Compass Plant, Compass Weed, Encensier, Herbe Aux Couronnes, Old Man, Polar Plant, Romarin, Romarin Des Troubadours, Romero, Rose de Marie, Rose Des Marins, Rosée De Mer, Rosemarine, Rosmarinus officinalis, Rusmari, Rusmary.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationRosemary is an herb. Oil is extracted from the leaf and used to make medicine.
Rosemary is used for digestion problems, including heartburn, intestinal gas (flatulence), and loss of appetite. It is also used for liver and gallbladder complaints, gout, cough, headache, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, reducing age-related memory loss, improving energy and mental tiredness, opioid withdrawal symptoms, sunburn protection, and diabetic kidney disease.
Some women use rosemary for increasing menstrual flow and causing abortions.
Rosemary is applied to the skin for preventing and treating baldness It is also used for treating circulation problems, toothache, gum disease (gingivitis), a skin condition called eczema, muscle pain, pain along the sciatic nerve, and chest wall pain. It is also used for wound healing, in bath therapy (balneotherapy), and as an insect repellent.
In foods, rosemary is used as a spice. The leaf and oil are used in foods, and the oil is used in beverages.
In manufacturing, rosemary oil is used as a fragrant component in soaps and perfumes.
How does it work?Although it's not clear how rosemary works for hair loss, applying it to the scalp irritates the skin and increases blood circulation.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Ineffective for
- Causing abortions.Taking rosemary by mouth does not seem to cause an abortion.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Age-related mental decline. Some early research suggests that taking powdered rosemary leaves might improve memory speed in healthy, older adults. However, higher doses seem worsen memory.
- Patchy hair loss. Early research shows that applying rosemary oil with lavender, thyme, and cedarwood oils to the scalp improves hair growth in some people.
- Male-pattern baldness. Early research suggests that applying rosemary oil to the scalp is as effective as minoxidil for increasing hair count in people with male-pattern baldness.
- Arthritis. Early research shows that taking a product containing rosemary, hops, and oleanolic acid (NG440 or Meta050) can reduce pain associated with arthritis.
- Mental performance. Early research shows that rosemary aromatherapy can improve the quality of memory recall. It also seems to increase alertness in healthy adults.
- Diabetic kidney damage. A high level of protein in the urine of a diabetes patient is an early marker of diabetic kidney damage. Early research suggests that taking a product containing rosemary, centaury, and lovage (Canephron N by Bionorica) can decrease the amount of protein in the urine when taken with standard antidiabetes medications.
- Mental tiredness. Early research shows that taking rosemary does not improve attention or mental energy in adults with low energy levels.
- Fibromyalgia. Early research suggests that that taking a product containing rosemary, hops, and oleanolic acid (Meta050) does not improve symptoms of fibromyalgia.
- Gum disease (gingivitis). Early research shows that an herbal mouthwash containing rosemary, calendula, and ginger extracts helps reduce gum bleeding and swelling in people with gum disease when used twice daily after meals for 2 weeks. The herbal mouthwash seems to work about as well as an antibacterial mouthwash containing chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%.
- Hypotension. Early research shows that taking rosemary oil three times per day increases the top number in a blood pressure reading (systolic blood pressure) and the bottom number (diastolic blood pressure) in people with low blood pressure. Blood pressure seems to return to pretreatment values once rosemary use is stopped.
- Opioid withdrawal. Early research suggests that taking rosemary leaves along with methadone, improves opioid withdrawal symptoms.
- Stress. Some early research suggests that rosemary and lavender oil aromatherapy may reduce pulse rates, but not blood pressure, in people taking tests. But other research shows that applying rosemary oil to the wrist increases feelings of anxiety and tension during testing.
- Sunburn. Early research suggests that taking a product containing rosemary and grapefruit extract (NutroxSun by Monteloeder Inc.) may protect against sunburn
- Gas (flatulence).
- High blood pressure.
- Increasing menstrual flow.
- Liver and gallbladder problems.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyRosemary is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts found in foods. Rosemary is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when used as a medicine when taken by mouth, applied to the skin, or inhaled as aromatherapy.
However, the undiluted oil is LIKELY UNSAFE to take by mouth. Taking large amounts of rosemary can cause vomiting, uterine bleeding, kidney irritation, increased sun sensitivity, skin redness, and allergic reactions.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Rosemary is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts. Rosemary might stimulate menstruation or affect the uterus, causing a miscarriage. Not enough is known about the safety of applying rosemary to the skin during pregnancy. If you are pregnant, it’s best to avoid rosemary in amounts larger than food amounts.
If you are breast-feeding, also steer clear of rosemary in medicinal amounts. Not enough is known about what effects it might have on the nursing infant.
Aspirin allergy. Rosemary contains a chemical that is very similar to aspirin. This chemical, known a as salicylate, may cause a reaction in people who are allergic to aspirin.
Bleeding disorders: Rosemary might increase the risk of bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding disorders. Use cautiously.
Seizure disorders: Rosemary might make seizure disorders worse. Don’t use it.
We currently have no information for ROSEMARY Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For the treatment of bald spots (alopecia areata): A combination of the essential oils including 3 drops or 114 mg of rosemary, 2 drops or 88 mg of thyme, 3 drops or 108 mg of lavender, and 2 drops or 94 mg of cedarwood, all mixed with 3 mL of jojoba oil and 20 mL of grapeseed oil has been used. Each night, the mixture is massaged into the scalp for 2 minutes with a warm towel placed around the head to increase absorption.
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- Ozcan, M. M. and Chalchat, J. C. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. Int J Food Sci.Nutr 2008;59(7-8):691-698. View abstract.
- Paris, A., Strukelj, B., Renko, M., Turk, V., Pukl, M., Umek, A., and Korant, B. D. Inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on HIV-1 protease in cell-free assays [corrected]. J Nat Prod 1993;56(8):1426-1430. View abstract.
- Park, J. A., Kim, S., Lee, S. Y., Kim, C. S., Kim, do K., Kim, S. J., and Chun, H. S. Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Neuroreport 8-27-2008;19(13):1301-1304. View abstract.
- Poeckel, D., Greiner, C., Verhoff, M., Rau, O., Tausch, L., Hornig, C., Steinhilber, D., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Werz, O. Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochem.Pharmacol 7-1-2008;76(1):91-97. View abstract.
- Posadas, S. J., Caz, V., Largo, C., De la, Gandara B., Matallanas, B., Reglero, G., and De Miguel, E. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44(6-7):383-389. View abstract.
- Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(11):950-956. View abstract.
- Quave, C. L., Plano, L. R., Pantuso, T., and Bennett, B. C. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol 8-13-2008;118(3):418-428. View abstract.
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- Sancheti, G. and Goyal, P. K. Effect of rosmarinus officinalis in modulating 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. Phytother Res 2006;20(11):981-986. View abstract.
- Sancheti, G. and Goyal, P. Modulatory influence of Rosemarinus officinalis on DMBA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7(2):331-335. View abstract.
- Sandasi, M., Leonard, C. M., and Viljoen, A. M. The in vitro antibiofilm activity of selected culinary herbs and medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2010;50(1):30-35. View abstract.
- Santoyo, S., Cavero, S., Jaime, L., Ibanez, E., Senorans, F. J., and Reglero, G. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. J Food Prot. 2005;68(4):790-795. View abstract.
- Satoh, T., Kosaka, K., Itoh, K., Kobayashi, A., Yamamoto, M., Shimojo, Y., Kitajima, C., Cui, J., Kamins, J., Okamoto, S., Izumi, M., Shirasawa, T., and Lipton, S. A. Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protects neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap1. J Neurochem. 2008;104(4):1116-1131. View abstract.
- Scheckel, K. A., Degner, S. C., and Romagnolo, D. F. Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines. J Nutr 2008;138(11):2098-2105. View abstract.
- Schwarz, K. and Ternes, W. Antioxidative constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis. I. Determination of phenolic diterpenes with antioxidative activity amongst tocochromanols using HPLC. Z Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1992;195(2):95-98. View abstract.
- Shin, S. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(5):389-393. View abstract.
- Slamenova, D., Kuboskova, K., Horvathova, E., and Robichova, S. Rosemary-stimulated reduction of DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites in mammalian cells treated with H2O2 or visible light-excited Methylene Blue. Cancer Lett 3-28-2002;177(2):145-153. View abstract.
- Smith, C., Halliwell, B., and Aruoma, O. I. Protection by albumin against the pro-oxidant actions of phenolic dietary components. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1992;30(6):483-489. View abstract.
- Sotelo-Felix, J. I., Martinez-Fong, D., and Muriel, De la Torre. Protective effect of carnosol on CCl(4)-induced acute liver damage in rats. Eur J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2002;14(9):1001-1006. View abstract.
- Sotelo-Felix, J. I., Martinez-Fong, D., Muriel, P., Santillan, R. L., Castillo, D., and Yahuaca, P. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81(2):145-154. View abstract.
- Steiner, M., Priel, I., Giat, J., Levy, J., Sharoni, Y., and Danilenko, M. Carnosic acid inhibits proliferation and augments differentiation of human leukemic cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid. Nutr Cancer 2001;41(1-2):135-144. View abstract.
- Takahashi, T., Tabuchi, T., Tamaki, Y., Kosaka, K., Takikawa, Y., and Satoh, T. Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 5-8-2009;382(3):549-554. View abstract.
- Tamaki, Y., Tabuchi, T., Takahashi, T., Kosaka, K., and Satoh, T. Activated Glutathione Metabolism Participates in Protective Effects of Carnosic Acid against Oxidative Stress in Neuronal HT22 cells. Planta Med 11-25-2009; View abstract.
- Tantaoui-Elaraki, A. and Beraoud, L. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol Oncol. 1994;13(1):67-72. View abstract.
- Uysal, H., Kara, A. A., Algur, O. F., Dumlupinar, R., and Aydogan, M. N. Recovering effects of aqueous extracts of some selected medical plants on the teratogenic effects during the development of D. melanogaster. Pak.J Biol.Sci 5-15-2007;10(10):1708-1712. View abstract.
- Wang, R., Li, H., Guo, G., Li, X., Yu, X., Li, H., Wang, J., Liu, F., and Chen, X. Augmentation by carnosic acid of apoptosis in human leukaemia cells induced by arsenic trioxide via upregulation of the tumour suppressor PTEN. J Int Med Res 2008;36(4):682-690. View abstract.
- Weckesser, S., Engel, K., Simon-Haarhaus, B., Wittmer, A., Pelz, K., and Schempp, C. M. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7-8):508-516. View abstract.
- Yu, Y. M., Lin, H. C., and Chang, W. C. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Br.J Nutr 2008;100(4):731-738. View abstract.
- Zeng, H. H., Tu, P. F., Zhou, K., Wang, H., Wang, B. H., and Lu, J. F. Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22(12):1094-1098. View abstract.
- Zhao, B. L., Li, X. J., He, R. G., Cheng, S. J., and Xin, W. J. Scavenging effect of extracts of green tea and natural antioxidants on active oxygen radicals. Cell Biophys. 1989;14(2):175-185. View abstract.
- Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51. View abstract.
- Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. J Neurol 1999;246:667-70. View abstract.
- Burnett KM, Solterbeck LA, Strapp CM. Scent and mood state following an anxiety-provoking task. Psychol Rep 2004;95(2):707-22. View abstract.
- Cartier LC, Lehrer A, Malo JL. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 1996;51:647-9. View abstract.
- Debersac P, Heydel JM, Amiot MJ, et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 and/or detoxication enzymes by various extracts of rosemary: description of specific patterns. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39(9):907-18. View abstract.
- Debersac P, Vernevaut MF, Amiot MJ, et al. Effects of a water-soluble extract of rosemary and its purified component rosmarinic acid on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39(2):109-17. View abstract.
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- Giordani R, Regli P, Kaloustian J, et al. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris. Phytother Res 2004;18:990-5. . View abstract.
- Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1349-52. View abstract.
- Kim MA, Sakong JK, Kim EJ, et al. [Effect of aromatherapy massage for the relief of constipation in the elderly]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2005;35(1):56-64. View abstract.
- Lee JJ, Jin YR, Lee JH, et al. Antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis. Planta Med 2007;73(2):121-7. View abstract.
- Lee JJ, Jin YR, Lim Y, et al. Antiplatelet activity of carnosol is mediated by the inhibition of TXA2 receptor and cytosolic calcium mobilization. Vascul Pharmacol 2006;45:148-53. View abstract.
- Lieberman S. A Review of the effectiveness of cimicifuga racemosa (Black Cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause. J Womens Health 1998;7:525-9. View abstract.
- Lindheimer JB, Loy BD, O'Connor PJ. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinnus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy. J Med Food. 2013;16(8):765-771.
- Lukaczer D, Darland G, Tripp M, et al. A pilot trial evaluating Meta050, a proprietary combination of reduced iso-alpha acids, rosemary extract and oleanolic acid in patients with arthritis and fibromyalgia. Phytother Res 2005;19(10):864-9. View abstract.
- Mahyari S, Mahyari B, Emami SA, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2016;22:93-8. View abstract.
- Fuchs, S. M., Schliemann-Willers, S., Fischer, T. W., and Elsner, P. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis. Skin Pharmacol.Physiol 2005;18(4):195-200. View abstract.
- Geoffroy, M., Lambelet, P., and Richert, P. Radical intermediates and antioxidants: an ESR study of radicals formed on carnosic acid in the presence of oxidized lipids. Free Radic.Res 1994;21(4):247-258. View abstract.
- Gonzalez-Trujano, M. E., Pena, E. I., Martinez, A. L., Moreno, J., Guevara-Fefer, P., Deciga-Campos, M., and Lopez-Munoz, F. J. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. using three different experimental models in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol 5-22-2007;111(3):476-482. View abstract.
- Gutierrez, R., Alvarado, J. L., Presno, M., Perez-Veyna, O., Serrano, C. J., and Yahuaca, P. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis. Phytother.Res 10-13-2009; View abstract.
- Harach, T., Aprikian, O., Monnard, I., Moulin, J., Membrez, M., Beolor, J. C., Raab, T., Mace, K., and Darimont, C. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Leaf Extract Limits Weight Gain and Liver Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. Planta Med 11-16-2009; View abstract.
- Haraguchi, H., Saito, T., Okamura, N., and Yagi, A. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and superoxide generation by diterpenoids from Rosmarinus officinalis. Planta Med 1995;61(4):333-336. View abstract.
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- Hjorther, A. B., Christophersen, C., Hausen, B. M., and Menne, T. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from carnosol, a naturally-occurring compound present in rosemary. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37(3):99-100. View abstract.
- Hoefler, C., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., Pelt, J. M., and Guillemain, J. Comparative choleretic and hepatoprotective properties of young sprouts and total plant extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1987;19(2):133-143. View abstract.
- Huang, M. T., Ho, C. T., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T., Lou, Y. R., Stauber, K., Ma, W., Georgiadis, C., Laskin, J. D., and Conney, A. H. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer Res 2-1-1994;54(3):701-708. View abstract.
- Huang, S. C., Ho, C. T., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., and Lin, J. K. Carnosol inhibits the invasion of B16/F10 mouse melanoma cells by suppressing metalloproteinase-9 through down-regulating nuclear factor-kappa B and c-Jun. Biochem Pharmacol 1-15-2005;69(2):221-232. View abstract.
- Inoue, K., Takano, H., Shiga, A., Fujita, Y., Makino, H., Yanagisawa, R., Ichinose, T., Kato, Y., Yamada, T., and Yoshikawa, T. Effects of volatile constituents of a rosemary extract on allergic airway inflammation related to house dust mite allergen in mice. Int J Mol.Med 2005;16(2):315-319. View abstract.
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- Kosaka, K. and Yokoi, T. Carnosic acid, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), promotes synthesis of nerve growth factor in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(11):1620-1622. View abstract.
- Kwon, Y. I., Vattem, D. A., and Shetty, K. Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2006;15(1):107-118. View abstract.
- Lai, C. S., Lee, J. H., Ho, C. T., Liu, C. B., Wang, J. M., Wang, Y. J., and Pan, M. H. Rosmanol potently inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through downregulating MAPK, NF-kappaB, STAT3 and C/EBP signaling pathways. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57(22):10990-10998. View abstract.
- Llewellyn, G. C., Burkett, M. L., and Eadie, T. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production, and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J Assoc.Off Anal.Chem. 1981;64(4):955-960. View abstract.
- Lo, A. H., Liang, Y. C., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., Ho, C. T., and Lin, J. K. Carnosol, an antioxidant in rosemary, suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase through down-regulating nuclear factor-kappaB in mouse macrophages. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(6):983-991. View abstract.
- Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53(17):6939-6946. View abstract.
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- Machado, D. G., Bettio, L. E., Cunha, M. P., Capra, J. C., Dalmarco, J. B., Pizzolatti, M. G., and Rodrigues, A. L. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 6-15-2009;33(4):642-650. View abstract.
- Mancini, D. A., Torres, R. P., Pinto, J. R., and Mancini, J. Inhibition of DNA Virus: Herpes-1 (HSV-1) in cellular culture replication, through an antioxidant treatment extracted from rosemary spice. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2009;45:127-133.
- Martin, R., Pierrard, C., Lejeune, F., Hilaire, P., Breton, L., and Bernerd, F. Photoprotective effect of a water-soluble extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. against UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human dermal fibroblasts and reconstructed skin. Eur.J Dermatol. 2008;18(2):128-135. View abstract.
- Martinez, A. L., Gonzalez-Trujano, M. E., Pellicer, F., Lopez-Munoz, F. J., and Navarrete, A. Antinociceptive effect and GC/MS analysis of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil from its aerial parts. Planta Med 2009;75(5):508-511. View abstract.
- Masuda, T., Inaba, Y., and Takeda, Y. Antioxidant mechanism of carnosic acid: structural identification of two oxidation products. J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49(11):5560-5565. View abstract.
- Moreno, S., Scheyer, T., Romano, C. S., and Vojnov, A. A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(2):223-231. View abstract.
- Muhlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., and Felix, R. Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism. Bone 2003;32(4):372-380. View abstract.
- Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., and Schnitzler, P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med 2006;72(15):1378-1382. View abstract.
- Nusier, M. K., Bataineh, H. N., and Daradkah, H. M. Adverse effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on reproductive function in adult male rats. Exp Biol.Med (Maywood.) 2007;232(6):809-813. View abstract.
- Abe, F., Yamauchi, T., Nagao, T., Kinjo, J., Okabe, H., Higo, H., and Akahane, H. Ursolic acid as a trypanocidal constituent in rosemary. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(11):1485-1487. View abstract.
- Adsersen, A., Gauguin, B., Gudiksen, L., and Jager, A. K. Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. J Ethnopharmacol 4-6-2006;104(3):418-422. View abstract.
- Aggarwal, B. B. and Shishodia, S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Ann.N.Y Acad.Sci. 2004;1030:434-441. View abstract.
- al Hader, A. A., Hasan, Z. A., and Aqel, M. B. Hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis. J Ethnopharmacol 7-22-1994;43(3):217-221. View abstract.
- al Sereiti, M. R., Abu-Amer, K. M., and Sen, P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37(2):124-130. View abstract.
- Anadon, A., Martinez-Larranaga, M. R., Martinez, M. A., Ares, I., Garcia-Risco, M. R., Senorans, F. J., and Reglero, G. Acute oral safety study of rosemary extracts in rats. J Food Prot. 2008;71(4):790-795. View abstract.
- Angioni, A., Barra, A., Cereti, E., Barile, D., Coisson, J. D., Arlorio, M., Dessi, S., Coroneo, V., and Cabras, P. chemical composition, plant genetic differences, antimicrobial and antifungal activity investigation of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. J Agric.Food Chem 6-2-2004;52(11):3530-3535. View abstract.
- Armisen, M., Rodriguez, V., and Vidal, C. Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis due to Rosmarinus officinalis cross-reactive with Thymus vulgaris. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48(1):52-53. View abstract.
- Aruoma, O. I. Antioxidant actions of plant foods: use of oxidative DNA damage as a tool for studying antioxidant efficacy. Free Radic.Res 1999;30(6):419-427. View abstract.
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- Bakirel, T., Bakirel, U., Keles, O. U., Ulgen, S. G., and Yardibi, H. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 2-28-2008;116(1):64-73. View abstract.
- Baylac, S. and Racine, P. Inhibition of human leukocyte elastase by natural fragrant extracts of aromatic plants. Int J Aromatherapy 2004;14(4):179-182.
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- Dragan, S., Nicola, T., Ilina, R., Ursoniu, S., Kimar, A., Nimade, S., and Nicola, T. Role of multi-component functional foods in the complex treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. Rev.Med.Chir Soc.Med.Nat.Iasi 2007;111(4):877-884. View abstract.
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- Erenmemisoglu, A., Saraymen, R., and Ustun, S. Effect of a Rosmarinus officinalis leave extract on plasma glucose levels in normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Pharmazie 1997;52(8):645-646. View abstract.
- Fahim, F. A., Esmat, A. Y., Fadel, H. M., and Hassan, K. F. Allied studies on the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on experimental hepatotoxicity and mutagenesis. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1999;50(6):413-427. View abstract.
- Fernandez, L., Duque, S., Sanchez, I., Quinones, D., Rodriguez, F., and Garcia-Abujeta, J. L. Allergic contact dermatitis from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Contact Dermatitis 1997;37(5):248-249. View abstract.
- Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Chen, L., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Sun, S., and Efferth, T. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(10):989-994. View abstract.
- Martynyuk L, Martynyuk L, Ruzhitska O, Martynyuk O. Effect of the herbal combination Canephron N on diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: results of a comparative cohort study. J Altern Complement Med. 2014;20(6):472-478.
- McCaffrey R, Thomas DJ, Kinzelman AO. The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students. Holist Nurs Pract 2009;23(2):88-93. View abstract.
- Minich DM, Bland JS, Katke J, et al. Clinical safety and efficacy of NG440: a novel combination of rho iso-alpha acids from hops, rosemary, and oleanolic acid for inflammatory conditions. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;85(9):872-83. View abstract.
- Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, Duckett P. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Int J Neurosci 2003;113(1):15-38. View abstract.
- Naemura A, Ura M, Yamashita T, et al. Long-term intake of rosemary and common thyme herbs inhibits experimental thrombosis without prolongation of bleeding time. Thromb Res 2008;122(4):517-22. View abstract.
- Panahi Y, Taghizadeh M, Marzony T, Sahebkar A. Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial. Skinmed. 2015;13(1):15-21.
- Park, M. K. and Lee, E. S. [The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004;34(2):344-351. View abstract.
- Pengelly A, Snow J, Mills SY, et al. Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population. J Med Food 2012;15:10. View abstract.
- Pérez-Sánchez A, et al. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014;136:12-18.
- Samman S, Sandstrom B, Toft MB, et al. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:607-12. View abstract.
- Solhi H, et al. Beneficial effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome during addiction treatment programs: a clinical trial. Addict Health. 2013;5(3-4):90-94.
- Swain AR, Dutton SP, Truswell AS. Salicylates in foods. J Am Diet.Assoc 1985;85(8):950-60. View abstract.
- Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, et al. Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect. Nutrition 2005;21(5):580-7. View abstract.
- Zhu BT, Loder DP, Cai MX, et al. Dietary administration of an extract from rosemary leaves enhances the liver microsomal metabolism of endogenous estrogens and decreases their uterotropic action in CD-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 1998;19(10):1821-7. View abstract.
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