in regulating gene expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2015 Aug;42(4):401-8. View abstract.
  • Yang G, Wang Y, Tian J, Liu JP. Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One 2013;8(9):e74916. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased DIINDOLYLMETHANE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department.Read More

More Resources for DIINDOLYLMETHANE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.