Acide Pectinique, Acide Pectique, Apple Pectin, Citrus Pectin, Fractionated Pectin, Fruit Pectin, Grapefruit Pectin, Lemon Pectin, MCP, Modified Citrus Pectin, Pectina, Pectine, Pectine d'Agrume, Pectine d'Agrume Modifiée, Pectine de Citron, Pectine de Fruit, Pectine de Pamplemousse, Pectine de Pomme, Pectinic Acid.
Overview InformationPectin is a fiber found in fruits. It is used to make medicine.
People use pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, and to prevent colon cancer and prostate cancer. It is also used for diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some people use pectin to prevent poisoning caused by lead, strontium, and other heavy metals. Pectin is also used to reduce the skin flushing associated with taking niacin.
Pectin was used for years in combination with kaolin (Kaopectate) to control diarrhea. However, in April 2003, the FDA found ruled that scientific evidence does not support the use of pectin for diarrhea. Since April 2004, pectin has not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (OTC) products. As a result, Kaopectate no longer contains pectin and kaolin.
Some people apply pectin to the skin to protect raw or ulcerated mouth and throat sores.
Pectin is used as a thickening agent in cooking and baking. In manufacturing, pectin is an ingredient in some denture adhesives.
How does it work?Pectin binds substances in the intestine and adds bulk to the stools.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- High cholesterol. Taking pectin by mouth seems to lower cholesterol. Taking it along with guar gum and small amounts of insoluble fiber lowers total and "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, the combination doesn't seem to affect "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or triglycerides.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Prediabetes. Drinking beverages containing sugar beet pectin does not seem to lower blood sugar levels in people with prediabetes.
- Stomach ulcers. Taking apple pectin for 6 months does not seem to reduce the recurrence of ulcers in the small intestine.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Diarrhea in young children. Pectin seems to shorten bouts of diarrhea and vomiting and lessen the need for replacement fluids in children aged 5-12 months from developing nations who experience ongoing diarrhea.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children with cerebral palsy. Early research shows that giving pectin along with "tube feeding" reduces some symptoms of GERD such as vomiting, cough, and wheezing in children with cerebral palsy.
- Mercury toxicity. Early research shows that taking pectin helps eliminate mercury through the urine and decreases the duration of mercury toxicity in children with this condition.
- Niacin-induced flushing. Taking pectin before using the drug niacin seems to reduce how long skin flushing lasts. But it doesn't prevent skin flushing from occurring or reduce its severity.
- Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking a specific modified citrus pectin product (Pectasol by Econugenics) after prostate surgery or radiation might lengthen the time to prostate cancer recurrence.
- Colon cancer.
- Damage from radiation.
- Mouth and throat sores.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyIn most people, including adults, children, and women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, pectin is LIKELY SAFE when taken in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when used in larger medicinal amounts.
When taken by mouth alone or in combination with guar gum and insoluble fiber (the combination used to lower cholesterol and other blood fats), pectin can cause stomach cramps, diarrhea, gas, and loose stools.
People who are exposed to pectin dust at work, such as in manufacturing, may develop asthma.
Be cautious with this combination
Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics) interacts with PECTIN
Pectin might decrease the amount of tetracycline antibiotics that can be absorbed. Taking pectin with tetracycline antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction take pectin two hours before or four hours after taking tetracycline antibiotics.
Some tetracycline antibiotics include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin).
Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with PECTIN
Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can decrease the absorption and decrease the effectiveness of digoxin (Lanoxin). As a general rule, any medications taken by mouth should be taken one hour before or four hours after pectin to prevent this interaction.
Lovastatin (Mevacor) interacts with PECTIN
Lovastatin (Mevacor) is used to help lower cholesterol. Pectin might decrease how much lovastatin (Mevacor) the body absorbs and decrease the effectiveness of lovastatin (Mevacor). To avoid this interaction take pectin at least one hour after lovastatin (Mevacor).
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For high cholesterol: Up to 15 grams of pectin per day have been used.
- Eastwood, M. and Kritchevsky, D. Dietary fiber: how did we get where we are? Annu Rev Nutr 2005;25:1-8. View abstract.
- Hayashi, A., Gillen, A. C., and Lott, J. R. Effects of daily oral administration of quercetin chalcone and modified citrus pectin on implanted colon-25 tumor growth in Balb-c mice. Altern Med Rev 2000;5(6):546-552. View abstract.
- Hsieh, T. C. and Wu, J. M. Changes in cell growth, cyclin/kinase, endogenous phosphoproteins and nm23 gene expression in human prostatic JCA-1 cells treated with modified citrus pectin. Biochem Mol.Biol Int 1995;37(5):833-841. View abstract.
- Kang, J. Y., Tay, H. H., Guan, R., Math, M. V., Yap, I., and Labrooy, S. J. Dietary supplementation with pectin in the maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer. A controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1988;23(1):95-99. View abstract.
- Modified citrus pectin-monograph. Altern Med Rev 2000;5(6):573-575. View abstract.
- Nangia-Makker, P., Hogan, V., Honjo, Y., Baccarini, S., Tait, L., Bresalier, R., and Raz, A. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. J Natl.Cancer Inst 12-18-2002;94(24):1854-1862. View abstract.
- Pienta, K. J., Naik, H., Akhtar, A., Yamazaki, K., Replogle, T. S., Lehr, J., Donat, T. L., Tait, L., Hogan, V., and Raz, A. Inhibition of spontaneous metastasis in a rat prostate cancer model by oral administration of modified citrus pectin. J Natl.Cancer Inst 3-1-1995;87(5):348-353. View abstract.
- Sanaka, M., Yamamoto, T., Anjiki, H., Nagasawa, K., and Kuyama, Y. Effects of agar and pectin on gastric emptying and post-prandial glycaemic profiles in healthy human volunteers. Clin Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol 2007;34(11):1151-1155. View abstract.
- Schwab, U., Louheranta, A., Torronen, A., and Uusitupa, M. Impact of sugar beet pectin and polydextrose on fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids in middle-aged subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
- Sobolev, M. B., Khatskel', S. B., and Muradov, A. I. [Enterosorption by nonstarch polysaccharides as a method of treatment of children with mercury poisoning]. Vopr.Pitan. 1999;68(1):28-30. View abstract.
- Albert KS, Ayres JW, DiSanto AR, et al. Influence of kaolin-pectin suspension on digoxin bioavailability. J Pharm Sci 1978;67:1582-6. View abstract.
- Albert KS, Welch RD, DeSante KA, et al. Decreased tetracycline bioavailability caused by a bismuth subsalicylate antidiarrheal mixture. J Pharm Sci 1979;68:586-8. View abstract.
- Baldwin JL, et al. Pectin-induced occupational asthma. Chest 1993;104:1936-7.
- Becker B, Kuhn U, Hardewig-Budny B. Double-blind, randomized evaluation of clinical efficacy and tolerability of an apple pectin-chamomile extract in children with unspecific diarrhea. Arzneimittelforschung 2006;56(6):387-393. View abstract.
- Brouns F, Theuwissen E, Adam A, Bell M, Berger A, Mensink RP. Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;66(5):591-9. View abstract.
- Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, et al. The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle. Clin Cardiol 1988;11:589-94. View abstract.
- Cohen AJ, Forse MS, Tarlo SM. Occupational asthma caused by pectin inhalation during the manufacture of jam. Chest 1993;103:309-11. View abstract.
- Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Stocki J, et al. A low-viscosity soluble-fiber fruit juice supplement fails to lower cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 1998;128:1927-32. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Eliaz I, Hotchkiss AT, Fishman ML, Rode D. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements. Phytother Res 2006;20:859-64. View abstract.
- Federal Register April 17,2003. Anti-Diarrheal Products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/03-9380.pdf (Accessed 27 December 2004).
- Guess BW, Scholz MC, Strum SB, et al. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) increases the prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with prostate cancer: a phase II pilot study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2003;6:301-4. View abstract.
- Hillman LC, Peters SG, Fisher CA, et al. The effects of the fiber components pectin, cellulose and lignin on serum cholesterol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:207-13. View abstract.
- Jaakkola MS, et al. Asthma caused by occupational exposure to pectin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:575-6. View abstract.
- Jackson CL, Dreaden TM, Theobald LK, et al. Pectin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: correlation of apoptotic function with pectin structure. Glycobiology 2007;17:805-19. View abstract.
- Jenkins DJ, Wesson V, Wolever TM, et al. Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response. BMJ 1988;297:958-60. View abstract.
- Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, et al. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med 1999;17:18-23. View abstract.
- Kraut A, et al. Christmas candy maker's asthma. IgG4-mediated pectin allergy. Chest 1992;102:1605-7. View abstract.
- Miyazawa R, Tomomasa T, Kaneko H, Arakawa H, Shimizu N, Morikawa A. Effects of pectin liquid on gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with cerebral palsy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr 16;8:11. View abstract.
- Moriarty PM, Backes J, Dutton JA, He J, Ruisinger JF, Schmelzle K. Apple pectin for the reduction of niacin-induced flushing. J Clin Lipidol. 2013 Mar-Apr;7(2):140-6. View abstract.
- Nishijima T, Takida Y, Saito Y, Ikeda T, Iwai K. Simultaneous ingestion of high-methoxy pectin from apple can enhance absorption of quercetin in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2015 May 28;113(10):1531-8. View abstract.
- Rabbani GH, Teka T, Zaman B, et al. Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children. Gastroenterology 2001;121:554-60. View abstract.
- Richter WO, Jacob BG, Schwandt P. Interaction between fibre and lovastatin. Lancet 1991;338:706.
- Rock CL, Swendseid ME. Plasma beta-carotene response in humans after meals supplemented with dietary pectin. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:96-9. View abstract.
- Veldman FJ, Nair CH, Vorster HH, et al. Dietary pectin influences fibrin network structure in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Thromb Res 1997;86:183-96. View abstract.
- Wanders AJ, Feskens EJ, Jonathan MC, Schols HA, de Graaf C, Mars M. Pectin is not pectin: a randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2014 Apr 10;128:212-9. View abstract.
- Waterhouse ET, Washington C, Washington N. An investigation into the efficacy of the pectin based anti-reflux formulation-Aflurax. Int J Pharm 2000;209:79-85.. View abstract.
- Westphal W, et al. [Exogenous allergic asthma following pectin exposure-a new occupational allergen]. Pneumologie 1990;44(Suppl 1):337-8. View abstract.
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