Onion is most commonly used for scarring. It is also used for other skin conditions and to prevent cancer and heart disease, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Possibly Effective for
- Scarring. Most research shows that applying gel containing onion extract to the skin, alone or with other ingredients, for at least 10 weeks improves the appearance of scars. Applying onion extract along with other ingredients for less time doesn't seem to work.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Obesity. Most research shows that taking onion skin or onion extract for 12 weeks doesn't reduce body weight in people who are overweight or obese.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Patchy hair loss (alopecia areata). Early research shows that applying onion juice to the scalp for 8 weeks might improve hair growth in people with hair loss due to a condition called alopecia areata.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that eating 20 grams of onion while dieting reduces blood sugar in people with diabetes better than dieting alone after 8 weeks of treatment.
- Stomach cancer. People who eat more onions might have a reduced risk of stomach cancer.
- High blood pressure. Research shows that taking onion extract for 6 weeks slightly reduces systolic blood pressure (the top number) in people with high blood pressure. Early research also shows that taking a combination product containing onion and other ingredients for one week lowers systolic blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. But neither supplement seems to improve diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number).
- Insomnia. Early research suggests that taking onion extract may slightly reduce the time it takes to fall asleep, but does not improve overall sleep quality.
- A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Eating large amounts of raw red onion (80-120 grams daily) does not improve cholesterol or blood sugar levels in people with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to eating smaller amounts (20-30 grams daily). Eating large amounts might actually increase body mass index (BMI) by a small amount.
- Prostate cancer. People who eat more onions don't seem to have a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
- Stretch marks. Early research shows that applying a skin cream containing onion extract, gotu kola, and hyaluronic acid for 12 weeks improves the look of stretch marks.
- Loss of appetite.
- Preventing hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
- Swelling (inflammation) of the mouth and throat.
- Upset stomach.
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Onion extract is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin. Side effects might include skin irritation or eczema following skin contact with onion.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Bleeding disorder: Onion might slow blood clotting. There is concern that onion might increase the risk of bleeding when taken as a medicine. Don't use medicinal amounts of onion or onion extract if you have a bleeding disorder.
Cross-allergens: People with allergies to mugwort and celery might also be allergic to onion. Don't use in medicinal amounts if you have these allergies.
Diabetes: Onion might lower blood sugar. If you have diabetes and use onion in medicinal amounts, check your blood sugar carefully.
Surgery to place a pouch near the anus (ileal pouch-anal anastomosis): People that have had surgery to place a pouch near the anus might find that onion increases feelings of gas. Don't eat large amounts of onion if you have had this surgery.
Indigestion: People that experience indigestion often find that eating onion increases symptoms. Don't eat large amounts of onion if it increases your symptoms.
Surgery: Onion might slow blood clotting and lower blood sugar. In theory, onion might increase the risk for bleeding or interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgical procedures. Stop using onion as a medicine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Aspirin interacts with ONION
Some people are allergic to onions. Aspirin might increase your sensitivity to onions if you are allergic to onions. This has only been reported in one person. But to be on the safe side, if you are allergic to onions do not take aspirin and eat onions.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with ONION
Onion might slow blood clotting. Taking onion along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with ONION
Onion might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking onion along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Lithium interacts with ONION
Onion might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking onion might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
Be cautious with this combination
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For scarring: Products containing onion extract and other ingredients such as heparin plus allantoin (Contractubex, Merz Pharmaceuticals), allantoin plus pentaglycan (Kaloidon gel, Laboratori Farmacologici Milanesi), or a silicon derivative (Cybele scagel, Bangkok Botanica) have been applied to the affected area for 10 weeks to 6 months.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For scarring: Products containing onion extract and other ingredients such as heparin plus allantoin (Contractubex, Merz Pharmaceuticals) or allantoin plus pentaglycan (Kaloidon gel) have been applied to the affected area once or twice daily for 6 months in children aged 6 months to 15 years.
Adeleye, I. A. and Opiah, L. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of local cough mixtures on upper respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. West Indian Med J 2003;52(3):188-190. View abstract.
Allen, M. L., Mellow, M. H., Robinson, M. G., and Orr, W. C. The effect of raw onions on acid reflux and reflux symptoms. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 1990;85(4):377-380. View abstract.
Ariga, T., Tsuj, K., Seki, T., Moritomo, T., and Yamamoto, J. I. Antithrombotic and antineoplastic effects of phyto-organosulfur compounds. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):251-255. View abstract.
Augusti, K. T. and Benaim, M. E. Effect of essential oil of onion (allyl propyl disulphide) on blood glucose, free fatty acid and insulin levels of normal subjects. Clin.Chim.Acta 4-2-1975;60(1):121-123. View abstract.
Augusti, K. T., Benaim, M. E., Dewar, H. A., and Virden, R. Partial identification of the fibrinolytic activators in onion. Atherosclerosis 1975;21(3):409-416. View abstract.
Aziz, A. A., Edwards, C. A., Lean, M. E., and Crozier, A. Absorption and excretion of conjugated flavonols, including quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside by human volunteers after the consumption of onions. Free Radic.Res 1998;29(3):257-269. View abstract.
Babu, P. S. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of dietary capsaicin and onion on the metabolic abnormalities associated with streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus. Mol.Cell Biochem. 1997;175(1-2):49-57. View abstract.
Bagy, M. M., el Shanawany, A. A., and Abdel-Mallek, A. Y. Saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster. Acta Microbiol.Immunol.Hung. 1998;45(2):195-207. View abstract.
Bajaj, J. S., Shaker, R., and Hogan, W. J. Esophageal veggie spasms: a food-specific cause of chest distress. Am.J Gastroenterol. 2004;99(7):1396-1398. View abstract.
Belman, S., Solomon, J., Segal, A., Block, E., and Barany, G. Inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase and mouse skin tumor promotion by onion and garlic components. J.Biochem.Toxicol. 1989;4(3):151-160. View abstract.
Bianchini, F. and Vainio, H. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer? Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(9):893-902. View abstract.
Boyle, S. P., Dobson, V. L., Duthie, S. J., Kyle, J. A., and Collins, A. R. Absorption and DNA protective effects of flavonoid glycosides from an onion meal. Eur.J.Nutr. 2000;39(5):213-223. View abstract.
Brenner, S. and Wolf, R. Possible nutritional factors in induced pemphigus. Dermatology 1994;189(4):337-339. View abstract.
Briggs, W. H., Folts, J. D., Osman, H. E., and Goldman, I. L. Administration of raw onion inhibits platelet-mediated thrombosis in dogs. J.Nutr. 2001;131(10):2619-2622. View abstract.
Campos, K. E., Diniz, Y. S., Cataneo, A. C., Faine, L. A., Alves, M. J., and Novelli, E. L. Hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of onion, Allium cepa: dietary onion addition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycaemic effects on diabetic rats. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2003;54(3):241-246. View abstract.
Chan, R. S. and Mandell, R. B. Corneal swelling caused by Allium cepa. Am.J.Optom.Arch.Am.Acad.Optom. 1972;49(9):713-715. View abstract.
Cho, J. W., Cho, S. Y., Lee, S. R., and Lee, K. S. Onion extract and quercetin induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 in vitro and in vivo. Int.J.Mol.Med. 2010;25(3):347-352. View abstract.
Chung, V. Q., Kelley, L., Marra, D., and Jiang, S. B. Onion extract gel versus petrolatum emollient on new surgical scars: prospective double-blinded study. Dermatol Surg 2006;32(2):193-197. View abstract.
de Vries, J. H., Hollman, P. C., Meyboom, S., Buysman, M. N., Zock, P. L., van Staveren, W. A., and Katan, M. B. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of the antioxidant flavonols quercetin and kaempferol as biomarkers for dietary intake. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(1):60-65. View abstract.
Dion, M. E., Agler, M., and Milner, J. A. S-allyl cysteine inhibits nitrosomorpholine formation and bioactivation. Nutr.Cancer 1997;28(1):1-6. View abstract.
Dorsch, W. and Ring, J. Suppression of immediate and late anti-IgE-induced skin reactions by topically applied alcohol/onion extract. Allergy 1984;39(1):43-49. View abstract.
Dorsch, W., Adam, O., Weber, J., and Ziegeltrum, T. Antiasthmatic effects of onion extracts--detection of benzyl- and other isothiocyanates (mustard oils) as antiasthmatic compounds of plant origin. Eur.J Pharmacol 12-15-1984;107(1):17-24. View abstract.
Dorsch, W., Ettl, M., Hein, G., Scheftner, P., Weber, J., Bayer, T., and Wagner, H. Antiasthmatic effects of onions. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction by onion oils. Int.Arch.Allergy Appl.Immunol. 1987;82(3-4):535-536. View abstract.
Dorsch, W., Scharff, J., Bayer, T., and Wagner, H. Antiasthmatic effects of onions. Prevention of platelet-activating factor induced bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine in guinea pigs by diphenylthiosulfinate. Int.Arch.Allergy Appl.Immunol. 1989;88(1-2):228-230. View abstract.
Dorsch, W., Schneider, E., Bayer, T., Breu, W., and Wagner, H. Anti-inflammatory effects of onions: inhibition of chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by thiosulfinates and cepaenes. Int.Arch.Allergy Appl.Immunol. 1990;92(1):39-42. View abstract.
Dorsch, W., Wagner, H., Bayer, T., Fessler, B., Hein, G., Ring, J., Scheftner, P., Sieber, W., Strasser, T., and Weiss, E. Anti-asthmatic effects of onions. Alk(en)ylsulfinothioic acid alk(en)yl-esters inhibit histamine release, leukotriene and thromboxane biosynthesis in vitro and counteract PAF and allergen-induced bronchial obstruction in vivo. Biochem.Pharmacol. 12-1-1988;37(23):4479-4486. View abstract.
Draelos, Z. D. The ability of onion extract gel to improve the cosmetic appearance of postsurgical scars. J Cosmet.Dermatol. 2008;7(2):101-104. View abstract.
Dwivedi, C., Rohlfs, S., Jarvis, D., and Engineer, F. N. Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide. Pharm.Res 1992;9(12):1668-1670. View abstract.
El Demerdash, F. M., Yousef, M. I., and El Naga, N. I. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2005;43(1):57-63. View abstract.
Elnima, E. I., Ahmed, S. A., Mekkawi, A. G., and Mossa, J. S. The antimicrobial activity of garlic and onion extracts. Pharmazie 1983;38(11):747-748. View abstract.
Fukushima, S., Takada, N., Hori, T., and Wanibuchi, H. Cancer prevention by organosulfur compounds from garlic and onion. J.Cell Biochem.Suppl 1997;27:100-105. View abstract.
Gabler, N. K., Osrowska, E., Imsic, M., Eagling, D. R., Jois, M., Tatham, B. G., and Dunshea, F. R. Dietary onion intake as part of a typical high fat diet improves indices of cardiovascular health using the mixed sex pig model. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr 2006;61(4):179-185. View abstract.
Gafitanu, E., Tataringa, G., Ghiciuc, C., Lupusoru, C. E., and Hancianu, M. [Research concerning the characterization of Allium cepa based ointments]. Rev Med Chir Soc.Med Nat.Iasi 2006;110(1):215-218. View abstract.
Galeone, C., Pelucchi, C., Dal Maso, L., Negri, E., Montella, M., Zucchetto, A., Talamini, R., and La Vecchia, C. Allium vegetables intake and endometrial cancer risk. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(9):1576-1579. View abstract.
Galeone, C., Tavani, A., Pelucchi, C., Negri, E., and La Vecchia, C. Allium vegetable intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. Eur.J Nutr 2009;48(2):120-123. View abstract.
Goldman, I. L., Kopelberg, M., Debaene, J. E., and Schwartz, B. S. Antiplatelet activity in onion (Allium cepa) is sulfur dependent. Thromb.Haemost. 1996;76(3):450-452. View abstract.
Gonzalez, C. A., Pera, G., Agudo, A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Ceroti, M., Boeing, H., Schulz, M., Del Giudice, G., Plebani, M., Carneiro, F., Berrino, F., Sacerdote, C., Tumino, R., Panico, S., Berglund, G., Siman, H., Hallmans, G., Stenling, R., Martinez, C., Dorronsoro, M., Barricarte, A., Navarro, C., Quiros, J. R., Allen, N., Key, T. J., Bingham, S., Day, N. E., Linseisen, J., Nagel, G., Overvad, K., Jensen, M. K., Olsen, A., Tjonneland, A., Buchner, F. L., Peeters, P. H., Numans, M. E., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Boutron-Ruault, M. C., Roukos, D., Trichopoulou, A., Psaltopoulou, T., Lund, E., Casagrande, C., Slimani, N., Jenab, M., and Riboli, E. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of stomach and oesophagus adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST). Int J Cancer 5-15-2006;118(10):2559-2566. View abstract.
Graefe, E. U., Wittig, J., Mueller, S., Riethling, A. K., Uehleke, B., Drewelow, B., Pforte, H., Jacobasch, G., Derendorf, H., and Veit, M. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quercetin glycosides in humans. J Clin.Pharmacol. 2001;41(5):492-499. View abstract.
Hasan, H. A. and Mahmoud, A. L. Inhibitory effect of spice oils on lipase and mycotoxin production. Zentralbl.Mikrobiol. 1993;148(8):543-548. View abstract.
Herman-Antosiewicz, A. and Singh, S. V. Signal transduction pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in cancer cells by Allium vegetable-derived organosulfur compounds: a review. Mutat.Res. 11-2-2004;555(1-2):121-131. View abstract.
Hister, C. A., Laughinghouse, H. D., Da Silva, C. B., Dorow, T. S., and Tedesco, S. B. Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of infusions and essential oil of Aloysia gratissima. Pak.J Biol.Sci 12-15-2009;12(24):1581-1584. View abstract.
Ho, W. S., Ying, S. Y., Chan, P. C., and Chan, H. H. Use of onion extract, heparin, allantoin gel in prevention of scarring in chinese patients having laser removal of tattoos: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Dermatol Surg 2006;32(7):891-896. View abstract.
Hollman, P. C. and Katan, M. B. Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man. Biomed.Pharmacother. 1997;51(8):305-310. View abstract.
Hollman, P. C. and Katan, M. B. Dietary flavonoids: intake, health effects and bioavailability. Food Chem.Toxicol. 1999;37(9-10):937-942. View abstract.
Hollman, P. C. and Katan, M. B. Health effects and bioavailability of dietary flavonols. Free Radic.Res. 1999;31 Suppl:S75-S80. View abstract.
Hollman, P. C., van Trijp, J. M., Buysman, M. N., van der Gaag, M. S., Mengelers, M. J., de Vries, J. H., and Katan, M. B. Relative bioavailability of the antioxidant flavonoid quercetin from various foods in man. FEBS Lett. 11-24-1997;418(1-2):152-156. View abstract.
Hollman, P. C., van Trijp, J. M., Mengelers, M. J., de Vries, J. H., and Katan, M. B. Bioavailability of the dietary antioxidant flavonol quercetin in man. Cancer Lett. 3-19-1997;114(1-2):139-140. View abstract.
Hong, Y. J. and Mitchell, A. E. Metabolic profiling of flavonol metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-3-2004;52(22):6794-6801. View abstract.
Hosnuter, M., Payasli, C., Isikdemir, A., and Tekerekoglu, B. The effects of onion extract on hypertrophic and keloid scars. J.Wound.Care 2007;16(6):251-254. View abstract.
Huang, T. H., Muhlbauer, R. C., Tang, C. H., Chen, H. I., Chang, G. L., Huang, Y. W., Lai, Y. T., Lin, H. S., Yang, W. T., and Yang, R. S. Onion decreases the ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in young adult rats. Bone 2008;42(6):1154-1163. View abstract.
Hubbard, G. P., Wolffram, S., de Vos, R., Bovy, A., Gibbins, J. M., and Lovegrove, J. A. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study. Br J Nutr 2006;96(3):482-488. View abstract.
Ioku, K., Aoyama, Y., Tokuno, A., Terao, J., Nakatani, N., and Takei, Y. Various cooking methods and the flavonoid content in onion. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2001;47(1):78-83. View abstract.
Jackson, B. A. and Shelton, A. J. Pilot study evaluating topical onion extract as treatment for postsurgical scars. Dermatol.Surg. 1999;25(4):267-269. View abstract.
Jain, R. C. and Vyas, C. R. Letter: Hypoglycaemia action of onion on rabbits. Br.Med.J. 6-29-1974;2(5921):730. View abstract.
Jain, R. C., Sachdev, K. N., and Kaushal, S. S. Effect of onion ingestion on serum triglyceride, betalipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipids in alimentary lipaemia. J.Assoc.Physicians India 1973;21(4):357-360. View abstract.
Jain, R. C., Vyas, C. R., and Mahatma, O. P. Letter: Hypoglycaemic action of onion and garlic. Lancet 12-29-1973;2(7844):1491. View abstract.
Jalili, T., Carlstrom, J., Kim, S., Freeman, D., Jin, H., Wu, T. C., Litwin, S. E., and David, Symons J. Quercetin-supplemented diets lower blood pressure and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in rats with aortic constriction. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2006;47(4):531-541. View abstract.
Johnson, M. G. and Vaughn, R. H. Death of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli in the presence of freshly reconstituted dehydrated garlic and onion. Appl.Microbiol. 1969;17(6):903-905. View abstract.
Jung, Y. S., Kim, M. H., Lee, S. H., Baik, E. J., Park, S. W., and Moon, C. H. Antithrombotic effect of onion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2002;66(4):453-458. View abstract.
Karagoz, H., Yuksel, F., Ulkur, E., and Evinc, R. Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars. Burns 2009;35(8):1097-1103. View abstract.
Kearney, J., Kennedy, N. P., Keeling, P. W., Keating, J. J., Grubb, L., Kennedy, M., and Gibney, M. J. Dietary intakes and adipose tissue levels of linoleic acid in peptic ulcer disease. Br.J.Nutr. 1989;62(3):699-706. View abstract.
Kim, J. H. Anti-bacterial action of onion (Allium cepa L.) extracts against oral pathogenic bacteria. J.Nihon Univ Sch Dent. 1997;39(3):136-141. View abstract.
Kim, J. W., Kim, Y. S., and Kyung, K. H. Inhibitory activity of essential oils of garlic and onion against bacteria and yeasts. J.Food Prot. 2004;67(3):499-504. View abstract.
Koc, E., Arca, E., Surucu, B., and Kurumlu, Z. An open, randomized, controlled, comparative study of the combined effect of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and onion extract gel and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide alone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Dermatol.Surg. 2008;34(11):1507-1514. View abstract.
Kook, S., Kim, G. H., and Choi, K. The antidiabetic effect of onion and garlic in experimental diabetic rats: meta-analysis. J Med Food 2009;12(3):552-560. View abstract.
Kumari, K. and Augusti, K. T. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide isolated from onions (Allium cepa Linn) as compared to standard drugs in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2002;40(9):1005-1009. View abstract.
Kumari, K. and Augusti, K. T. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-12-2007;109(3):367-371. View abstract.
Kumari, K., Mathew, B. C., and Augusti, K. T. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide isolated from Allium cepa Linn. Indian J.Biochem.Biophys. 1995;32(1):49-54. View abstract.
Lanzotti, V. The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr.A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):3-22. View abstract.
Maragakis, M., Willital, G. H., Michel, G., and Gortelmeyer, R. Possibilities of scar treatment after thoracic surgery. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1995;21(5):199-206. View abstract.
Matheson, E. M., Mainous, A. G., III, and Carnemolla, M. A. The association between onion consumption and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women 50 years and older. Menopause. 2009;16(4):756-759. View abstract.
Mathew, P. T. and Augusti, K. T. Hypoglycaemic effects of onion, Allium cepa Linn. on diabetes mellitus - a preliminary report. Indian J.Physiol Pharmacol. 1975;19(4):213-217. View abstract.
Mayer, B., Kalus, U., Grigorov, A., Pindur, G., Jung, F., Radtke, H., Bachmann, K., Mrowietz, C., Koscielny, J., Wenzel, E., and Kiesewetter, H. Effects of an onion-olive oil maceration product containing essential ingredients of the Mediterranean diet on blood pressure and blood fluidity. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(2):104-111. View abstract.
Moneret-Vautrin, D. A., Morisset, M., Lemerdy, P., Croizier, A., and Kanny, G. Food allergy and IgE sensitization caused by spices: CICBAA data (based on 589 cases of food allergy). Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 2002;34(4):135-140. View abstract.
Moon, C. H., Jung, Y. S., Kim, M. H., Lee, S. H., Baik, E. J., and Park, S. W. Mechanism for antiplatelet effect of onion: AA release inhibition, thromboxane A(2)synthase inhibition and TXA(2)/PGH(2)receptor blockade. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2000;62(5):277-283. View abstract.
Mullen, W., Edwards, C. A., and Crozier, A. Absorption, excretion and metabolite profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl- and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br J Nutr 2006;96(1):107-116. View abstract.
Munday, R. and Munday, C. M. Relative activities of organosulfur compounds derived from onions and garlic in increasing tissue activities of quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in rat tissues. Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):205-210. View abstract.
Naseri, M. K., Arabian, M., Badavi, M., and Ahangarpour, A. Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Allium cepa peel hydroalcoholic extract in rat. Pak.J Biol.Sci 6-15-2008;11(12):1569-1575. View abstract.
Park, S., Kim, M. Y., Lee, D. H., Lee, S. H., Baik, E. J., Moon, C. H., Park, S. W., Ko, E. Y., Oh, S. R., and Jung, Y. S. Methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa) attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via antioxidant effect. Eur.J Nutr 2009;48(4):235-242. View abstract.
Platel, Kalpana and Srinivasan, K. A Study of the digestive stimulant action of select spices in experimental rats. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2001;38(4):358-361.
Ramakrishna, Rao R., Platel, K., and Srinivasan, K. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Nahrung 2003;47(6):408-412. View abstract.
Rose, P., Whiteman, M., Moore, P. K., and Zhu, Y. Z. Bioactive S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide metabolites in the genus Allium: the chemistry of potential therapeutic agents. Nat.Prod.Rep. 2005;22(3):351-368. View abstract.
Sakai, Y., Murakami, T., and Yamamoto, Y. Antihypertensive effects of onion on NO synthase inhibitor-induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2003;67(6):1305-1311. View abstract.
Saulis, A. S., Mogford, J. H., and Mustoe, T. A. Effect of Mederma on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model. Plast.Reconstr.Surg. 2002;110(1):177-183. View abstract.
Schulz, M., Lahmann, P. H., Boeing, H., and et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(11 Pt 1):2531-2535. View abstract.
Sengupta, A., Ghosh, S., and Bhattacharjee, S. Allium vegetables in cancer prevention: an overview. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2004;5(3):237-245. View abstract.
Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Shokoohamiri, M. R., Amirrajab, N., Moghadasi, B., Ghajari, A., Zeini, F., Sadeghi, G., and Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 2006;77(4):321-323. View abstract.
Sharma, K. K., Gupta, R. K., Gupta, S., and Samuel, K. C. Antihyperglycemic effect of onion: effect on fasting blood sugar and induced hyperglycemia in man. Indian J.Med.Res. 1977;65(3):422-429. View abstract.
Sharquie, K. E. and Al Obaidi, H. K. Onion juice (Allium cepa L.), a new topical treatment for alopecia areata. J.Dermatol. 2002;29(6):343-346. View abstract.
Sivam, G. P. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infections by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1106S-1108S. View abstract.
Sparnins, V. L., Barany, G., and Wattenberg, L. W. Effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 1988;9(1):131-134. View abstract.
Srinivasan, K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414. View abstract.
Steenhagen, E., de Roos, N. M., Bouwman, C. A., van Laarhoven, C. J., and van Staveren, W. A. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2006;106(9):1459-1462. View abstract.
Sumiyoshi, H. and Wargovich, M. J. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds. Cancer Res. 8-15-1990;50(16):5084-5087. View abstract.
Takada, N., Matsuda, T., Otoshi, T., Yano, Y., Otani, S., Hasegawa, T., Nakae, D., Konishi, Y., and Fukushima, S. Enhancement by organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions of diethylnitrosamine-induced glutathione S-transferase positive foci in the rat liver. Cancer Res. 6-1-1994;54(11):2895-2899. View abstract.
Wagner, H., Dorsch, W., Bayer, T., Breu, W., and Willer, F. Antiasthmatic effects of onions: inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase in vitro by thiosulfinates and "Cepaenes". Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1990;39(1):59-62. View abstract.
Wargovich, M. J. New dietary anticarcinogens and prevention of gastrointestinal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1988;31(1):72-75. View abstract.
Wattenberg, L. W., Sparnins, V. L., and Barany, G. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes. Cancer Res. 5-15-1989;49(10):2689-2692. View abstract.
Willital, G. H. and Heine, H. Efficacy of Contractubex gel in the treatment of fresh scars after thoracic surgery in children and adolescents. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14(5-6):193-202. View abstract.
Wong, R. W. and Rabie, A. B. Effect of quercetin on bone formation. J.Orthop.Res. 2008;26(8):1061-1066. View abstract.
Wong, R. W. and Rabie, A. B. Effect of quercetin on preosteoblasts and bone defects. Open.Orthop.J. 2008;2:27-32. View abstract.
Yu, C. S., Lai, K. C., Yang, J. S., Chiang, J. H., Lu, C. C., Wu, C. L., Lin, J. P., Liao, C. L., Tang, N. Y., Wood, W. G., and Chung, J. G. Quercetin inhibited murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo and promoted immune response. Phytother.Res. 2010;24(2):163-168. View abstract.
Zhou, Y., Zhuang, W., Hu, W., Liu, G. J., Wu, T. X., and Wu, X. T. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2011;141(1):80-89. View abstract.
Zohri, A. N., Abdel-Gawad, K., and Saber, S. Antibacterial, antidermatophytic and antitoxigenic activities of onion (Allium cepa L.) oil. Microbiol.Res. 1995;150(2):167-172. View abstract.
Zurada, J. M., Kriegel, D., and Davis, I. C. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55(6):1024-1031. View abstract.
Agri Res Svc: Dr. Duke's phytochemical and ethnobotanical databases. www.ars-grin.gov/duke (Accessed 3 November 1999).
Akash MS, Rehman K, Chen S. Spice plant Allium cepa: dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition 2014;30(10):1128-37. View abstract.
Albanesi M, Pasculli C, Giliberti L, et al. Immunological characterization of onion (Allium cepa) allergy. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2019;36(1):98-103. View abstract.
Armentia A, Martín-Armentia S, Pineda F, et al. Allergic hypersensitivity to garlic and onion in children and adults. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2019. pii: S0301-0546(19)30091-6. View abstract.
Brüll V, Burak C, Stoffel-Wagner B, et al. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-) hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Br J Nutr 2015;114(8):1263-77. View abstract.
Bruynzeel DP. Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:70-7. View abstract.
Burak C, Brüll V, Langguth P, et al. Higher plasma quercetin levels following oral administration of an onion skin extract compared with pure quercetin dihydrate in humans. Eur J Nutr 2017;56(1):343-353. View abstract.
Campanati A, Savelli A, Sandroni L, et al. Effect of allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel on skin hypertrophic scars: clinical and video-capillaroscopic results of an open-label, controlled, nonrandomized clinical trial. Dermatol Surg 2010;36(9):1439-44. View abstract.
Choi EY, Lee H, Woo JS, et al. Effect of onion peel extract on endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese individuals. Nutrition 2015;31(9):1131-5. View abstract.
Conti V, Corbi G, Iannaccone T, et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of a patch containing onion extract and allantoin for cesarean section scars. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 25;11:569514. View abstract.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in The Netherlands. Cancer Res 1994;54:6148-53. View abstract.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement intake, and female breast carcinoma incidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1995;33:163-70. View abstract.
Draelos ZD, Gold MH, Kaur M, et al. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra. Skinmed 2010;8(2):80-6. View abstract.
Eberhard P, Gall HM, Muller I, Moller R. Dramatic augmentation of a food allergy by acetylsalicylic acid. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:844.
Ebrahimi-Mamaghani M, Saghafi-Asl M, Pirouzpanah S, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. Effects of raw red onion consumption on metabolic features in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2014;40(4):1067-76. View abstract.
Eldin IM, Ahmed EM, HM AE. Preliminary study of the clinical hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa (red onion) in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Environmental health insights 2010;4:71.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Güngör ES, Güzel D, Zebitay AG, Ilhan G, Verit FF. The efficacy of onion extract in the management of subsequent abdominal hypertrophic scar formation. J Wound Care. 2020 Oct 2;29(10):612-616. View abstract.
Heber, D. Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases. J Postgrad Med 2004;50(2):145-149. View abstract.
Janssen K, Mensink RP, Cox FJ, et al. Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:255-62. View abstract.
Jenwitheesuk K, Surakunprapha P, Jenwitheesuk K, et al. Role of silicone derivative plus onion extract gel in presternal hypertrophic scar protection: a prospective randomized, double blinded, controlled trial. Int Wound J 2012;9(4):397-402. View abstract.
Jeong S, Chae J, Lee G, et al. Effect of steamed onion (ONIRO) consumption on body fat and metabolic profiles in overweight subjects: A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019:1-10. View abstract.
Lee JS, Cha YJ, Lee KH, Yim JE. Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Res Pract. 2016;10(2):175-81. View abstract.
Nakayama Y, Makita M, Nozaki S, Kikuchi Y. Effects of onion extract containing concentrated cysteine sulfoxides on sleep quality: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2020 Oct 6;29(12):1755-1762. View abstract.
Nishimura M, Muro T, Kobori M, Nishihira J. Effect of daily ingestion of quercetin-rich onion powder for 12 weeks on visceral fat: A randomised, double-Blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Nutrients. 2019 Dec 28;12(1):91. View abstract.
Roussos AP, Hirsch AR. Alliaceous migraines. Headache 2014;54(2):378-82. View abstract.
Srivastava KC. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;35:183-5. View abstract.
Teyssier, C., Amiot, M. J., Mondy, N., Auger, J., Kahane, R., and Siess, M. H. Effect of onion consumption by rats on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2001;39(10):981-987. View abstract.
Walle T, Otake Y, Walle UK, Wilson FA. Quercetin glucosides are completely hydrolyzed in ileostomy patients before absorption. J Nutr 2000;130:2658-61.. View abstract.
Wananukul S, Chatpreodprai S, Peongsujarit D, Lertsapcharoen P. A prospective placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of onion extract in silicone derivative gel for the prevention of hypertrophic scar and keloid in median sternotomy wound in pediatric patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2013;96(11):1428-33. View abstract.
Zhou XF, Ding ZS, Liu NB. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013:14(7):4131-4. View abstract.
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.