LYSINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Hydrochlorure de L-Lysine, L-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid, L-Lysine, L-Lysine HCl, L-Lysine Hydrochloride, L-Lysine Monohydrochloride, Lisina, Lys, Lysine Hydrochloride, Lysine Monohydrochloride, Monochlohydrate de L-Lysine, Monochlohydrate de Lysine.

Overview

Overview Information

Lysine is an amino acid (a building block of protein). Unlike some other amino acids, the human body cannot make lysine; therefore it must be eaten in the diet. Sources of lysine include meat, fish, dairy, eggs, and some plants such as soy and other legumes.

People use lysine for cold sores (herpes labialis). They also use it for athletic performance, diabetes, and many other uses, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Lysine seems to prevent the herpes virus from growing.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Cold sores (herpes labialis). Research suggests that lysine reduces the chance of getting cold sores when taken by mouth and also when applied as a cream to the skin. Applying a specific product containing lysine, zinc oxide, and 14 other ingredients (Super Lysine Plus +) seems to help cure cold sores faster. But not all research agrees.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Canker sores. Early research shows that taking 500 mg of lysine daily prevents canker sores and 4000 mg daily decreases how long canker sores are present.
  • Diabetes. Some research shows that taking lysine twice daily can decrease blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. But not all research agrees.
  • High levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Early research suggests that taking lysine daily for 12 weeks, with or without vitamin B6, does not affect body weight, triglyceride levels, or blood sugar levels in men with high triglycerides. Taking lysine might actually reduce high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol levels.
  • Muscle strength. Early research suggests that consuming 80 mg/kg of lysine in the diet daily for 8 weeks improves forearm strength in young men.
  • Bed sores (pressure ulcers). Research suggests that applying a cream containing lysine reduces bed sores in hospitalized adults. The cream seems to be most helpful in patients with more severe bed sores.
  • Schizophrenia. Taking lysine by mouth seems to improve schizophrenia symptoms in some people taking prescription drugs. Research suggests that taking lysine three times daily for 8 weeks improves symptoms by about 34% in people who are not fully responding to the drug risperidone.
  • Stress. Early research suggests that eating wheat that contains added lysine reduces stress in women and anxiety in men.
  • Hypertension.
  • Improving athletic performance.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of lysine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Lysine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people at recommended doses for up to one year. It can cause side effects such as stomach pain and diarrhea.

When applied to the skin: Lysine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when used short-term.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if lysine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Intolerance to lysinuric protein: Lysine supplementation might cause diarrhea and stomachcramps in children who are intolerant to lysinuric protein.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Calcium supplements interacts with LYSINE

    Lysine can increase how much calcium the body absorbs. Taking calcium along with lysine can increase the amount of calcium in the body. Avoid taking large amounts of calcium and lysine at the same time.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For cold sores (herpes labialis): 1000 mg of lysine taken daily in up to two divided doses for up to 12 months, or 1000 mg taken three times daily for 6 months has been used. For preventing cold sores from recurring, 500-1248 mg taken daily or 1000 mg taken three times daily has been used.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • For cold sores (herpes labialis): A specific combination of lysine plus zinc oxide and 14 other ingredients (Super Lysine Plus +) applied every 2 hours for 11 days has been used.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • [The effect of L-lysine added to diet on growth and development of normal children (author's transl)]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1982;62(1):11-12. View abstract.
  • Doraiswamy, T. R., Singh, N., and Daniel, V. A. Effects of supplementing ragi (Eleusine coracana) diets with lysine or leaf protein on the growth and nitrogen metabolism of children. Br.J.Nutr. 1969;23(4):737-743. View abstract.
  • Heinrichs, W., Fauth, U., Seufert, W., and Halmagyi, M. [Effect of L-lysine-induced amino acid imbalance on nitrogen balance in patients treated by total parenteral nutrition]. Infusionsther.Klin.Ernahr. 1987;14(6):252-255. View abstract.
  • Kagan, C. Letter: Lysine therapy for herpes simplex. Lancet 1-26-1974;1(7848):137. View abstract.
  • Matsuda, I., Arashima, S., Imanishi, Y., Yamamoto, J., Akaboshi, I., Shinozuka, S., and Nagata, N. Lysine intolerance in a variant form of citrullinemia. Pediatr.Res. 1979;13(10):1134-1136. View abstract.
  • Metges, C. C., Eberhard, M., and Petzke, K. J. Synthesis and absorption of intestinal microbial lysine in humans and non-ruminant animals and impact on human estimated average requirement of dietary lysine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006;9(1):37-41. View abstract.
  • Miller, C. S. and Foulke, C. N. Use of lysine in treating recurrent oral herpes simplex infections. Gen.Dent. 1984;32(6):490-493. View abstract.
  • Milman, N., Jessen, O., and Scheibel, J. [Lysine therapy of recurrent herpes simplex labialis]. Ugeskr.Laeger 10-22-1979;141(43):2960-2962. View abstract.
  • Milman, N., Scheibel, J., and Jessen, O. Failure of lysine treatment in recurrent herpes simplex labialis. Lancet 10-28-1978;2(8096):942. View abstract.
  • Pellett, P. L. and Ghosh, S. Lysine fortification: past, present, and future. Food Nutr.Bull. 2004;25(2):107-113. View abstract.
  • Peltola, K., Heinonen, O. J., Nanto-Salonen, K., Pulkki, K., and Simell, O. Oral lysine feeding in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia--a pilot study. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. 2000;23(4):305-307. View abstract.
  • Pereira, S. M., Begum, A., Jesudian, G., and Sundararaj, R. Lysine-supplemented wheat and growth of preschool children. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1969;22(5):606-611. View abstract.
  • Perfect, M. M., Bourne, N., Ebel, C., and Rosenthal, S. L. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of genital herpes. Herpes. 2005;12(2):38-41. View abstract.
  • Smriga, M. and Torii, K. Metabolic interactions between restraint stress and L-lysine: the effect on urea cycle components. Amino.Acids 2003;24(4):435-437. View abstract.
  • Tomblin, F. A., Jr. and Lucas, K. H. Lysine for management of herpes labialis. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 2-15-2001;58(4):298-300, 304. View abstract.
  • Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G., Giardino, R., Gnudi, S., Nicolini, A., and Carpi, A. L-arginine and L-lysine stimulation on cultured human osteoblasts. Biomed.Pharmacother. 2002;56(10):492-497. View abstract.
  • Vianey-Liaud, C., Divry, P., Poinas, C., and Mathieu, M. [Lysine metabolism in man]. Ann.Biol.Clin.(Paris) 1991;49(1):18-26. View abstract.
  • Walther, F., Heine, W., Richter, I., and Wutzke, K. D. [Resorption and metabolic utilization of D-[alpha-15N]lysine and L-[alpha-15N]lysine after oral administration, with special reference to the metabolism of intestinal bacteria]. Biomed.Biochim.Acta 1987;46(11):803-808. View abstract.
  • Williams, M. H. Facts and fallacies of purported ergogenic amino acid supplements. Clin Sports Med 1999;18(3):633-649. View abstract.
  • Civitelli R, Villareal DT, Agnusdei D, et al. Dietary L-lysine and calcium metabolism in humans. Nutr 1992;8:400-5. View abstract.
  • Connor JM. Our customers are our enemies: The lysine cartel of 1992-1995. Rev Indust Org. 2001;18:5-21.
  • DiGiovanna JJ, Blank H. Failure of lysine in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis. Arch Dermatol 1984;120:48-51. View abstract.
  • Felzani G, , Spoletini I, , Convento A, , Di Lorenzo B, , Rossi P, , Miceli M, , Rosano G. Effect of lysine hyaluronate on the healing of decubitus ulcers in rehabilitation patients. Adv Ther. 2011 May;28(5):439-45. View abstract.
  • Flodin NW. The metabolic roles, pharmacology, and toxicology of lysine. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:7-12. View abstract.
  • Griffith RS, DeLong DC, Nelson JD. Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue culture. Chemotherapy 1981;27:209-13. View abstract.
  • Griffith RS, Norins A, Kagan C. A multicentered study of lysine therapy in Herpes simplex infection. Dermatologica 1978;156:257-67. View abstract.
  • Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, et al. Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis. Dermatologica 1987;175:183-90. View abstract.
  • Hall SL, Greendale GA. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: results from the PEPI study. Calcif Tissue Int 1998;63:183-9. View abstract.
  • Hlais S, , Reslan DR, , Sarieddine HK, , Nasreddine L, , Taan G, , Azar S, , Obeid OA. Effect of lysine, , vitamin B(6), , and carnitine supplementation on the lipid profile of male patients with hypertriglyceridemia: a 12-week, , open-label, , randomized, , placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2012 Aug;34(8):1674-82. View abstract.
  • Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, , Babinska K, , Valachovicova M. Health benefits and risks of plant proteins. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2005;106(6-7):231-4. View abstract.
  • Lo JC, Chertow GM, Rennke H, Seifter JL. Fanconi's syndrome and tubulointerstitial nephritis in association with L-lysine ingestion. Am J Kidney Dis 1996;28:614-7. View abstract.
  • Lukkarinen M, Näntö-Salonen K, Pulkki K, Aalto M, Simell O. Oral supplementation corrects plasma lysine concentrations in lysinuric protein intolerance. Metabolism. 2003 Jul;52(7):935-8. View abstract.
  • McCune MA, Perry HO, Muller SA, O'Fallon WM. Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochloride. Cutis 1984;34:366-73. View abstract.
  • Messina V. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:437S-42S. View abstract.
  • Milman N, Scheibel J, Jessen O. Lysine prophylaxis in recurrent herpes simplex labialis: a double-blind, controlled crossover study. Acta Derm Venereol 1980;60:85-7. View abstract.
  • Natarajan Sulochana K., Lakshmi, S., Punitham, R., Arokiasamy, T., Sukumar, B., and Ramakrishnan, S. Effect of oral supplementation of free amino acids in type 2 diabetic patients-- a pilot clinical trial. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8(3):CR131-CR137. View abstract.
  • Rajantie J, Simell O, Rapola J, Perheentupa J. Lysinuric protein intolerance: a two-year trial of dietary supplementation therapy with citrulline and lysine. J Pediatr. 1980 Dec;97(6):927-32. View abstract.
  • Singh BB, Udani J, Vinjamury Sp, et al. Safety and effectiveness of an L-lysine, zinc, and herbal-based product on the treatment of facial and circumoral herpes. Altern Med Rev 2005;10:123-7. View abstract.
  • Smriga M, Ghosh S, Mouneimne Y, et al. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 6-1-2004;101(22):8285-8288. View abstract.
  • Smriga M, Torii K. L-Lysine acts like a partial serotonin receptor 4 antagonist and inhibits serotonin-mediated intestinal pathologies and anxiety in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23;100(26):15370-5. View abstract.
  • Sulochana KN, Rajesh M, Ramakrishnan S. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in monocytes of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients receiving oral L-lysine. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2001 Oct;38(5):331. View abstract.
  • Thein DJ, Hurt WC. Lysine as a prophylactic agent in the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1984;58:659-66. View abstract.
  • Unni US, , Raj T, , Sambashivaiah S, , Kuriyan R, , Uthappa S, , Vaz M, , Regan MM, , Kurpad AV. The effect of a controlled 8-week metabolic ward based lysine supplementation on muscle function, , insulin sensitivity and leucine kinetics in young men. Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;31(6):903-10. View abstract.
  • Vuvor F, Mohammed H, Ndanu T, Harrison O. Effect of lysine supplementation on hypertensive men and women in selected peri-urban community in Ghana. BMC Nutr. 2017 Jul 27;3:67. doi: 10.1186/s40795-017-0187-6. View abstract.
  • Walsh DE, Griffith RS, and Behforooz A. Subjective response to lysine in the therapy of herpes simplex. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 1983;12(5):489-496. View abstract.
  • Wass C, , Klamer D, , Katsarogiannis E, , Pålsson E, , Svensson L, , Fejgin K, , Bogren IB, , Engel JA, , Rembeck B. L-lysine as adjunctive treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a single-blinded, , randomized, , cross-over pilot study. BMC Med. 2011 Apr 18;9:40. View abstract.
  • Wright EF. Clinical effectiveness of lysine in treating recurrent aphthous ulcers and herpes labialis. Gen.Dent. 1994;42(1):40-42. View abstract.
  • Wu G. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2014 Jun 14;5(1):34. View abstract.
  • Zeinoddini A, , Ahadi M, , Farokhnia M, , Rezaei F, , Tabrizi M, , Akhondzadeh S. L-lysine as an adjunct to risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, , placebo-controlled, , randomized trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Dec;59:125-31. View abstract.

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