PHELLODENDRON

OTHER NAME(S):

Amur Cork Bark, Amur Cork Tree, Amur Corktree, Arbre à Liège de l’Amour, Arbre au Liège de l’Amour, Arbre de Liège de Chine, Corktree, Cortex Phellodendri, Huang Bai, Huang Bo, Huangbai, Phellodendri Cortex, Phellodendron amurense, Phellodendron de l’Amour.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Phellodendron is a plant. The bark is used to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse phellodendron with the houseplant called philodendron. The names are similar but the plants are unrelated.

Phellodendron is commonly used by mouth for osteoarthritis, stress, weight loss and obesity, and many other uses. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.

How does it work?

Some chemicals in phellodendron might reduce redness and swelling (inflammation). One chemical, berberine, might be able to lower blood sugar and “bad” LDL cholesterol as well as protect the liver against toxic materials. Berberine might also be active against tumors. However, berberine can be harmful as well.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Psoriasis.
  • Stress.
  • Weight loss and obesity.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Ulcers.
  • Obesity.
  • Diabetes.
  • Meningitis.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Eye infections.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of phellodendron for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Phellodendron is POSSIBLY SAFE in adults when used short-term. The safety of phellodendron use for more than 8 weeks is unknown. In one study, one person experienced heartburn, shaking hands, sexual dysfunction, and thyroid dysfunction after taking a combination product containing phellodendron and magnolia. Another person experienced fatigue and headache. But it is not known if these side effects were caused by phellodendron, magnolia, or some other factor.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s UNSAFE to use phellodendron if you are pregnant. Phellodendron contains a chemical called berberine, which can cross the placenta and might harm the fetus. It’s also UNSAFE to use phellodendron if you are breast-feeding. Berberine can be transferred to the infant through breast milk and can cause brain damage in newborns, especially in premature newborns with jaundice. Jaundice is a yellowing of the eyes and skin due to bile pigments in the blood.

Children: Phellodendron is UNSAFE in newborn infants. It can cause brain damage, especially in premature infants with jaundice.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) interacts with PHELLODENDRON

    The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Phellodendron might decrease how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Taking phellodendron along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase the chance of side effects.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with PHELLODENDRON

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.<br><nb>Phellodendron might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking phellodendron along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking phellodendron, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.<br><nb>Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of phellodendron depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for phellodendron. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Can J Microbiol 1969;15:1067-76. View abstract.
  • Ang ES, Lee ST, Gan CS, et al. Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns. MedGenMed 2001;3:3. View abstract.
  • Anis KV, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by berberine in rats and mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:763-8. . View abstract.
  • Chan E. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Biol Neonate 1993;63:201-8. View abstract.
  • Cuellar MJ, Giner RM, Recio MC, et al. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Asian medicinal plants used in dermatological disorders. Fitoterapia 2001;72:221-9. View abstract.
  • Fukuda K, Hibiya Y, Mutoh M, et al. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:227-33. View abstract.
  • Garrison R, Chambliss WG. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med 2006;12:50-4. View abstract.
  • Gupte S. Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis. Am J Dis Child 1975;129:866. View abstract.
  • Hsiang CY, Wu SL, Cheng SE, Ho TY. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. J Biomed Sci 2005;12:791-801. View abstract.
  • Janbaz KH, Gilani AH. Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia 2000;71:25-33.. View abstract.
  • Kalman DS, Feldman S, Feldman R, et al. Effect of a proprietary magnolia and phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2008;7:11. View abstract.
  • Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, Aikawa M. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:417-25. View abstract.
  • Kim SH, Shin DS, Oh MN, et al. Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by isoquinoline alkaloids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:421-4.. View abstract.
  • Lee YM, Kim H, Hong EK, et al. Water extract of 1:1 mixture of Phellodendron cortex and Aralia cortex has inhibitory effects on oxidative stress in kidney of diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:429-36. View abstract.
  • Leu CH, Li CY, Yao X, Wu TS. Constituents from the leaves of Phellodendron amurense and their antioxidant activity. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006;54:1308-11. View abstract.
  • Li B, Shang JC, Zhou QX. [Study of total alkaloids from rhizoma coptis chinensis on experimental gastric ulcers]. Chin J Integr Med 2005;11:217-21. View abstract.
  • Lin YK, Yen HR, Wong WR, et al. Successful treatment of pediatric psoriasis with Indigo naturalis composite ointment. Pediatr Dermatol 2006;23:507-10. View abstract.
  • Mori H, Fuchigami M, Inoue N, et al. Principle of the bark of Phellodendron amurense to suppress the cellular immune response: effect of phellodendrine on cellular and humoral immune responses. Planta Med 1995;61:45-9. View abstract.
  • Oben J, Enonchong E, Kothari S, et al. Phellodendron and citrus extracts benefit cardiovascular health in osteoarthritis patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Nutr J 2008;7:16. View abstract.
  • Oben J, Enonchong E, Kothari S, et al. Phellodendron and citrus extracts benefit joint health in osteoarthritis patients: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 2009;8:38. View abstract.
  • Park KS, Kang KC, Kim JH, et al. Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;43:667-74. View abstract.
  • Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;68:391-5. View abstract.
  • Scazzocchio F, Corneta MF, Tomassini L, Palmery M. Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Planta Med 2001;67:561-4. View abstract.
  • Sun D, Courtney HS, Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1370-4. View abstract.
  • Talbott SM, Talbott JA, Pugh M. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):37. View abstract.
  • Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:405-12. . View abstract.
  • Uchiyama T, Kamikawa H, Ogita Z. [Anti-ulcer effect of extract from phellodendri cortex]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1989;109:672-6. View abstract.
  • Wu X, Li Q, Xin H, Yu A, Zhong M. Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporin A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61:567-72. View abstract.
  • Zeng XH, Zeng XJ, Li YY. Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:173-6. View abstract.

More Resources for PHELLODENDRON

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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