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Overview InformationCissus quadrangularis is a vine that grows in Africa and parts of Asia. It is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in Thailand, and is also used in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine. All parts of the plant are used for medicine.
Cissus quadrangularis is used for obesity, diabetes, a cluster of heart disease risk factors called "metabolic syndrome," and high cholesterol. It has also been used for bone fractures, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, loss of appetite (anorexia), weak bones (osteoporosis), scurvy, cancer, upset stomach, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), painful menstrual periods, asthma, seizures, malaria, wound healing, and pain. Cissus quadrangularis is also used in bodybuilding supplements as an alternative to anabolic steroids.
How does it work?There is not enough information to know how Cissus quadrangularis might work for medicinal purposes in people. Test tube studies and research in animals show that it has antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It might have activity against the organism that causes malaria.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- Bone fractures. Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis dried herb preparations or extracts can decrease pain and swelling and improve the rate of healing in people with various types of bone fractures. However, this research is generally low quality.
- Hemorrhoids. Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis by mouth for 1-2 weeks, or applying a cream containing Cissus quadrangularis to hemorrhoids for 1 week, does not improve hemorrhoid symptoms.
- Joint pain. Early research shows that taking a Cissus quadrangularis product for 8 weeks decreases pain and stiffness in men with joint pain caused by exercise.
- Obesity and weight loss. Early research shows that taking Cissus quadrangularis extracts, alone or with other ingredients, reduces weight in some people who are obese and overweight. However, this research is generally low quality.
- Bone defects caused by gum disease. Early research shows that adding Cissus quadrangularis to a material called hydroxyapatite, which is used in dentistry to treat tissue loss caused by gum disease, does not improve tissue regrowth in people with specific bone defects called periodontal intrabony defects.
- Heart disease risk factors that occur together (metabolic syndrome).
- High cholesterol.
- Loss of appetite (anorexia).
- Low bone mass (osteopenia).
- Painful menstrual periods.
- Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)..
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Upset stomach.
- Wound healing.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyCissus quadrangularis is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately short-term (for up to 6-10 weeks). Cissus quadrangularis can cause side effects such as headache, intestinal gas, dry mouth, diarrhea, and insomnia. But there is not enough information to know how often these side effects might occur.
The long-term safety of Cissus quadrangularis is not known.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Cissus quadrangularis if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: Cissus quadrangularis might lower blood sugar. Taking Cissus quadrangularis along with medications for diabetes might lower blood sugar too much. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar levels closely if you have diabetes and use Cissus quadrangularis.
Surgery: Cissus quadrangularis might lower blood sugar and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgical procedures. Stop using Cissus quadrangularis at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS Interactions.
The appropriate dose of Cissus quadrangularis depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Cissus quadrangularis. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
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- Bhujade, A. M., Talmale, S., Kumar, N., Gupta, G., Reddanna, P., Das, S. K., and Patil, M. B. Evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis extracts as an inhibitor of COX, 5-LOX, and proinflammatory mediators. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-14-2012;141(3):989-996. View abstract.
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- Jainu, M. and Shyamala Devi, C. S. Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(3):33-42. View abstract.
- Jainu, M., Mohan, K. V., and Devi, C. S. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-6-2006;104(3):302-305. View abstract.
- Jainu, M., Vijaimohan, K., and Kannan, K. Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Pharmacogn.Mag. 2010;6(23):225-233. View abstract.
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- Mehta, M., Kaur, N., and Bhutani, K. K. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC. Phytochem.Anal. 2001;12(2):91-95. View abstract.
- Muthusami, S., Senthilkumar, K., Vignesh, C., Ilangovan, R., Stanley, J., Selvamurugan, N., and Srinivasan, N. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. J Cell Biochem 2011;112(4):1035-1045. View abstract.
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- Opoku, A. R., Geheeb-Keller, M., Lin, J., Terblanche, S. E., Hutchings, A., Chuturgoon, A., and Pillay, D. Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants for antineoplastic activities versus the HepG2 cell line. Phytother.Res 2000;14(7):534-537. View abstract.
- Panpimanmas, S., Sithipongsri, S., Sukdanon, C., and Manmee, C. Experimental comparative study of the efficacy and side effects of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) to Daflon (Servier) and placebo in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2010;93(12):1360-1367. View abstract.
- Parisuthiman, D., Singhatanadgit, W., Dechatiwongse, T., and Koontongkaew, S. Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts. In Vitro Cell Dev.Biol.Anim 2009;45(3-4):194-200. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Bhat, K. M., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Nayak, S. R., and Muttigi, M. S. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (Linn.) enhances bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and facilitates osteoblastogenesis. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2009;64(10):993-998. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Nampurath, G. K., Rao, M. S., and Bhat, K. M. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn on the development of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats. Clin Ter. 2011;162(4):307-312. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Kutty, N. G., Bhat, K. M., Chamallamudi, M. R., and Nayak, S. R. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (LINN) stimulates the growth of fetal bone during intra uterine developmental period: a morphometric analysis. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63(6):815-820. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Nayak, S. R., and Thomas, H. Anti-osteoporotic activity of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. in ovariectomized Wistar rats. Chang Gung.Med J 2010;33(3):252-257. View abstract.
- Potu, B. K., Rao, M. S., Nampurath, G. K., Chamallamudi, M. R., Prasad, K., Nayak, S. R., Dharmavarapu, P. K., Kedage, V., and Bhat, K. M. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Ups.J Med Sci 2009;114(3):140-148. View abstract.
- PRASAD, G. C. and UDUPA, K. N. EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON THE HEALING OF CORTISONE TREATED FRACTURES. Indian J Med Res 1963;51:667-676. View abstract.
- Shah, U. M., Patel, S. M., Patel, P. H., Hingorani, L., and Jadhav, R. B. Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis. Indian J Pharm.Sci 2010;72(6):753-758. View abstract.
- Shanthi G, Vijay kanth G Hitesh L Ganesan M. Antiulcerogenic activities of the methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis in wistar. Internet Journal of Toxicology 2010;7(2)
- Shirwaikar, A., Khan, S., and Malini, S. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(2-3):245-250. View abstract.
- Singh SP, Misra N Dixit KS et al. An experimental study of analgesic activity of cissus quadrangularis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1984;16(3):162-163.
- SINGH, L. M. and UDUPA, K. N. Studies on "Cissus Quadrangularis" in fracture by using phosphorus 32. III. Indian J Med Sci 1962;16:926-931. View abstract.
- Sivaswamy, S. N., Balachandran, B., Balanehru, S., and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1991;29(8):730-737. View abstract.
- Srisook, K., Palachot, M., Mongkol, N., Srisook, E., and Sarapusit, S. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-kappaB activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-16-2011;133(3):1008-1014. View abstract.
- Thawani VR, Kimmatkar N Hingorani LL Khiyani RM. Effect of herbal combination containing cissus quadrangularis in fracture healing. The Antiseptic 2002;99(9):345-347.
- UDUPA, K. N. and PRASAD, G. BIOMECHANICAL AND CALCIUM-45 STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN FRACTURE REPAIR. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:480-487. View abstract.
- UDUPA, K. N. and PRASAD, G. C. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN ACCELERATING FRACTURE HEALING. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:26-35. View abstract.
- UDUPA, K. N., ARNIKAR, H. J., and SINGH, L. M. Experimental studies of the use of 'cissus quadrangularis' in healing of fractures. II. Indian J Med Sci 1961;15:551-557. View abstract.
- Viswanatha Swamy, A. H., Kulkarni, R. V., Thippeswamy, A. H., Koti, B. C., and Gore, A. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract against isoniazid-induced liver damage in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42(6):397-400. View abstract.
- Bah S, Jager AK, Adsersen A, et al. Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:451-7. View abstract.
- Barakat SEM, Adam SEI, Maglad MA, Wasfi IA. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on goats and sheep in Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 1985;38:185-94. View abstract.
- Bloomer RJ, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Lee SR. Cissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot study. Phys Sportsmed 2013;41(3):29-35. View abstract.
- Brahmkshatriya HR, Shah KA, Ananthkumar GB, Brahmkshatriya MH. Clinical evaluation of Cissus quandrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: a pilot study. Ayu 2015;36(2):169-73. View abstract.
- Dhatrak S, Thawani V, Gharpure K, et al. Effect of herbal combination in low bone mass density patients. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Technology 2011;2(1):9-14.
- Jadhav AN, Rafiq M, Devanathan R, et al. Ketosteroid standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. extract and its anabolic activity: time to look beyond ketosteroid? Pharmacogn Man 2016;12(Suppl 2):S213-7. View abstract.
- Jainu M, Devi CS. Gastroprotective action of Cissus quadrangularis extract against NSAID induced gastric ulcer: role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage. Chem Biol Interact 2006;161:262-70. View abstract.
- Jainu M, Mohan KV, Devi CSS. Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer. Indian J Med Res 2006;123:799-806. View abstract.
- Kothari SC, Shivarudraiah P, Venkataramaiah SB, et al. Safety assessment of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300): subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. Food Chem Toxicol 2011;49(12):3343-57. View abstract.
- Kuate D, Nash RJ, Bartholomew B, Penkova Y. The use of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) in the management of components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese participants. Nat Prod Commun 2015;10(7):1281-6. View abstract.
- Oben J, Enyegue DM, Fomekong G, et al. The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress. Lipids Health Dis 2007;6:4. View abstract.
- Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, et al. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Lipids Health Dis 2006, 5:24. View abstract.
- Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, et al. The use of Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:12. View abstract.
- Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, et al. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:264-70. View abstract.
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- Siddaram A, Neetu J, Uttam N, et al. Management of colle's fracture by Asthishrangularis (Cissus quadrangularis Linn): a clinical study. Int Research J Pharmacy 2012;3(10):164-8.
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- Singh N, Singh V, Singh RK, et al. Osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis assessed with osteopontin expression. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2013;4(1):52-6. View abstract.
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