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Overview InformationCissus quadrangularis is a vine that grows in Africa and parts of Asia. It is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in Thailand, and is also used in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine. All parts of the plant are used for medicine.
Cissus quadrangularis is commonly used for bone health and weight loss. It is also used for conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, hemorrhoids, and many others, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
How does it work?There is not enough information to know how Cissus quadrangularis might work for medicinal purposes in people. Test tube studies and research in animals show that it has antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It might have activity against the organism that causes malaria.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Obesity. Most research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis extract, alone or with other ingredients, reduces weight by a small amount in people who are overweight or obese. But many of these studies are low to moderate quality and lasted for only 6-10 weeks. Longer-term, larger studies are need to confirm these results.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Fractures. Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis dried herb preparations or extracts can decrease pain and swelling and improve the rate of healing in people with various types of bone fractures. However, this research is generally low quality.
- Hemorrhoids. Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis by mouth for 1-2 weeks, or applying a cream containing Cissus quadrangularis to hemorrhoids for 1 week, does not improve hemorrhoid symptoms.
- Joint pain. Early research shows that taking a Cissus quadrangularis product for 8 weeks decreases pain and stiffness in men with joint pain caused by exercise.
- Low bone mass (osteopenia). Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis with other ingredients might help to increase bone mass in people with low bone mass.
- Heart disease risk factors that occur together (metabolic syndrome).
- High cholesterol.
- Loss of appetite (anorexia).
- Painful menstrual periods.
- Peptic ulcer disease (PUD).
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Upset stomach.
- Wound healing.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Cissus quadrangularis is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for up to 10 weeks. Cissus quadrangularis can cause side effects such as headache, intestinal gas, dry mouth, diarrhea, and insomnia. There is not enough information to know how often these side effects might occur.
The long-term safety of Cissus quadrangularis is not known.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if Cissus quadrangularis is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: Cissus quadrangularis might lower blood sugar. Taking Cissus quadrangularis along with medications for diabetes might lower blood sugar too much. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar levels closely if you have diabetes and use Cissus quadrangularis.
Surgery: Cissus quadrangularis might lower blood sugar and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgical procedures. Stop using Cissus quadrangularis at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For obesity: 300 mg of Cissuc quadrangularis extract has been taken once daily or in two divided doses daily for 6-10 weeks.
- Bah, S., Paulsen, B. S., Diallo, D., and Johansen, H. T. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-19-2006;107(2):189-198. View abstract.
- Balachandran, B., Sivaswamy, S. N., and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Genotoxic effects of some foods & food components in Swiss mice. Indian J Med Res 1991;94:378-383. View abstract.
- Bhujade, A. M., Talmale, S., Kumar, N., Gupta, G., Reddanna, P., Das, S. K., and Patil, M. B. Evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis extracts as an inhibitor of COX, 5-LOX, and proinflammatory mediators. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-14-2012;141(3):989-996. View abstract.
- Bongaard, BS. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Obesity, Lipid Abnormalities, and Metabolic Syndrome. Alternative Medicine Alert 2007;10(8):85-88.
- Chidambara Murthy, K. N., Vanitha, A., Mahadeva, Swamy M., and Ravishankar, G. A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. J Med Food 2003;6(2):99-105. View abstract.
- Chidambaram, J. and Carani, Venkatraman A. Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(8-9):2021-2029. View abstract.
- Chopra, S. S., Patel, M. R., and Awadhiya, R. P. Studies of Cissus quadrangularis in experimental fracture repair : a histopathological study. Indian J Med Res 1976;64(9):1365-1368. View abstract.
- Chopra, S. S., Patel, M. R., Gupta, L. P., and Datta, I. C. Studies on Cissus quadrangularis in experimental fracture repair: effect on chemical parameters in blood. Indian J Med Res 1975;63(6):824-828. View abstract.
- de Almeida ER, de Oliveira JR Lucena FF Soares RP Couto GB. The action of extract of the dry leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. in pregnant rats. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense (Argentina) 2006;25:421-424.
- Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity. World J Gastroenterol. 7-7-2009;15(25):3073-3085. View abstract.
- Hema R, Kumaravel S Ruffina D. Antimicrobial activity of some Indian herbs against plant pathogens. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2010;22(4):138-139.
- Jain, A., Dixit, J., and Prakash, D. Modulatory effects of Cissus quadrangularis on periodontal regeneration by bovine-derived hydroxyapatite in intrabony defects: exploratory clinical trial. J Int.Acad.Periodontol. 2008;10(2):59-65. View abstract.
- Jainu M, Shyamala Devi CS. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Free-Radical Scavenging Potential of Cissus quadrangularis. Pharmaceutical Biology 2005;43(9):773-779.
- Jainu, M. and Devi, C. S. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate. J Med Food 2004;7(3):372-376. View abstract.
- Jainu, M. and Mohan, K. V. Protective role of ascorbic acid isolated from Cissus quadrangularis on NSAID induced toxicity through immunomodulating response and growth factors expression. Int.Immunopharmacol. 12-20-2008;8(13-14):1721-1727. View abstract.
- Jainu, M. and Shyamala Devi, C. S. Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(3):33-42. View abstract.
- Jainu, M., Mohan, K. V., and Devi, C. S. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-6-2006;104(3):302-305. View abstract.
- Jainu, M., Vijaimohan, K., and Kannan, K. Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Pharmacogn.Mag. 2010;6(23):225-233. View abstract.
- Kumar, M., Rawat, P., Dixit, P., Mishra, D., Gautam, A. K., Pandey, R., Singh, D., Chattopadhyay, N., and Maurya, R. Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 2010;17(13):993-999. View abstract.
- Kumar, R., Sharma, A. K., Saraf, S. A., and Gupta, R. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of cissus quadrangularis linn. (Vitaceae). J Diet.Suppl 2010;7(1):1-8. View abstract.
- Mehta, M., Kaur, N., and Bhutani, K. K. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC. Phytochem.Anal. 2001;12(2):91-95. View abstract.
- Muthusami, S., Senthilkumar, K., Vignesh, C., Ilangovan, R., Stanley, J., Selvamurugan, N., and Srinivasan, N. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. J Cell Biochem 2011;112(4):1035-1045. View abstract.
- O'Mathúna DP. Herbal Remedies for Weight Loss. Alternative Medicine Alert 2011;14(4):37.
- Opoku, A. R., Geheeb-Keller, M., Lin, J., Terblanche, S. E., Hutchings, A., Chuturgoon, A., and Pillay, D. Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants for antineoplastic activities versus the HepG2 cell line. Phytother.Res 2000;14(7):534-537. View abstract.
- Panpimanmas, S., Sithipongsri, S., Sukdanon, C., and Manmee, C. Experimental comparative study of the efficacy and side effects of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) to Daflon (Servier) and placebo in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2010;93(12):1360-1367. View abstract.
- Parisuthiman, D., Singhatanadgit, W., Dechatiwongse, T., and Koontongkaew, S. Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts. In Vitro Cell Dev.Biol.Anim 2009;45(3-4):194-200. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Bhat, K. M., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Nayak, S. R., and Muttigi, M. S. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (Linn.) enhances bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and facilitates osteoblastogenesis. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2009;64(10):993-998. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Nampurath, G. K., Rao, M. S., and Bhat, K. M. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn on the development of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats. Clin Ter. 2011;162(4):307-312. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Kutty, N. G., Bhat, K. M., Chamallamudi, M. R., and Nayak, S. R. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (LINN) stimulates the growth of fetal bone during intra uterine developmental period: a morphometric analysis. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63(6):815-820. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Nayak, S. R., and Thomas, H. Anti-osteoporotic activity of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. in ovariectomized Wistar rats. Chang Gung.Med J 2010;33(3):252-257. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Prasad, K., Nayak, S. R., Dharmavarapu, P. K., Kedage, V., and Bhat, K. M. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Ups.J Med Sci 2009;114(3):140-148. View abstract.
- PRASAD, G. C. and UDUPA, K. N. EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON THE HEALING OF CORTISONE TREATED FRACTURES. Indian J Med Res 1963;51:667-676. View abstract.
- Shah, U. M., Patel, S. M., Patel, P. H., Hingorani, L., and Jadhav, R. B. Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis. Indian J Pharm.Sci 2010;72(6):753-758. View abstract.
- Shanthi G, Vijay kanth G Hitesh L Ganesan M. Antiulcerogenic activities of the methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis in wistar. Internet Journal of Toxicology 2010;7(2)
- Shirwaikar, A., Khan, S., and Malini, S. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(2-3):245-250. View abstract.
- Singh SP, Misra N Dixit KS et al. An experimental study of analgesic activity of cissus quadrangularis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1984;16(3):162-163.
- SINGH, L. M. and UDUPA, K. N. Studies on "Cissus Quadrangularis" in fracture by using phosphorus 32. III. Indian J Med Sci 1962;16:926-931. View abstract.
- Sivaswamy, S. N., Balachandran, B., Balanehru, S., and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1991;29(8):730-737. View abstract.
- Srisook, K., Palachot, M., Mongkol, N., Srisook, E., and Sarapusit, S. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-kappaB activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-16-2011;133(3):1008-1014. View abstract.
- Thawani VR, Kimmatkar N Hingorani LL Khiyani RM. Effect of herbal combination containing cissus quadrangularis in fracture healing. The Antiseptic 2002;99(9):345-347.
- UDUPA, K. N. and PRASAD, G. BIOMECHANICAL AND CALCIUM-45 STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN FRACTURE REPAIR. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:480-487. View abstract.
- UDUPA, K. N. and PRASAD, G. C. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN ACCELERATING FRACTURE HEALING. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:26-35. View abstract.
- UDUPA, K. N., ARNIKAR, H. J., and SINGH, L. M. Experimental studies of the use of 'cissus quadrangularis' in healing of fractures. II. Indian J Med Sci 1961;15:551-557. View abstract.
- Viswanatha Swamy, A. H., Kulkarni, R. V., Thippeswamy, A. H., Koti, B. C., and Gore, A. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract against isoniazid-induced liver damage in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42(6):397-400. View abstract.
- Bah S, Jager AK, Adsersen A, et al. Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:451-7. View abstract.
- Barakat SEM, Adam SEI, Maglad MA, Wasfi IA. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on goats and sheep in Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 1985;38:185-94. View abstract.
- Bloomer RJ, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Lee SR. Cissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot study. Phys Sportsmed 2013;41(3):29-35. View abstract.
- Brahmkshatriya HR, Shah KA, Ananthkumar GB, Brahmkshatriya MH. Clinical evaluation of Cissus quandrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: a pilot study. Ayu 2015;36(2):169-73. View abstract.
- Dhatrak S, Thawani V, Gharpure K, et al. Effect of herbal combination in low bone mass density patients. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Technology 2011;2(1):9-14.
- Jadhav AN, Rafiq M, Devanathan R, et al. Ketosteroid standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. extract and its anabolic activity: time to look beyond ketosteroid? Pharmacogn Man 2016;12(Suppl 2):S213-7. View abstract.
- Jainu M, Devi CS. Gastroprotective action of Cissus quadrangularis extract against NSAID induced gastric ulcer: role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage. Chem Biol Interact 2006;161:262-70. View abstract.
- Jainu M, Mohan KV, Devi CSS. Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer. Indian J Med Res 2006;123:799-806. View abstract.
- Kothari SC, Shivarudraiah P, Venkataramaiah SB, et al. Safety assessment of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300): subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. Food Chem Toxicol 2011;49(12):3343-57. View abstract.
- Kuate D, Nash RJ, Bartholomew B, Penkova Y. The use of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) in the management of components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese participants. Nat Prod Commun 2015;10(7):1281-6. View abstract.
- Nash R, Azantsa B, Kuate D, Singh H, Oben J. The use of a stem and leaf aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to reduce body fat and other components of metabolic syndrome in overweight participants. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(1):98-106. View abstract.
- Oben J, Enyegue DM, Fomekong G, et al. The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress. Lipids Health Dis 2007;6:4. View abstract.
- Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, et al. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Lipids Health Dis 2006, 5:24. View abstract.
- Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, et al. The use of Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:12. View abstract.
- Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, et al. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:264-70. View abstract.
- Sawangjit R, Puttarak P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N. Efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in clinical use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res 2017;31(4):555-67. View abstract.
- Siddaram A, Neetu J, Uttam N, et al. Management of colle's fracture by Asthishrangularis (Cissus quadrangularis Linn): a clinical study. Int Research J Pharmacy 2012;3(10):164-8.
- Singh G, Rawat P, Maurya R. Constituents of Cissus quadrangularis. Nat Prod Res 2007;21:522-8. View abstract.
- Singh N, Singh V, Singh RK, et al. Osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis assessed with osteopontin expression. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2013;4(1):52-6. View abstract.
- Stohs SJ, Ray SD. A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts. Phytother Res 2013;27(8):1107-14. View abstract.
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